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October 1980 $2.S0 U.S. 



microcomputing 

the magazine for TRS- 80 users 



Have the Courts 

SMASHED 

Software 



- --. i 



he latest decision 
leaves your work 
unprotected! 
page. . .54 



I 



TRS-80* Model I Computer Owners 



Store More Data 

on a 5"-Disk 

Than on an 8 -Disk 






m^^: 






- '* .-v' 



,7^11 



t-f. V , 



iiAuJ 



The Doublcr"*: Percom*s new 

proprietary double-density 
adapter for the TRS-80* com- 
puter. 



Plug the DOUBLER " into the 
disk controller chip socket 
of your Expansion Interface 
and . . . 



Store up to 354 Kbytes of formatted data on five-inch disks. 



• Increase formatted storage 
capacity of your minidiskettes from 
V/^ to almost 4 times. 

• Use with standard 5-inch drives 
rated for double-density operation. 

• The DOUBLER^' reads, writes 
and formats either single- or double- 
density disks. 

• Proprietary design allows you to 
continue to run TRSDOS*. NEW- 
DOS I, Percom OS-80"' or other 
single-density software without 
making any changes to software or 
hardware. 

Mini-Disk Systems 
More storage ca- 
pacity, higher re- 
liability — from Per- 
com, the industry 
leader. One-, two- 
and three-drive configurations in 
either 40- or 77-track format, start- 
ing at only $399. 

PKia;S AND SPtCIHCATlONS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WmiOlJT NOTICE- 




• Includes DBLDOS.'^ a 
TRSDOS* compatible double- 
density disk operating system. 

• CONVERT utility, on DBLDOS'"' 
minidiskette, converts files and pro- 
grams from single- to double-density 
or double- to single-density 

• Plug-in installation: No strap 
ping. No h-ace cutting. Restore your 
Expansion Interface disk controller 
to original configuration by simply 
removing the DOUBLER'" and re- 
installing the original disk controller 
chip. 

I 1 

I PERCOM DISCOUNT COUPON | 



I 



worth $20 

toward 

The Purchase of a 

DOUBLER^ 

Coupon No. 80M 103 

Expires December 30. 1980 

Void where prohibited by law. 




• The DOUBLER'" 
circuit card includes 
high-performance 
data separator, write 
precompensation cir- 
cuits for reliable disk read operations 
— even on 77-track drives. 

Introductory price, including 
DBLDOS'" and format conversion 
utility on minidiskette, only $219.95. 
Use the coupon for even greater 
savings. 

Call toll-free, 1-800-527-1592, 
for the address of your nearest 
dealer, or to order direct fronn Per- 
com. 

'Pii. om TTD 200" driv*. OSeOD" opwaUng lyaem 




PERCOM DATA COMPANY, INC. 
211 N KIRBY GARLAND, TEXAS 75043 

^ _ ^ ^ ^ J I (2141272-3121 

■■ n«(kimrtik ol Ptrcom Data Company. Inc 

• if»(l«in4fh ot Twxiy (Udto Stwck CofportOon which ha* i» wtaHofMhip lo Percom Drta Co«np«ny. 

t tradcmarii o< Apparai Company, Inc 




The easiest, least expensive way to generate 

spectacular muttlncolor graphics, sharp two-color alphanumerics: 

Your computer, a color tv set and the Percom Electric Crayon"". 



Add the Electric Crayon^** to your 
system and your keyboard be- 
comes a palette, the tv screen 
your medium. 

You dab and stroke using one- 
key commands to create dazzling 
full-color drawings, eye-catching 
charts and diagrams. 

Or you run any of innumerable 
programs. Your own BASIC lan- 
guage programs that generate 
dynamic pyrotechnic images, 
laugh-provoking animations. 

From a combined alphanu- 
merics-semigraphics mode to a 
high resolution 256- by 192- 
element full graphics mode, the 
microprocessor-controlled Electric 
Crayon^** is capable of generating 
10 distinctly different display 

fTKXleS. 

Colors are brilliant and true, and 
up to eight are available depend- 
ing on the mode. 

As shipped, the Electnc Crayon'*' 
interfaces a TRS-80' computer via 
your Expansion Interface or Pnnter 



v^i 




Adapter. It may be easily adapted 
for Interfacing to any computer or to 
an ordinary parallel ASCII keyboard 

But that's not all 

The Electric Crayon is not just a 
color graphics generator/control- 
ler. 

It is also a complete self- 
contained control computer. With 
built-in provision for IK-byte of 
on-board program RAM, an 
EPROM chip for extending EGOS™, 
its on-board ROM graphics OS, 
and a dual bidirectional eight-bit 
port — over and above the com- 
puter/keyboard port — for 
peripherals. The applications are 
endless. 

Shipped with EGOS"^". IK-byte of 
display memory and a com- 
prehensive user's manual that in- 
cludes an assembly language list- 
ing of EGOS^" and listings of 
BASIC demo programs, the Elec- 
tric Crayon^** costs only $249.95. 



Options include: 

• LEVEL II BASIC color 
graphics programs on 
minidiskette: $17.95. 

• A 34-conductor ribbon 
cable to interconnect the Elec- 
tric Crayon^'' to a TRS-80*: 
$24.95. 

• RAM chips for adding re- 
fresh memory for higher den- 
sity graphics modes: $29.95 
per K-byte. 

• Electric Crayon^" 
Sketchpad, a sketching grid 
of proportioned picture ele- 
ments (pixels) in a tv aspect 
ratio. For 128 x 192 or 256 x 
192 graphics modes. 11 -inch 
by 17-inch, 25-sheet pads; 
$3 95 per pad 

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS: Ihe video Cir- 
curtry of the Electric Crayon™ provides di- 
rect drive input to a video rrronitor or mod- 
ified tv set. An internal up-modulator for rf 
antenna input may be constrix;ted by add- 
ing inexpensive comporwrits to the existing 
video circuitry, 

picas and spacifcatons subiect 10 cFianga witTxxjt note* 



PERCOM DATA COMPANY. INC 

?11 N KmeV GARLANO TEXAS 73042 
12141372 3421 



'" = trademark of Percom Dala Company, Inc 

* ^ irademarlt ot Tandy Radio S^ack Cofpofaion nfhcfi f^as no 'elaiionship lo Po'com Dala CoTipany 

Get intx) computer color graphics the easy, low-cost way with a Per- 
com Electric Crayon^". Available at Percom dealers nationwide. Call 
toll-fr^e, 1-80O-B27-1BM. for the address of your near-est dealer, 
or to order dir'ect if ther^ is no Perx^om dealer in your ar^a. 



META TECHNOLOGIES 

FOR YOUR TRS-80® DISK SYSTEM 



PROGRAMMING SAVE i'lgk 
TOOLS ory^L. $49.95 



For Model II $74.95 



TDAM $19.95 

For Model II $29.95 

Includes MTC QUE Card! 

Having trouble with RANDOM FILES? With MTC's 
Table-Driven Access Method (TDAM) )fou'll never 
tret over FIELDJng again No knowledge ot 
random access files is required. Insert the TDAM 
"interpreter" into any BASIC program and type in 
a few DATA statements describing the information 
m your files. TDAM does the rest! Reads and 
writes fields and records of any type (even com 
presses a DATE lield into 3 bytes!) Features 
automatic hie buffer allocation; deallocation, 
memory buffering, sub-record blocking de 
blockmg. and handles up to 255 fields per record 
Super fast and super simple' Complete with 
TDAM interpreter, instructions and demo pro 
gram Requires programmine eiperience 



DIVERGE $19.95 

For Model II $29.95 

Compares two BASIC program files, showing the 
differences between them Identifies & lists lines 
which have been inserted, deleted & replaced 
Use for version control. 



REBUILD $19.95 

For Model II $29.95 

Reorganize programs for adding program code, 
faster eitecution, readability. Much more than sim 
pte renumbering. Rearrang e groups of statements 
within a program automatically updates 

references to line numbers Use with 
SUPERSEDE and MINGLE for maximum effect 



SIFTER $19.95 

For Model II $29,95 

Twelve in memory high-speed sorts for use in any 
BASIC program stable, non-stable, wUh.'wilhout 
tags, lor numeric or string data Random File 
Sort included Some sorts written in machine 
code Includes sort subroutines, demo programs 
and instructions Relocate as needed with 
REBUILD Requires programming experience 



SHRINK $19.95 

For Model II $29.95 

Makes Every Byte Count' Make programs 
smaller and faster' Combines lines & removes un 
necessary code including remarks, without alter 
ing program operation. Typically reduces pro- 
gram size 25% to 40%. 



SUPERSEDE $19.95 

For Modem $29.95 

A "must have" for the professional programmer 
or the serious amateur. Probably one of the 
greatest time-savers available. Write programs in 
shorthand - change variable names - generate 
program documentation use with REBtJlLD and 
MINGLE to build new programs from old ones. 







MINGLE-II $19.95 

For Model II $29.95 

Merge up to 14 files (Program or Data) into a 
single tile Data tiles m<3y be merged in ascending 
or descending sequence with the ordering based 
0(1 a user specified comparison field A very han 
dy utility for consnhdatini^ data files 



Complete for Model I with all utilities 
Plus exclusive MTC QUE card! 

NEWDOS + 

^Oy by Apparat 

40 TRACK VERSION $ 79.95 

includes REF, RENUM, SUPERZAP, EDITOR' 

ASSEM., DISASSEM . DIRCHECK. and more' This 

IS the original NEWDOS with all of Apparat's utility 

programs Includes exclusive MTC QUE (Quick User 

Education) card. 

MTC QUE Card only $1-50 TRS 80 DISK 



The perfect supplement for your 
NEWDOS. from IJG, Inc. 

"TRS-80 DISK AND 
OTHER MYSTERIES" 

by Harvard C Pennington 



132 pages writlen in PLAIN F_NGLISH packed with 
HOW TO information with details eiarnples and in-] 
depth pxplanations Recover lost liles and direc 
tones remove file protection make BASIC pro 
grams unlistable How to use SUPERZAP recover! 
from DOS errors and MORE' 

$19.95| 



All products 

guaranteed for 

replacement only. 

Prices, Specifications & 

Offerings subject to 
change without notice. 



w 



w 



MOST ORDERS 

SHIPPED 

WITHIN ONE 

BUSINESS DAY 



f 



Single sided. Single density. Soft-sectored 

DISKETTES 

Verbatim 5' 4-inch 

95 

Box of 10 



rfer Uiiiii'i 3 4-iiicii 

$23 



10 Boxes of 10 (each box) $22.95 

Hard-sectored (lO-hole), Box of 10 . S26.95 

8-inch FLOPPIES 

Single-density, Box of 10 S29,95 

Double density. Box of 10 S39.95 

PLASTIC LIBRARY CASES 

51 j-inch or 8 inch diskette case $3.00 

50(5' .-inch) diskette file box $29.95 

FACTORY FRESH, ABSOLUTELY FIRST 
QUALITY Mininmrn order I bo> NO offler limit' 



NEWDOS/80 

by Apparat 

Apparat's long-awaited successor to NEWDOS I 
IS here! This is not an enhanced version of 
NEWDOS, but a completely new product- 
Simplified DOS commands can be mstantly ex- 
ecuted from BASIC, even within a program, 
without disturbing the resident code System op 
tions, such as password protection, number and 
type of disk drives, BREAK key enable/disable 
and lowercase modification recognition, can be 
quickly and easily changed. Five new random- 
access file types allow record lengths o( up to 
4096 bytes, and no ElELDing' A powerful CHAIN 
facility allows keyboard INPljTs to be read from a 
disk file An improved RENUMBER facility per 
mits groups of statements to be relocated within 
program code. Diskettes may even be 
designated as RUNONLYf Features all 
NEWDOS+ utilities (SUPERZAP 3.0, etc.) and 
much more! One MTC technical staff member 
said having NEWDOS.'SO is 'better than sex" 
lyou'll have to ludge for yourself!). Includes 
180 page instruction manual and MTC QUE 
card. 
NEWDOS.'SO S 149,95 

MTC QUE Card only $7 50 

CALL REGARDING OUR NEWDOS-l- UPGRADE 
PRICING 



MORE 

PRODUCTS ON PAGES 6 & 7 



QUANTITY 

DISCOUNT 

INQUIRIES 

INVITED 



WE ACCEPT 

• VISA 

. MASTER CHARGE 

• CHECKS 

• I^ONEY ORDERS 

• C O.D 



Add $2.50 for 
standard UPS 
shipping & handling 
52 00 EXTRA 
tor C D 
Ohio residents 
add 5' ?% sales tax. 




TO ORDER CALL TOLL FREE 

1-800-321-3552 

IN OHIO call (216)289 7500 (COLLECT) 

lYlETfl TECh^ai_aGJES CaRPQRflTjaM 

26111 Brush Avenue. Euclid, Ohio 44132 



IHS Hi) ^nii fiaQjn iti*[,li Bip ii^iitf'Hi 
lifldi-mjiln ril Uriily f.oin 



[X O microcomputingl DATA 



October 1980 Issue #10 



APPLICATION 

188 Genotype Family planning Albert Rauber. M.D. 

BUSINESS 

106 When the Cows Come Home Take a byte out of your t>eef Shehll B. Nott 

CONSTRUCTION 

122 Caveat Emptor The pitfalls of home construction M. Parris 

182 Two BASICS Are Better Than One Two-level capability Al/en W. Erickson 

GAME 

212 Asteroid Adventure A real trip Greg Perry and Don Taylor 
GENERAL 
S4 Have the Courts Smashed Software Copyright? Art v. Application Dennis B. Kitsz 
114 Memory Sizer A basic tool Jack Decker 
140 Punch Out Your Disks Do it with love Richard Taylor 

HARDWARE 
82 The Light Pen Heavy stuff Hugo T. Jackson 

HOME 

176 Cold Comfort Keep your meter reader honest Dan Keen & Dan Laughlin 

INTERFACE 

118 H-14, Meet the TRS-80 A memorable meeting Frank Friesen 

144 Interlacing the NEC Splnwriter A moving relationship James D. Kunzman 

194 The Serial Clank on the Printer Music to your ears William O'Brien 

RECREATION 

146 Westward Hol What condition is your covered wagon in? Raymond J. Herold 

198 Puzzler Hidden Business James P. Morgan 

SCIENCE 

156 DVM Interface for the 80 Laboratory application Karl J. Casper & Harry R. Freedman 

STYLE 
93 Get Serious No more foolin' around Roger L Rape 

TUTORIAL 

68 Into the 80's Your guide to intelligent operating Ian Sine/air 

76 Pulling Strings Together— Pari 2 Effective management instructions John D. Adams 
100 The Useful USR(O) Function How to use it Terry Kepner 

UTILITY 

134 Variable Scroll A very handy screen William L Colsher 

138 Input with Insight Output with ease Jack Decker 

202 Super Graphics Add excitement to your life Alan R. Mayer 

207 Triple Play for T-Bug Move your BUG around W.H.Johnson 

210 Take Me Beyond Your Leader Get ahead of yourself Robert McTernan 



REGULARS 

8 Remarks Wayne Green 
10 Inside 80 Ed Juge 
12 80 Input 
32 Reviews 
26 80 Accountant Michael Tannenbaum 



24 Education 80 Earl R. Savage 
20 80 Applications Dennis Kitsz 
40 The Assembly Line William Barden 
44 SO News Nancy Robertson 
48 New Products 



PUBLISHER/EDITOR 
Wayne Green 

MANAGING EDITOR 
Michael Comendul 

TECHNICAL ADVISOR 
Jake Commander 

PRODUCTION EDITOR 
Clare McCarthy 

NEWS EDITOR 
Nancy Robertson 

REVIEW EDITOR 
Pamela Petrakos 

ASST. TECHNICAL EDITOR 

Chris Brown 

EDITORIAL ASSISTANTS 
Chris Crocker 
Debra Marshall 

EDITORIAL ADMINISTRATION 
Cresca Clyna 
Nancy Noyd 

DESIGN ASSOCIATE 
Diana Shonk 

DIRECTOR OF MANUFACTURING 
Noel Ray Self 

ASST DIRECTOR OF MANUFACTURING 
Dion Owens 

ADVERTISING PnODUCTION 

Jonn White. Bruce Hedin. Bob Sawyei 

MAKE-UP 

Mict^ael Murphy, William Anderson Jr.. 
Steve Baldwin, Linda Drew, Kenneth JacKson, 
Ross Kenyon, Patflce Scrlbner, Sue Symonds 

PHOTOGRAPHY 

William Heydolpn. Terrle Anderson. T«dd Clutf 

ryPESETTING 

Baibara Latti. Sara Bedell. Linda Locke 

PUBLISHER 
Wayne Green 

ASSOCIATE PUBLISHER 
Edward Ferman 

ASSISTANT PUBLISHER 
Jeff DeTray 

EXECUTIVE VICE PRESIDENT 
Sherry Smythe 

CORPORATE CONTROLLER 

Alan Thulandet 

ADVERTISING MANAGER 
Kevin Rushaiko 

CIRCULATION 
DeOra Boudrisau 

EXECUTIVE ASSISTANT 
Leatrlce O'Nell 

BULK SALES MANAGER 
Ginny Boodrieau 

ADVERTISING SALES 
(603J 924-7138 
Penny Brooks 
John Gancarz 



Mat>uscrlpls are welcome at 80 Microcomputing, we wtll consider publlcatlor^ of any TRS-80 oriented material. Guidelines for budding authors are available, please send a self- 
addressed envelope and ask for "How !o Write for SO M/c/ocompoZ/ng." Entire contenls copyright 1980 by lOOlOOl Inc. No pan of irils publication maybe reprinted, or reproduced 
by any rheans, without prior written permission from the publisher All programs are published for personal use only All rights resented. 

StJiWicrocompuf<ng(lSSN #0199-6789)18 published monthly by 1001001 Inc .BO Pine Street. Peterborough. NHOMM Application to mail second class postage rate is pend- 
ing at Peterborough. NH 03458 and at additional mailing offices Phone 603-924-3873. Subscription rales in the US are S18 f or one year and (45 for three years. In Canada. 
$20--one year only, U.S. funds. Foreign subscriptions (surlace mail), S28— one year only, U.S. lunds Foreign subscriptions (air mall), $60— one year only, U.S. funds. In 
Europe please contact Monika Nedeia, Marksir. 3, D-7778. Markdorf. W Germany. In South Africa contact 80 Miciocompuling. P.O. Box 782815, Sandton. S. Africa 2146. 
Australian Distributor, Electronic Concepts, Rudi Hoess, 55 Clarence Street, Sidney 2000, Australia. AM U.S. subscription correspondence should t>e addressed to 80 
Microcomputing, Subscription Department, P.O. Box 981, Farmingdale, NY 11737. Please include your address label witti any correspondence. Postmaster: Send form 
#3579 toSD Microcomputing. Subscription Services, P.O. Box 981, Farmingdale, NY 11737. 



TRS^ Is • trademerti ol the Tendy Cofponitlon. 



80 Microcomputing, October 1980 • 5 



META TECHNOLOGIES 



MTCAIDS- 



♦ 



MODEL I . . .$69.95 MODEL II . . .$99.95 

Introducing the latest addition lo MTC's family ot data management systems, AtDS-IH NO 
PROGRAMMING, easy to use COMPLETE PACKAGE including demonstration application, 
documentation and MAPS-HI (see below) 

• Up to 20 USER DEFINED FIELDS of either numeric or character type. 

' CHARACTER-type fields may be any length (total up to 254 characters). 

• NUMERIC type fields feature automatic formatting, rounding, decimal alignment and 
validation 

• Full feature EDITING when adding or changing records: 

ENTER FIELD ican 1 type in more cfiaraclers rtian specitiedl 

- BACKSPACE (delete last ctiaracter typed' RIGHT JUSTIFY FIELD conter>ts 
DELETE FIELD contents SKIP FIELD (to nem or previous fieldt 
RESTORE FIELD conients SKIP RECORD ito ne«l or previous record 

• SORTING of records is MACHINE CODE assisted. 

200 RECORDS (40 characters) m about 5 SECONDS 

ANY COMBINATION of fields iincludmg numerics) with each (teld in ascending or 
descending order 

• SELECTION of records for Loading. Updating. Deleting. Printing and Saving is 
MACHINE CODE assisted 

Specify up to 4 CRITERIA, each using one ol 6 RELATIONAL COMPARISONS 

LOAD or SAVE selected records using MULTIPLE FILES 

Example: Select records representing those people who live in the state ot Col 

orado, but not in the city of Denver, whose last names begin with F 

and whose incomes exceed S9000 00 

- Example Select records representing those sales made to XYZ COMPANY that 

exceed $25 00, between the dates 03/15 and 04/10 

MAPS III (MTC AIDS PRINT SUBSYSTEM), included at no charge, has the following features 

• Full AIDS III SELECTION capabilities 

• Prints user-specified fields DOWN THE PAGE 

• Prints user specified fields in titled, columnar REPORT FORMAT, automattcally 
generating column headings, paging and (optionally) indentation 

• Can create a single report from MULTIPLE FILES. 

■ Prints user-defined formats for CUSTOM LABELS, custom forms, etc 

BELOW ARE TESTIMONIALS from owners of AIDS systems These are absolutely authentic 
statements and are typical of ttie comments we receive 

"This program will do mcH-e lor my business than all the other programs I 
have, combined." 

David Wareham Vice President (EOP). National Hospital and Health Care Services Inc 

"We have 32 different Data Base Management packages for the TRS 80. AIDS III is easily 
the best It also makes it easier (or us to step up to our Model II since the package is 

available tor both computers." , , r. , , n ^ . on .• . c 

Jack Biiinskt. President. 80 Microcomputer Services 

"Your AIDS pr(^ram is far and away the finest information management system that I've 
ever seen. I am currently using it to maintain a clear picture of the demographic data on all 
the kids in our residential treatment program and it is working lof me superbly." 

Frank Boehm, Director. Front Door Residential Treatment Program 

• COMPATIBLE with AIDS II data files and AIDS subsystems 

• Move up from AIDS-II and EXPAND to 20 field capability WITHOUT REENTERING 
DATA. 

• AIDS-II (Model I or II) owners mav UPGRADE FOR ONLY S25 00 

■WARNING' Tliis program is written m BASIC and can be listed m the norma! manner 
Modification of program code is NOT RECOMMENDED due to its extreme compiextty 



f 



Let your TRS-80 Teach You 

ASSEMBLY 
LANGUAGE 

REMSOFTs unique package, "INTRODUCTION 
TO TRS-80- ASSEMBLY PROGRAMMING' in 
eludes ten 45 minute lessons on audio cassettes, a 
display program for each lesson providing illustra 
tion i reintorcement, and a text booh on TRS 80' 
Assembly Language Programming Includes use- 
tul routirws to access keyboard, video, printer and 
ROM Requires 16K Level II. Model I 

REMASSEM 1 $69.95 



Let Your TRS-80' Teach You 

ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE 
DISK I/O TECHNIQUES 

REMSOFT does it again! REMDISK- 1 is a concise, 
capsulated supplement to REMASSEM 1 Package 
consists ol two 45-minute lessons on audio casset' 
tes. and display programs providing illustration 
and reintorcement Provides specific track and 
sector I'D techniques and sequentiat and random 
file access methods and routines- 

REMDISK 1 $29.95 



A 



MTC AIDS ■ II 

Ailing information? Doctor it up with AIDS-II. 
This Automated Information Directory System 
otters twelve u&er-delined fields with lull feature 
editing when adding or changing records. Selec- 
tive Loading, Updating, Deleting, Printing and 
Saving records may be accomplished using any 
of six relational comparisons Also features 
machine code assisted sorting (200 records in 
about 5 seconds) by any combination of tiekls. 
and mucti more! Unique "windowing " capability 
allows directories of unlimited si^e Window size 
IS typically 200 or more records in 32K Can be 
usea for mailing lists, client reference reporting, 
appointment "calendars", inventory records and 
other information systems Easy to use Defining 
a system takes about a minute MAPS-I (MTC 
AIDS PRINT SUBSYSTEM) is included at no 
charge- MAPS features lull AIDS-II selection 
capabilities, prints user-specified fields down the 
page, produces user -specified columnar report 
formats with automatically generated column 
headings and paging, and allows user defined 
print lormats for custom forms, labels, etc Add 
subsystems for additional capabilities May t>e 
upgraded lo AIDS-HI when required 

MTCAtDS-ll $49.95 

For Model II $79.95 



AND OTHER MYSTERIES 

Volume II 
Forward by H. C. Pennington 



Call now and place your orcler ic his new Booh. 

MICROSOFTTM basic and other MYSTERIES 
A pnmei lor casselle and disli BASIC on ihe TRS-80, 
the information piovided applies lo simtlai 
MiCffOSOrrTM basic mterpreiers Features tn 
elude definition of lerms. an ovetview ol BASIC and 
DOS. e«otanation of emls, e'lor codes, ve't) aclions, 
' cold and warm ' reslarl procedures, and ex- 
amifiaiion of systern ulMiiies. arithmetic support and 
I/O driver roulmes. and tfie communtcalions region 
in RAM Individual routines are eiplained in detail, 
*itri an indei provided for easy access Appendnes 
include lables for BASIC and DOS vectors. Slacks 
and inlerrupl locations, PLUS thousands Of com- 
monl lines for the complete MICROSOFTTM BASIC 
Available from Ihe pubiistier in |iisl a few short 
tieeks. the price is less man $30 



' 



MORE 

PRODUCTS ON PAGE 4 



I 



< 



Let Your TRS-80' Test Itself With 

THE FLOPPY DOCTOR & 
MEMORY DIAGNOSTIC 

by THE MICRO CLINIC 

A complete checltup for your Model I. THE FLOP- 
PY DOCTOR completely checks every sector of 
35- or 40 track disk drives Tests motor speed, 
head positioning controller (unctions status bits 
and provides complete error logging. THE 
MEMORY DIAGNOSTIC checks for proper 
write'read, refresh, eiecut^bility ar>d eiclusivity ol 
all address locations Includes t>oth dtagnosttcs 
and complete instruction manual 
SYSTEM DIAGNOSTICS $19.95 



6 • 80 Microcomputing. October 1980 






MAKES EVERY BYTE COUNT 

IN YOUR TRS.80® MODEL I OR MODEL II DISK SYSTEM 



MTC AIDS CALCULATION SUBSYSTEM-III 

MODEL I . . .$24.95 MODEL II . . .$39.95 



User-specHied ^^sTo.^rACTlviTr^poRr^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^~^lAGri-^ — Automatic Page 

page title Numbering 

Chk mnar^^^™"^'' °^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ SALES TAX GROSS SAlxs $/unit 

HeadHigs 0.00- User specified 

ACME 3/10 100 67S.0O 37.13 712.13 7.12 initial balance forward 

200 1325.00 72. B8 21 10.00 6.99 

3/20 400 2475.00 136. 13 4721. 13 6.53 

1/10 600 3625.00 199. 3B 854 5.50 6. 37 

4/20 400 2600.00 143.00 1128B.50 6.86 

Ootkwial '^ 1700 10700.00 588.50 _ . 

, ^^P^rf^' ^^____^^_— — 7" Columnar values 

inoentation ,^^. ^^^^ ^oa 1345.00 73.98* TTToTiTs 7.09^ computed using 

/ 3/15 100 674,00 37.07 13418.55 7.11 constants and/or 

/ 200 1295.00 71.23 14784.77 6.83 COtumn valUCS 

/ 4/05 400 2435.00 133.93 17353.70 6.42 

/ 4/10 15C 935.00 51. 43 18340.12 6.58 

/ 4/20 600 3585.00 197. 18 22122.30 6.30 

/ ^^^^,,,——-1650 10269.00 564.80 

*^«™rat^"^n^^5Cj^^''^^ «« ^^^s.oo 72.88 23520.17 6.99 

generdicu wncn ---.......^^^^^^ ^^^^ ,(jg 685.00 37.68 24242.85 7.23 

ii'Tu'UrtiSS ^^-^.-.^°° ....nVli^ ...1^1^ 26289.55^^2 Balance foT ward 

column. ^^600 3j.q.oo 217.25 ^^^^ calculations (Ex: Gross 

^^ sales equals previous 

XYzco 3/10 150 995,00 51.73 27339.27 7.Q0 gross sales + Sale 

200 1345.00 73.98 28758.25 7.09 amount + sales tax) 

3/20 50 355.00 19.53 29132.77 7.49 

4/10 30 1973.00 ioa.63 31216.40 6.95 

4/15 400 25 20.00 138.60 33874.00 6.65 

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ir^ REMARKS 






by Wayne Green 



'7 can V reaily be critical 

of Radio Shack for being slow 

in keeping up mth the pioneers 

of new hardware and 

improvements on their software. " 



What About Tandy? 



You'll find me being critical of Radio Shack 
where 1 feel that ihey can improve their 
act. I think you'll find me properly appreciative 
when they do come up with improvements and, 
hopefully, tolerant when I can sec that things 
are beyond their control. 

l-or instance. I can't really be critical of 
Radio Shack for being slow in keeping up with 
the pioneers of new hardware and improve- 
ments on their software. Since 1 am fighting a 
similar battle against time with Instant Soft- 
ware, I realize how long it lakes to implement 
something new, particularly when your repu- 
tation is at Slake, It's easy to rush a new pro- 
gram out to the market as long as you don't 
care whether it has bugs or not. or whether it is 
[he best one out of its type. This is why so many 
of the smaller program houses have such a high 
percentage of crap. Tandy can't afford that any 
more than Instant Software. Innovation takes 
an exaspcratingly long time, and we live with it, 
though not graciously. 

Recognizing that I lend to hear the horror 
stories, I'd like lo hear from any programmers 
who have had a happy relationship with Radio 
Shack. Before 1 go warning programmers to be 
extra careful, I'd like to make sure that I have 
the facts. Billion dollar firms are difficult to 
deal with and can inadvertently squash individ- 
uals without being aware of it. The higher ups 



are protected from the flak by armies of lower 
echelon people, who do not want to "bother" 
the bosses. 

Change in Strategy 

When 80 was started, 1 planned to keep the 
higher level TRS-80 articles in Kilobaud Micro- 
computing as a sort of "next step upwards" for 
computerists. Since that time, the market has 
changed and the magazines must change with 
it. KM has gained a wider business and 
education-oriented readership. 

There arc still hobbyisu. but ihey arc quite a 
different breed, for the most pan, from the 
computer hobbyists of Tive years ago. I suspect 
that most of the circa 1975 hobbyists have 
either quit in disgust over the problems they en- 
countered or else are alive and well, but working 
in the industry. The new hobbyists are less in* 
tcrestcd in designing circuits than in writing 
programs and finding out better ways lo use 
microcomputers. They have become trapped 
by the enjoyment and mental expansion which 
computers bring. They are the new "hobby- 
ists." 

In line with this concept it seems appropriate 
lo let SO coyer (he world of the TRS-80 and KM 
the rest of the systems— all al a fundamental 
level that can help newcomers learn about com- 
puting. 

In line with this basic concept we are looking 
for articles which will help newcomers over the 
hurdles. If you are a rank beginner, you might 



keep a log of the things that perplex you and 
then, when you have surmounted these prob- 
lems, take the time to offer help to those who 
arc to come after you. 

Beginners need articles thai explain in En- 
glish about all of the mysteries of computers. 
They want to know about all the different kinds 
of printers and which they need to buy. They 
want to know about memory and storage de- 
vices. 1 have yet to see a good article anywhere 
on all of the different kinds of disk units. They 
want to know about I/O ports, about control 
systems, about languages and operating sys- 
tems. They want up-to-date information. Get 
busy. We pay well for articles. 

The Fulure 

How can one look very far into the future of 
computers? The changes are coming on a 
monthly basis. It is almost all we can do to cope 
with the present, much less predict with success 
what things will be like in five, ten or twenty 
years. 

Yet, when we look back on the past, we find 
that most of the things we have at present were 
reasonably predictable. 

Microcomputers can save a whale of a lot of 
money and time (which is money) for busi- 
nesses, so in the future, we are going lo see 
them being used heavily. One of the more sig- 
nificant developments will be a universal elec- 
tronic mail system. Once thai is up and running 
I think micros will be getting into businesses at 




Lew Kornfeid. ihe president of Radio Shack, attended the showing of the 
three new TRS-80 computer systems at the recent press conference in Ft. 
Worth. That 's Lew on the l^l. me on the right. 



The Model III was a good move, if not particularly newsworthy in view 
of the small changes between it and the Model I. It does pave a way 
toward eventually stopping production on the Model I, which FCC noise 
requirements would have dictated anyway. 



% • 80 Microcomputing. October 1980 



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5^(9 REMARKS 



a much faster clip than they are al present. Thai 
use alone will more than pay for the computer. 

The software business will. 1 expect, grow 
significantly for specific business uses. I'm still 
not wholly convinced of ihe place of the com- 
puter in the home, or even of Ihe concept of the 
personal computer. 1 suspect that the media 
have been led astray by these terms. 

The more I think about home applications 
for the computer, the more convinced I am that 
most of these apphcations will be taken over by 
dedicated microprocessors. Sure, we can run a 
microwave oven with our home computer, but 
with a lot less trouble we can build a chip into 
the oven to do the job. Ditto watering the lawn . 
security for the home, and ditto, I'm afraid, for 
almost every other apphcation which comes to 
mind for the home. Sorr? about that, home 
computerists. 

As more and more of us work at home or use 
a computer for educational purposes at home, 
perhaps the home computer will come into its 
own. 1 don't think it will be much different 
from a school computer or an office computer. 
Oh, an automated index to our records and 
books would be handy, . .if we want lo spend 
the time it takes to input all that data and keep 
il up to date. The idea is boggling to me since I 
have, perhaps, 5,000 books to index and, per- 
haps, a thousand records with God knows how 
many cuts on them. Then there arc all those 
magazine articles 1 would like to be able to find . 
It comes down to whether or not I can afford a 
full-time secretary to put all that data into Ihe 
computer so 1 can find the record or book I 
want. 1 can do that pretty well now, without the 
index — if I spend a bit of time searching. That 
may be more efficient than the index. 

What do>'ow think? 

Threats from Japan 



Virtually every Japanese electronics firm has 
had a microcomputer on Ihe market. It was on- 
ly a mailer of time before some of these outfits 
started looking to see what they could do over 
here. Oneoftheflrsi unils to come over was the 
Sord, but it was a quarter -hearied effort and 
unsupported by significant advertising, so 
nothing came of it. 

At NCC in May I saw the first of NEC sys- 
tems being shown. 1 am not yet sure that Nip- 
pon Electric will be coming over in force, but 
their success in Japan and their competitive 
edge against Apple may turn the trick. 

More definite are the plans by Matsushita 
with their Panasonic and Quasar brand con- 
sumer electronics. They showed their Quasar 
system at the summer CES (June) in Chicago 
and generated much enthusiasm. 1 talked with 
them about this and they are projecting sales of 
about one million systems for 1981 . At approx- 
imately S400, the computer is not much larger 
than those language translators, a hand-held 
unit. Even wiihallofitsaccessories.it will fit in 
a small attache case. It's ideal for the traveling 
businessman or salesman. They just might 
reach their goal in 1981, unless Radio Shack 
pushes hard with their very similar TRS-80 
Pocket Computer. 

Another interesting system shown at CES 



was from Casio. Casio says they intend to be 
the largest microcomputer firm in the U.S. by 
1982. With enough software support and the 
well-known Casio advertising and marketing, 
they might do it. 

Apple? Their sales are growing rapidly, but 
limited available software could be their 
Achilles' heel. The Apple may take a licking 
with competition from the NEC and new 
TRS-80 Color equipment, particularly if NEC 
makes a strong move to get software support 
for their system. 

New Hardware 

Tandy's Model 111 is a nice development, as 
is the TRS-80 Pocket Computer, but perhaps 
Radio Shack is reacting too much to the hard- 
ware competition and further sphmering their 
ability to support their systems with software. 

I remember the panic which came over Mits 
when they saw Sphere coming out with a 6800 
based computer. Instead of pushing ahead hard 
with their 8080 based system and developing 
further hardware and software support for 
that, they squandered their lead by trying to 
quickly compete with the Sphere system intro- 
ducing their own 6800 computer. The result 
was a multimillion-dollar disaster. 1 suspect 
their pushing the 680O was the downfall of 
Mits, weakening their cash situation, curtailing 
their growth, and eventually forcing them to 
sell out to Pertec, where massive indifference to 



the micro market quickly sank whatever was 
left of Mits. 

If Mits had pushed their advantage and not 
gone into a panic mode over the Sphere, which 
folded up as a result of poor design, an almost 
total tack of software support and insufficient 
financing, Mils might be one of the largest 
firms in Ihe field today. Millions of dollars 
down Ihe lubes, 

I can understand Ihe worry by Radio Shack 
over Ihe Quasar and Panasonic pocket com- 
puters and it may turn out thai Ihe effort re- 
quired to turn out Radio Shack's own system 
was well invested. But with six different com- 
puter models to support, even the resources of a 
billion dollar firm are straining beyond what 
seems practical. 

The TRS-80 color unit looks good in re- 
sponse to the growing market share being taken 
by Apple. 

The Model 111 TRS-80 is an appropriate re- 
sponse to the need of businesses and schools for 
more self-contained units and to the recent in- 
crease in Commodore sales resuUing from their 
single unit system design. The software com- 
patibility with earlier TRS-80 systems is a big 
plus and, 1 suspect, that the design considera- 
tions were not a big deal for Tandy , Mode! 1 1 1 is 
more a repackaging project, a successful one, 1 
would say. 

Come 1983, which manufacturer will be in 
the driver's seat? 



INSIDE go 

by Ed Juge, director of 

computer merchandising, Tandy Radio Shack 



Last month space did not permit telling you 
about our new printers in the Radio Shack 
line for 1981. Introduced at the same time as 
our new computers, they have been quite well 
received. I'd like to tell you about two of them 
now. 

The first is our new TRS-80 Line Printer VI 
available September 30. It is a very low-profile, 
14-inch wide, 132-column printer, which can be 
pinch-fed, but comes with a removable, adjust- 
able tractor feed. It has a nine-wire dot-matrix 
head, and produces four print sizes (5. 7.5. 10, 
or l5-characlers-per-inch). plus graphics 
charaaers. Of course it offers upper and lower- 
case. Its speed is 100 CPS, and the LP VI is bi 
directional. The average throughput is 33-lincs- 
per-minute and it uses our standard parallel 
port interface. 



Ver^tlle Feed 

The versatile feed system allows you to use 
tractor-fed forms from four to 14-7/8-inches 
wide, or even single sheets of paper (pinch- 
feed). It's also rated for the original and two 
copies. Its overall size is only 6 '/i x 13'/) inch- 
es, and it weighs only 28 pounds. Exdtisive of 
the cable, it's only $1,160. 

The other new printer is our TRS-80 Plotter/ 



Printer, scheduled in limited quantities, for the 
end of November, If your primary requirement 
is plotting, but you don't want to buy a sepa- 
rate printer to list your programs, this might 
just handle both of your needs. This unique in- 
telligent plotter draws with a standard ballpoint 
pen, on a continous roll of pin-fed, yinch wide 
paper. It can handle complex plots and graphs 
with outstanding resolution, and it can print 
upper and lowercase letters, approximately 
nine per inch, or 73 per line, at a nominal five- 
lines -per -minute. 

The TRS-80 Plotter/Printer uses our parallel 
interface, weighs in at 26 pounds, and is 7W x 
\SVi X 14-4/5 inches. The price, excluding 
cable is $1,460. 

This might be a good time to publicly reply to 
a fairly common question, , .and, 1 admit, 
some complaints. The complaints seem to re- 
volve around a customer who bought a TRS-80 
and Scripsit, but wanted someone else's print- 
er. Now he can't get them to work together 
properly. Nor can he get anybody ai Radio 
Shack to tell him how to make them work, 
work. 

Well, 1 can certainly sympathize. At one 
time, I did a bit of drooling over one of the non- 
Radio Shack word processing printers. I was 
Inside to page 40 



10 • 80 Microcomputing, October 1980 



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Epson Model TX-80B Ask for 

Friction Feed . . . .$ 710. Our Price 

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Tractor Feed & Ask for 

Graftrax $ 799. Our Price 

Epson Model Ask for 

MX-80 $ 699. Our Price 





A 



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Epson-Serial Interface 
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80 Microcomputing. October 1980 • 11 



so INPUT 



*'The next time you, . . use the VTR 

to record that great movie from TV, . . 

label yourself , . . a thief, or worse, a pirate. '* 



Computronics* Rebuttal 

I wish to lake issue with the statement made 
by Peter J. Brennan on Page 11 of the July, 
1 980 issue of 80 Microcomputing . In that issue. 
Mr. Brennan states thl Computronics is "too 
expensive." I wish 10 point out some benefits 
one receives when subscribing to (he H & E 
Computronics Newsmagazine for $24 per year. 

1 . Twelve monlhly issues of the magazine arc 
devoted largely to the serious TRS-80 owners 
rather than the hobbyist. 

2. A 48-page catalog containing 180 software 
items written by established houses. 

3. A money-back guarantee on all the soft- 
ware we sell (and even a money-back guarantee 
on disk drives and printers). 

4. A free cassette containing five programs. 

5. We have a special help hnc, and in-house 
programmers who will answer any question re- 
lated lo the TRS-80. including questions about 
hardware or software, wherever purchased. 

In closing 1 wish to quote a part of a letter 
that we published in our magazine. 

". . .1 very much appreciate your software 
refund policy. I was astonished ai the speed 
with which you refunded me the price of the In- 
come Tax Pax B program that 1 found not very 
useful at all. You may be sure that when I buy 
software in the future, you will be my first 
source. 1 don't want to return it. , . I want it to 
work right. . .but it's nice to know 1 am not 
stuck with useless stuff." 

Who gave us such a nice compliment? Peter 
J, Brennan, the writer of the negative remark 
published in your July. 1980 issue. 

Howard Y. Gasman, Publisher 

H A. E Computronics, Inc. 

Spring Valley. NY 



A Hobbyist*s View 



As a would-be computer hobbyist, and sub- 
scriber to several magazines, 1 have difficulty 
with the recent articles on theft and pirating of 
programs. 

Since no one seems to write in behalf of the 
hobbyist. I'll lake a shot at slating an alternate 
view. As usual, the press jointly pursue an issue 
and wholesale articles are written expressing a 
position on a subject affecting the publishing 
world directly. 

My main objection is the association of theft 
and/ or pirating as randomly applied to anyone 
accepting a program other than by direct pur- 
chase. It is bad enough to label and name call, 
but to offer rewards for arrest and conviction 



of these people is really getting small. Worse 
still, it will not cure what you believe to be a 
problem. The truth really is simple. , .because 
programmers know very well that programs are 
hard to protect and there fore control, prices are 
set high enough to recover a dollar percentage 
which will return a viable profit on investment. 

Hobbyists in computing, as in radio, fishing, 
music and others, form common groups to ex- 
change ideas, and yes. lo exchange material or 
to jointly purchase items or materials. To call 
the members of such groups thieves or pirates 
would be ridiculous. 

Consider the following example of a similar 
industry and problem. 

Recording equipment is sold in various 
forms at most major stores In any community. 
These devices record either audio, electrical im- 
pulse, video or combinations of these. The next 
time you or a friend use ihe VTR lo record that 
great movie from TV, remember the $25 mil- 
lion cost to produce it, the $400 daily rental 
loss, the $4.50 ticket price not paid to the local 
theater, and in keeping with your thinking, 
label yourself and your friend a thief, or worse, 
a pirate. 

1 personally have 30 lo 40 hours of taped 
movies; great movies, but I didn't pay for 
them. More importantly. I'm not selling them. 
That is my point; by my way of thinking, no 
one is a thief or pirate unless they take 
something from someone and use that some- 
thing for personal gain. You have nol proved to 
my satisfaction that this is, in fact, being done 
with computer programs. Rather than inhibit 
growth, users groups and exchanges of infor- 
mation have generated demands that have 
pushed home computer technology ahead at a 
faster rate than originally dreamed was possi- 
ble. 

Ronald Dudeck 
Ontario. CA 



A Better Byte Loader 



The RSM-2 machine language TRS-80 moni- 
tor from Small Systems Software, is a high 
quality product. It can do much more than 
Radio Shack's T-BUG and should be con- 
sidered a necessity for any serious 80 user. 

The I6K cassette version sells for $26.95 and 
a symbolic listing is available for $7.50 lo lho.se 
who have purchased ihc tape, 

1 have a modification lo Ihe RSM-2 which 
improves its byte loading utility. 

The byle loader is activated by the U com- 
mand of the RSM-2. To enter the loader pro- 
gram, type a U and follow it with the hexadeci- 



mal destination address of the first byte to be 
loaded. Hit the BNTER key and you will seethe 
address displayed on the video monitor. You 
can ihen enter any desired bytes in hex code, 
Each character will appear on the monitor as 
you type, with a format consisting of an ad- 
dress followed by eight bytes per line, much like 
that of ilie familiar DUMP command. 

While using the byte loader, three commands 
are available and can be used at any time 
following the entry of a complete byte. Pressing 
L displays the next destination address and 
starts a new line. The left arrow deletes the last 
byte entered. BREAK exits from the loader and 
returns you to the RSM-2 command mode. 

Cfiesney E. Twombly 
Kennebunk. ME 





Twombly subroutine A. 


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symbolic listing 


shows 


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changes lo 


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routines cont. 



12 • 80 Microcomputing. October 1980 



Browning Attacks 



I keep reading of the outrage and frusiralion 
ihai some folks suffer or seem lo suffer from 
having iheir programs copied by scoundrels 
who won'l buy ihcm. 

Let me icll you ihai your outrage is small 
compared lo thai of my own. 1 am a user of 
programs, nor a wriier, since I am much too 
busy and too inexperienced lo write the com- 
plex and badly needed programs lo assist me in 
ihc operation of a fairly large insurance agency, 

I have purchased many programs in an at- 
tempt [o get v^'hat ! need to run $1 1,000 worth 
of computers, and have begun lo realize con- 
siderable conicmpi for sellers of programs 
which arc advenised to do something grcai 
The ads do not tell what Ihcy don't do; some- 
times they don't even work ai all. and some- 
times they disable the main program and make 
ii unusable. 

Consider a program called Pencil/Pal, sup- 
posed to add names from a mail list to a form 
letter created by Electric Pencil. It works, 
son of. . . but the ad doesn't say that it disables 
the most valuable feature of Electric Pencil, 
that of being abic to handle words m a con- 
tinuous siring, with Pencil dong the work of 
justifying and placing everything where it 
belongs. Also lost is ihe variable line length: 
You are stuck with 62 charaacrs to a line and 
the necessity of a carriage return at the end of 
every line, 

The $35 is gone and the seUa of the program 
won't give it back even though his program 
creates more problems than it solves. 

I can give you many more examples since I 
have about S500 worlh of programs that don't 
work, I've got some darn good ones, loo, but 





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I've had lo go through pure hell to fmd them. 

You won't find me in the sympathetic group 
for those who cry about having their programs 
ripped off and not getting paid for what they 
supposedly do such a good job of. I've been 
"had" too many limes by these guys. The ones 
who really do a good job gel my money and my 
appreciation, and more than that, they gel re- 
ferrals 

I am glad lo pan with my bucks to the guy 
who knows that he has to do a good job and 
lake a litlic risk and sometimes even do it over 
lo get il nght, 

I think the one who does a poor job deserves 
some "advertising" loo. 

One other thought before I sign off, . , 1 sure 
get tired of waiting for that "faniasiic new pro- 
gram." You know the one. Full color ads, all 
those features. But after you send your SlOO, 
they icll you it won't be available for 60 to 90 
days. Are they testing ihe market lo sec if there 
IS a demand for the item, and if ihcy get enough 
positive response they iry lo invent the prod- 
uct?? 

Goodnight VTOS wherever you are. 

Kave Browning 
Roy. UT 



Microcomputer Responds 



As author of Pcncil/Pai, I would like lo re- 
spond 10 Kaye Browning's criticism of our low 
cost (S351 form letter generating program. Pcn- 
cil/Pal allows the user to automatically gen- 
erate form letters from address and letter files 
which are created using the fleciric Pencil, 
Scripsii, or any other text editor or BASIC pro- 
gram that produces ASCII files. Letters may be 



printed to a subset of the address file by specify- 
ing one or two "select codes." The select code 
may be any string of characters in the address 
Held or the user's own custom code (account fl, 
phone H. amount due. etc). 

In contrast to Ms. Browning's comments. 
Pencil/Pal performs exactly according to its ex- 
tensive documentation. Her comment thai 
Pencil/Pal has "disabled the most valuable 
feature of Electric Pencil" is mbleading. In 
fact, Pencii/Pal docs not tamper with Electric 
Pencil code al all. i believe she is referring to the 
fact that the user must end each line of the form 
letter with a carnage return (ENTER), This fea- 
ture allows the user lo formal ihe output exact- 
ly as desired (one is not "stuck with 62 charac- 
ters to a line"). The user may elect lo right- 
justify or hyphenate his letter manually, a small 
inconvenience which may yield a more profes- 
sional looking output than is possible with 
many word processors (hyphenation reduces 
the disturbing gaps between words that often 
occurs when the Elcaric Pencil justifies). 

I believe that Pencil/Pal is a funaional, bar- 
gain-priced software package that saves a con- 
siderable amount of labor for those individuals 
or small businesses that require automatic gen- 
eration of form letters. 

1 would also urge anyone that is watching 
their hard earned software dollars to request a 
copy of a program's manual before investing in 
the actual software. Advertising copy cannot 
always tell you all the features or limitations of 
a program. The manual for Pencil/Pal is avail- 
able for S5 (applied toward purchase price of 
$35), 

Rodney B. Murray. Ph.D. 

President. Microcomputer Specialists 

_^^^^^^^^^^^^m_ tlkins Park. PA 



SOmd 



File Transfer Aid 



Power Outs 



Ed Maurer (July 1980) asked about com- 
munication between the TRS-80 and Digital 
PDP 1 1/70. 1 do it all the time between the 
house and the office where we run a DEC 
PDP 11/40 using the RSTS/E operating 
system and DEC's PIP program. 

Ed doesn't say what operating system his 
machine uses but almost all DEC monitors 
have some version of PIP and would prob- 
ably work. Of course the DEC machine will 
have to have a dial-up keyboard port. 

At home 1 have a 48K system with a Tan- 
dy RS-232 board, a Tandy Telephone Inter- 
face modem and a couple of disks. The key 
is the software. 1 run Lance Micklus' ST80- 
II Smart Terminal program. 

Woods Martin 
Houston. TX 



All microcomputer owners have had 
to live with disruptions caused by power 
failures. For reasons unknown to resi- 
dents of Ashland, Oregon, we seem to 
experience this problem at least once (if 
not more times) each month. 

Hardware is available to protect the 
CPU from power surges, but is any- 
thing available that could supply back- 
up power during outages— so 1 
wouldn't lose the program in the mem- 
ory? 

/. Ngan 

P.O. Box 621 

Ashland. OR 97520 

Try May Day power supply devices 
from Sun Research. Inc. — Eds. 




I 



icfocomputing, October 1980 • 13 



iOnmm 




A Second Opinion 



SET/RESET Bug 



revised listing follows: 



The following is a correclion lo the 
SET/RESET subroutine call which ap- 
peared in my article in the February, 1980 
issue. The key is the loading of Ihe HL 
register pair with the address of a right 
parenthesis. Unfortunately. I overlooked 
this omission when proofreading the arti- 
cle. 



LD HL.RFTRN 

PUSH HL ;pul rclurn address iin 

siai-'k 
LD HL.ISDH ipotniLo a right parcn- 

iheis 



S 
10 

20 
» 
)0000 

JODIO 



X1020 
W030 



3004(1 
10050 



CLEAR JIG 

REM • PUT LINE TO 8E PRlhfTED INTO AS 
GOSUB 30000 
END 

R3 =0;AS = AJ + CHRJ(I29):R4 = l.EN(AS) 
FOR Rl=41 TO I STEP - l:RS = MlDftAS.RI. 
n:IFRS = CHRKI29| 
THEN 30040 

IF RS = ■■ ■' THEN 30030 ELSE NEXT 
R3 = R3 + LRlS(R3)-LEFTS(AJ,RI-l):Ai = 
RKiHTS(AS,R4- R1|:R4 = R4- LtXJTO 30010 
KOR R2 = l TOR3XPRINTRlS(R2):NEXT 
R3 - LEN(ASl:LPRlNT LEFT$(AS,R5 - I): RE- 
TURN 



LD 



A,s«y reset code 



I have received numerous letters and 
phone calls about the article. There seems 
lo be quite a large number of your readers 
who are interested in assembly language 
programming. Regrettably, 1 simply do not 
have the lime to answer all the letters. 

tVes Thielke 
MercerviUe, NJ 

Revised Line Formatter 

In my subroutine for formatting lines 
(page 162 of Ihe July 1980 issue) there is a 
bug lurking which can at times cause an il- 
legal function in line 30040. The malfunc- 
tion is caused by the addition of 2 in line 
30000 to set the number of lines to be 
printed. If the second line is not needed, a 
negative number will be sent to the argu- 
ment of the RIGHTS instruction in line 
30040, and this generates Ihe FC message. 

Alterations lo fix the problem simply 
made the routine more bulky and complex, 
so 1 decided to revamp Ihe whole thing. The 



In response to inquiries, this routine may 
also be used with printers having different 
print widths. Resetting the value of Rl in 
line 30010 to the proper width plus one is 
the only change necessary. For example, for 
a print width of 80 characters change the 
line lo read: 

300IOFORRI-8ITOI STEP - I: «c 

John D. Adams 
Sylmar, CA 



Swords and Sorcery Fix 

All right, all right. So nobody's perfect. 
Granted, there were problems with our list- 
ing of the Swords and Sorcery program in 
[he August issue. But it wasn't all our fault , 
You guys who insist on writing those 255 
character program lines have lo share some 
of the blame. 

Since our print driver routine sources the 
program from an ASCII formatted file, 
super-long lines just don'i make it. So, 
from now on, keep those lines around 240 
characters and don't forget to include the 
line numbers when you're counting. 

Listed beiow are the corrections you've 
been wailing for. — Eds. 



10 DATA 160,190,191,180,184,191,191,191,191,191,188,144 
,160,186,191,191,191,191,191,191,191,191,191,191,1 
91,191,188,188,144,160,190,191,147,17 5,191,191,191 
,191,191,191,191,191,159,131,17 9,191,181,160,190,1 
91,191,151,160,191,191,16 8,191,186, 

15 CLS: 

CLEAR 250:DEFINT L: XX=458 :GOSUB 65:FOR X=1T09:READ 

Y,Z:A{X)=Y:B{X)=Z:NEXT:DATA 15898,3,15961,7,16023 

,16,16 086,17,159 69,4,15 907,2,15 844,1,157 81,0,15717 

Swords and Sorcery fix conss. 

program conlinuta 



Mr. Brennan has indicated in his letter in the 
July issue that there are problems with the 
Scripsil program, and that as far as he is con- 
cerned, Electric Pencil is a much better word 
processor. He is correct in the former, and 
probably correct — for him — in the latter, but I 
suspect Ihe fact that he had EP first has some- 
what biased his opinion. After all. nobody is 
denying that EP is an excellent program. 

Here is what i did to overcome the problem 
that both he and I (and no doubt others) had 
when using the program with a serial printer. 
The specific problem I had is related to the way 
my printer (an Anderson Jacobson 841 I/O) 
handles combinations of carriage returns and 
line feeds. The printer ignores the first line feed 
after a carriage return. Unfortunately, Scripsit 
generates a line feed afler a carriage return 
whenever it wants to do double line spacing or 
to insert extra lines between paragraphs (curse 
it!). 

As Mr. Brenner states, if you tell the pro- 
gram that you want triple-line spacing when 
you really want double, you get it. but your 
page divisions are thrown out of place. Conse- 
quently, a little more devious method has to be 
used. 

Afler a hlile research with a disassembler and 
a character search routine (both in MON4, by 
Hubert S. Howe), I used Apparat's excellent 
program Superzap lo make Ihe following 
changes to Scripsil. 

Memory location 7171H— (disk location 
DBIFIH) and memory location 7185H— (disk 
location OB205H)— change value OAH (line 
feed) lo ODH (carriage return) and Ihe line feed 
problem vanishes. 

The most obvious criticism of Scripsit con- 
cerns the instruction tapes, or rather Ihe fact 
that no other way of learning Scripsil is of- 
fered. The tapes are in fact quite good, but 1 
and quite a lot of other people who use the pro- 
gram have met word processors before. The 
idea of spending three to five hours listening to 
the tapes nearly slopped my wife from using the 
program altogether. Why there isn't an alterna- 
tive way of discovering how to use the pro- 
gram, Tandy only knows. 

Once you have toiled through the learning 
process, the documentation is perfectly ade- 
quate for reference purposes. However, 1 have 
some objections to some of the things I cannot 
do with texl formatting statements. Despite all 
claims lo the contrary, it is nol possible lo 
display on ihe video the text as it will be printed, 
since the video display has no provision to do 
formatting according lo the imbedded primer 
formatting instructions. The second problem is 
the difficulty of imbedding control characters 
(such as back space) into Ihe texl. The third is 
thai 1 cannot find a way to do "reverse para- 
graph indenting," i.e., having every bne but the 
first of a section be indented by say, eight char- 
acters, while retaining right margin justifica- 
tion. This last may nol be a normal require- 
ment, but it is very useful if you deal with 
numbered sections in technical documents. 



14 • W Microcomputing, October 19W 



EXATRON 
STRINGY FLOPPY 



T.M. 



SPEED 

LOW COST 

RELIABILITY 



Exatron is a California based corpora- 
tion that has been in business since 1974. 
As well as the Stringy Floppy, Exatron de- 
signs, manutactures and sells stale-of-lhe- 
art electromechanical equipment tor a 
variety ot commercial and industrial ap- 
plications, Exatron is an established sup- 
plier of automatic test equipment to manu- 
facturers, and large OEM users, of mte- 
orated circuits worldwide. 

WHAT IS IT? 

The Exatron Stringy Floppy (ESF) is an 
extremely fast, reliable, economical alter- 
native to cassette or floppy disk storage of 
computer programs or data 

Totally self-contained, the ESF has no 
buttons, switches, knobs or levers to adjust 
or forget. All of ESF's operations are 
under the computer's control. 

HOW DOES IT WORK? 

The ESF uses a miniature tape cartridge 
(called a 'wafer') as the data storage 
medium, about the size of a business card 
and 3/16th of an inch thick, ^he tape used 
inside the water is a special Mylar based 
Chrome Dioxide type, specially developed 
for digital applications. Wafers are avail- 
able in several lengths, 5 feel being the 
smallest and capable of holding up lo 4 
thousand bytes of Information -the 
75-foot wafer is the largest available and 
can hold up to 64 thousand bytes of data. 

The wafers contain a single reel of the 
special tape connected as a continuous 
loop, the ends being spliced together with 
a piece ot reflective tape, in operation the 
ESF drive unit pulls the tape from the 
center of tfie reel Inside the wafer, causing 
the entire reel to rotate. Thus, the tape 
automatically winds itself around the out- 
side of the reel at the same rate as which 
it is pulled from the center This process is 
similar to that found in an S-track car- 
tridge. 

The ESF transport mechanism is very 
simple, consisting ot a precision die-cast 
aluminum block- with a capstan, drive 
motor and magnetic record/replay head 
mounted on it. The wafer loads into a slot 
in the casting (it will only fit the correct 
way) and the tape is driven at a single 
point by the capstan, past the record/re- 
play head. 



The software in every ESF adds a parity 
bit to every byte saved on tape, and a 
checksum to the end of every file. These 
are checked both after recording data and 
upon replay, any detected error is indi 
cated by a message on the video display. 
This system of automatic error checking 
gives confidence in any data saved, also 
each wafer is rated tor at least 2.000 com- 
plete passes past the record/replay head. 



►■Assembled and tested 

►All operating software in ROM 

►■Fully automatic operation 

► Professional quality 

► No Expansion Ihtefface required 

► Large Owners Association 

► High speed operation 

► Extremely reliable 

►No technical knowledge needed 




HOW DO YOU USE IT? 

Once connected to your computer the 
ESF operating system needs to be activat- 
ed—simple. Just type 'SYSTEM(enter). and 
in response to the ? prompt type 712345' 
(enter). Your TRS-80 will instantly display 
the ESF sign on message EXATRON 
STRINGY FLOPPY VERSION 4.1', and from 
this point onwards you will have the extra 
commands (JiLOAD', '^SAVE' and 
'©NEW recognized by your TRS-aO. 

The ESF's operating system is built into 
the electronics of the unit, in much the 
same way that BASIC <s built into the com- 
puter, so it is always available - the 

SYSTEM command is lo let your computer 
know that the ESF has been connected. If 
you normally reserve some memory for 
subroutines then the ESF software will 
relocate Itself under your selected top of 
memory. The ESF uses only 4 bytes of your 
available RAM. these bytes are used to 
■point' to the 2048 bytes ot software in the 
ESF unit Itself 



WHAT'S THE CATCH? 

Well, the only catch that most people 
find is that they have to actually pay Ex- 
atron for their unit! Even this is no big 
deal. 

Starter Kits are available with the Exatron 
Stringy Floppy, a supply of wafers, a bus ex- 
lender and a selection ot useful programs- 
for $299,50. 

Through regular advertisements in both 
Kilobaud Microcomputing and 80 Micro- 
computing, owners are kept informed of 
the latest developments in wafer-based 
software Plus hundreds of user work- 
shops* are starting up over the country, so 
you can always be sure of being near to 
another ESF owner. 

Exatron also gives a 30-day full money- 
back guarantee, with a 1 year parts and 
labor warranty on the unit. 

If you have any questions about the ESF 
then give Exatron a call on the Hot Line 
(outside CA) SOO-538-8559. 

East Coast customers can call 800-343- 
4424 (inside MA 617'899-3862) 



C 



Open House Workshops take place from 9 am till l pm every Saturday at Exatron's 
factory in Santa Clara, and on the East Coast the last Saturday in each month at 
Micro Communications, 80 Bacon Street, Wallham MA 02154, All are welcome. 



) 



exatron 

181 Commercial St. 

Sunnyvale, Ca 94086 

408-737-7111 



►^3 



-fleaffffr S»rvic«— 1«« pag* 226 



80 Microcomputing. October 1980 • ^S 



^0 INPUT 



,0:R$»" OUR BUNGLING HERO " 

20 RAND0H:PA=2:BS(1)="CLANK " : BS (2 ) ="SLASH ■" : B$ (3 ) ="W00 
SH ":B$(4)="B0NG " : B$ ( 5 ) ="CRASH " : B$ (6 ) =''BING ":B$ 
(7)= "CLANK ":SS(1)=CHRS{160)+CHR${183)+CHRS(181)+C 
HR${183)+CHR$(181)+STRINGS(60,32)+STRINGS(4,149) :Q 
$=CHRS(149) :K5=CHR$(132) 

120 IF RND(PN}*2<=RHD(PN)*RND(2) GOSUB65 : PRINT"A DRYAD 
HAS OFFERED TO BE YOUR" : PRINTTAB ( 12 ); "GU IDE" : PRINT 
TAB(6);" DO YOU WISH IT ?" : GOSUB110 :GOSUB90 : IF AN= 
89,F=1 ELSE IF RND(0)>.2 GOSUB65 :GOSUB 500:GOSUB10 
5 

140 PRINT"DO YOU WISH TO CONSULT THE GREAT" ;: PRINTTAB ( 1 

2);"0RACLE ?" :GOSUB110 : IF AN=78,180 ELSE CLS:XX=20 

2:G0SUB 65:PRINT:PRINT"AHA! TO GAIN FAVOR WITH THE 

FAT ONE AND GET THE POOP YOU NEED YOU MUST FI 

RST APPEASE HIM.":PRINT 

540 PRINT"YOU MUST STOP AND REST BEFORE GOING ON.":IF F 
PRINT"THE NYMPH THINKS THAT THE DUNGEON IS LESS T 
HAN";ABS(L-20) ; "YERBS AWAY":ELSE PRINT"YOU HAVE TR 
AVELED";INT{ABS(DT-L) *.75) ; "FARBBLE WARFERS" 

570 PRINT: PRINT"YOU HAVE BEEN CAPTURED BY GOBLINS":IF E 

<>1,600 ELSE PRINT"THEY WANT THE SWORD THAT ONCE B 

ELONGED TO THE OLD ONES - " : PRINT"WILL YOU TRADE IT 

FOR YOUR FREEDOM ?" : GOSUB110 : IF AN=78,600 ELSE E= 

-.8:PRINT"IT IS THEN AGREED" :G0SUB1 

600 Q=RND(30) :IFG>=Q PRINT"THE GOBLIN LORD FREES YOU FO 
R";Q;''GOLD COINS" :G=G-Q:GOTO580 : ELSE IF W<=0,R4 = 8: 
PRINT"YOU ARE ENSLAVED" : GOTO3000 : ELSE PRINT"YOU AR 
E SOLD TO THE SATYRS BY THE GOBL INS" :G0SUB7 60 : GOTO 
580 

610 IF R=0 PRINT:PRINT"LOCKI THERE IS THE ENTRANCE TO T 
HE DUNGEON";GOSUB105:PRINT"H"; :FOR EX=1T061 : PRINT" 
M"; :GOSUB80:NEXT:PRINT" 1 " : PRINT"THERE APPEARS TO 
BE A GUARD":GOSUB105:PRINT"IT'S TOO DARK TO SEE FR 
OM HERE - MUST GET CLOSER '':GOSUB10 

680 VA=448:VB=462:FOR V3=1T02:F0R LZ=VA TO VB:PRINT@LZ, 
ES(WX) ;:GOSUB90:PRINT@LZ,ESC8) ; :WX= (3- (WX-5) ) +5 : NE 
XT-GOSUB 660:VA=462:VB=476:NEXT V3 : PRINT^VB, E$ ( 4) ; 
:GOSUB6 85:PRINT@VB,E$(5) ; : G0SUB6 85 : PRINT@VB, E$ ( 5) ; 
:PRINT@VB,ES(4) ;:FOR X=1T03 

682 PRINT@492,E1$:GOSUB100 

690 PRINTg490,E3?;:GOSUB100:PRINT@490,STRINGS(8," ");:G 

OSUB90:PRINT@490,E3$;:GOSUB100:PRINT@4 90,E4S; : GOSU 
B100:PRINT@VB,ES(2) ; : GOSUB10 :CLS : ON RND( 4) GOSUB70 
0,960,960,7 00:R=1:W»=W+1 

691 PRINT:PRINT"OK, YOU'VE FOUND THE PRINCESS" : PRINT"LET 

'S GET OUT OF HERE 1":GOTO620 

780 PRINT"WILL YOU AGREE TO THESE TERMS ?" :GOSUB110 : IF 

AN=7 8 PRINT"OH DID YOU HAKE THEM MAD - THEY DO YOU 

IN AND TAKE THE WOMEN" :R4=6 :GOSUB100 : GOTO3000 : ELS 

E PRINT"THEY TAKE THE WOHEM":IF RND{0)>.03 PRINT"T 

HEY CURSE Y0U":K=-5 

860 CLS:SP=540:FOR X3=1T0 RND ( 3 ) : X6=l : GOSUBBBS : FOR X4=l 
TORND(50)*10:NEXT X4 : CLS : GOSUB85 :NEXTX3 .■X6=3 : GOSUB 

Swords and Sorcery fix conts. 



I must admit that I have not been troubled 
by Mr. Brenner's problem of not being able to 
read the disk directory directly from Scripsil, 
but then 1 didn't realty expect to. 1 am an- 
noyed by HP's habit of putting its own file ex- 
tension on things — 1 find that Scripsil is an ex- 
cellenl means for generating source files for 
the disk assembler {much better than the 
editor which comes with that assembler), and 
for that as well as for sections of a long docu- 
ment, I want to add my file extensions. 

1 don't find that the command formats of 
Scripsil are particularly cumbersome, particu- 
larly since they allow you to have several 
blocks marked at any one time— but that is 
one of ihose things that is subjective. How- 
ever, the fact that EP loses characters at the 
ends of lines is a serious defect for anyone 
who types quickly (not me, I hasten to add). 

For anyone considering buying either of 
these programs, I can only hope that these 
debates in the letter columns are a help. In my 
opinion, either is a good buy; Scripsit is $50 
cheaper, and I prefer it. Admittedly, it won't 
do some of the exotic format control which is 
available under UNIX on a PDP-1 1/70— bul 
for a few hundred thousand dollars less, it 
seems pretty good value for the money. 

R, J. Lighton 
Wood-Ridge. NJ 

Subs for INKEY$ 

1 was reading Mr. Martinolt's letter in the 
July issue which concerned Mr. Himler's article 
in the April issue, when 1 had an idea. I tried it 
and it works! I submit the following two sub- 
routines: 



1000 W$ = "" 

1010 WS = WI-i-lNKE¥i:IFLEN(Wi)<NC'^ THEN lOlO 
ELSE RETURN 



ISOOWI = -' 

I i 10 Wi = WS + [NKEYS: IF R1GHT$(WS, 1)<>TC1 THEN 

1510 
i;20Wi = LEFT$(WS,LEN(Wi)-l):RETURN 

Subroutine 1000 will return with a string of 
length NC"/o. Subroutine 1500 will return with 
the characters input preceding the character in 
TC$. Neither of these subroutines prints the 
string being input. If that is required PRINT@ 
PA%,W$;: could be inserted between IN- 
KEVS:and IF in lines 1010 and 1510. 

Note that these subroutines have fewer re- 
strictions than the regular input statement. 
Subroutine 1000 will input anything that can be 
input with INKEYS, which includes all key- 
board inputs except BREAJC. 

Subroutine 1500 also excludes the termina- 
tion character in TC$. In addition to the con- 
trol codes that can be directly keyed in from the 
keyboard, such as line feed (the down arrow) or 
carriage return (ENTER), the ASCII control 
codes decimal 2 through 26 can be input by 
pressing the shift, down arrow, and a letter key 
B through Z. When you press the shift and 
down arrow, you get code 26 and then the con- 
trol code when the letter key is pressed while 
holding down the shift and down arrow. This 



16 • 80 Microcomputing. October 1980 



885 iGOSUBlflfl :X6»1 :GOSUB885 :GOSUB100 : X6=4 :GOSUB885 : 
GOSUB105:CLS:GOSUB85:X6=2:GOSUB885:GOSUB95:CLS:X6« 
2:GOSUB885:PRINTe287,OS 
862 PRINT@351.K$:GOSUB90 

870 PRINTe660,"A ROPE HAS BEEN LOWERED" iXS"! :GOSUBB85 :G 

OSUB105:PT=0:Y=RND{4) :PRINTe724,"YOU HAVE BEEN RES 

QUED BY ":IF Y=l GOSUB 700 ELSE IF y=2 PRINT"OH NO 

I":GOSUB570 ELSE IF F PRINT"THE NYMPH" ELSE PRINT 

"AN OLD LADY"iW"W+l 

1000 IF X«2 PRINT"HE THRUST HIS SWORD STRAIGHT FOR THE 
BODY l":GOTOI030:ELSE IF X-3 PRINT"HE ATTEHPS TO S 
EVER YOUR HEAD IN A SINGLE BLOW I " :GOTO1030 : ELSE I 
F X-4 PRINT'HE TWIRLS THE MACE DIRECTLY TOWARD YOU 
R HEAD l':GOTO1030 

1010 IF X»5 PRINT'HE SWINGS HIS MACE SAVAGELY AT YOUR B 
ODY l"iGOTO1030:ELSE IF X-6 PRINT'HE GLANCES YOUR 
BLOW AND LAYS ON WITH HIS SWORD 1":GOTO1030 

1B15 PRINT'HE KICKS SAND IN YOUR FACE AND SWINGS HIS SW 
ORD TO CLEAVE THE AIR AND YOUR HEAD ALONG WITH I 
T- 

1030 IF RND(0)<-,5+.3*H2/W2,1050 ELSE PRINT"YO() ' RE HIT 
1":H1=H1-.2:H2-H2-.2:GOSUB100:PRINTTAB(15) ; "OOOOF 
I!":GOSUB95:IF Hl>-.05 PRINTTAB(30) ; "YOU STAGGER A 

WAY •:GOTO980:ELSE PRINTTAB< 30) ; "YOU ' RE 

DOWN 1 1 1":GOSUB100 

1050 X-RND(6):IF X»l PRINT"YOU STOP HIS BLOW WITH YOUR 
SWORD AND BACK AWAY I I ' :GOTO1085 :ELSE IP X-2 PRINT 
■YOU DUCK UNDER HIS SWORD - VEER FROM HIS MACE AND 
ATTACK I":GOTO1070:ELSE IF X-3 PRINT"YOU PARRY TH 
EN ATTACK 1":GOTO1»70 

1060 IF X-4 PRINT'YOU KICK HIM IN THE SHINS AND SCAMPER 
AWAY !":GOTO 1095:ELSE IF X=5 PRINT"YOU STOMP HIS 
TOES WITH YOUR BOOT I " :GOTO1095 : ELSE PRINT"YCO SL 

ASH LEFT 1";:IF RND(3)«1 PRINT: ELSE PRINT"YOO SLAS 

B RIGHT 1- 

1070 F0RX3-1T0H3:IF RND(0)<«.1 PRINT"YOU MISSED HIM II! 
I":ELSE X-RND(H3) :IF X»l PRINT"YOU GOT HIS LEG 1": 
W2-W2-{DS+H2/5) :W3«W3-tDS+H2/5) :ELSE IF X»2 PRINT" 
YOU'VE SLASHED HIS ARM" iW2-W2- (DS+H2/3) :W3-W3- (DS+ 
H2/5) 

2120 PRINTe347,SS(l) :G0SUB9fl : PRINTg347 , " ";:PRINT?4 

12,SS(2);:GOSUB90:PRINTe412,SS(l) : PRINTe604 , "SLURP 

l":GOSUB90:PRINTe663,"BU";:FOR X-ITOIB : PRINTER" ; : 

NEXT:PRINT"P I I " ; :GOSUB100 : PRINT" HIC 1*:GOSUB10 

0:R4-2:GOTO3000 

3100 PRINT" WOWI CAN";RS;"RUN. WHAT AN EXHIBITION OF BL 

INDING SPEED. UNFORTUNATELY IT OCCURRED AS A RESUL 

T OF A BLISTERING DISCOVERY CONCERNING DRAGONS AND 

IN THE OPPOSITE DIRECTION OF THAT OF THE PRINCESS 

.■iGOTO4500 

4000 PRINTR$;"HAS PULLED IT OFF - THE PRINCESS HAS BEEN 

RESCUED"; : IF G>RND{301 PRINT;" - IS IMMEDIATE 

LY ACCEPTED INTO THE KING'S COURT AND IS ALLOWED T 

O DO ALL THOSE NICE LITTLE THINGS THAT ONE DOES HA 

PPILYEVER AFTER" :GOTO450fl 



END o/ Stuofds and Sornry /Ix. 



i 



combination with the letter A gives a code of 1 
which is the same as the BREAK key and has 
I he same effect. 

Davids. Tilion 
Manchester. NH 



A Word for NEWDOS 



It is with pleasure that I comment on three 
week's experience with Apparat's NEWDOS 
80- 

We have saved much lime by using the DE- 
LETE/INSERT and DUPLICATE commands 
for program lines. These have proven in- 
valuable in making major program modifica 
tions. 

The improvemeni to SUPERZAP with the 
I>KS command going right to the slan of a file 
has helped our understanding of machine lan- 
guage and our debugging when setting up new 
files. 

The manual tends lo be grossly confusing ai 
times and I sense Ihc production of a new 
jargon which I don'l care for, but overall the 
program has saved us time, and has saved us far 
more in money ihan it cost, even though we 
have only had il three weeks. 

On this basis, which for a businessman is a 
primary consideration, NEWDOS 80 is an ex- 
cellent program. 

Peter G. Dunn 

Sfurdivani and Dunn, Inc. 

Conway. NH 



On the Beach 



Congratulations on your 80 Microcomput- 
ing magazine and on the excellent quality of the 
articles and programs, which are improving 
(.•very month. 

lb confirm my interest , I enclose a photo at a 
Saini Tropez French Riviera beach, reading 80 
even during my vacation! 

As one of your numerous readers, I can as- 
sure you of my subscriber fidelity. 

/ R. Israel 
Paris, France 




90 on the French Riviera. 



80 Micfocomputing. October tMO • 17 



LOOKING FOR MODEL I 

AND MODEL II 

BUSINESS SOFTNU^RE? 
WE HAVE HUNDREDS 

OF QUALITY BUSINESS 

PROGRAMS IN STOCK! 

AT PRICES YOU CAN 

AFFORD. 



WHERE YOUR TRS-OO' MEANS DUSINESS> 

For the first time you can fill most of your software needs with one telephone call. Whether you are 
trying to find a specific program, custom software or just help with your system — give us a call. 

Invoicing • Inventory Control • Accounts Payable •Accounts Receivable •Payroll •General 
Ledger •tetter Writer •Word Processing •Mailing •Manufacturing Inventory • Cost Account- 
ing • SalesReporting • Stock Market • Business Statistics • Statistical Analysis • Data Base 
Systems • Medical Billing • Dental Billing •Special Industries •Advanced Accounting • Income 
Tax • Language • Personal Finance •Technical Programs • Insurance aCPA^ Law Office • Asset 
Depreciation • Job Cost • Utility Programs • Education • Games • Home Programs Loans • 
Credit Bureau •Electronics •Test Systems • Sports • Art •DOS Systems •BASIC lessoned 
and much mora! 

B«nd for our fraa eatalog or ghm us ■ call today. Wa alao do custom programs ■• wall ao buy top 
quality programs. 



Summer Special: 
Complete business system $299.95 



OYER 100 OF THE DEST 
BUSINESS PROGRAMS FOR 

THE TRS~6a MODEL I 
AND MODEL II IN STOCK 

READY FOR 

IMMEDIATE DELIYERY . 

LET US ANSWER YOUR 
QUESTIONS TODAY. 

We now selli 

Structured Systems Group • Graham Dorion • Magic Wand^** 

• Digital Research, Inc. • Osborr^e/McGrow Hill • Compiler 

Systems • Software Mart Software 

Software-Mart .. 

24092 Pandora St • El Toro CA 92630 

In California Call (714) 7687818 Call Toll Free 1 (800) 854-7115 

24 Hour Service JS 

OUR DEST ADS ARE NOT WRITTEN — THEY'RE RUNNING ON TRS-60'S 

All Software Mart Programs are sold on an "as is" basis and with "All Faults" Prices and programs are subject to change without notice. 

Magic Wand^'^ is a Trademark of Small Business Applications. Inc. 

*TRS-80 is a trademark ol the Radio Shack Division of Tandy Corporation. r- 




5i9APPllCAT10NS 



by Dennis Kitsz 



*^The principle of the 

clock is simple: Forty times 

each second, a puhi is 

sent from the expansion box 

to the keyboard unit, ^ 



Does anybody really know what time il is? 
Does anybody really care?" Personal 
computers were still half a generation away 
when Chicago sang those words, but the phrase 
has a special kind of relevance for TRS-80 us- 
ers. How can you get the time when you want 
it , yet prevent it from intruding when you don 't 
need ii? 

Your 80 can tell time in two ways. Firstly, an 
80 can be forced to keep track of cenain pre- 
dictable events, and update an internal clock 
program; and secondly, it can read an external 
clock which ticks along irrespective of the com- 
puter. 

Built-in Cloclc 

The clock most familiar to Radio Shack us- 
ers is that built into the expansion interface, 
which disk and Level 111 users can print by 
means of the TIMES command. The principle 
of this clock is simple: Fony times each second, 
a pulse is sent from the expansion box to the 
keyboard unit. The pulse enters via the inter- 
rupt line, causing the computer temporarily to 
set aside its activities in order to update the sec- 
onds, minutes, hours, days, months and year. 
When you ask for the TIMES command, the 
computer merely looks to the area of memory 
in which it has stored this updated information, 
and sends it to the screen or printers. 

This method is easy to use, but there are 
some problems with it. Naturally, you need the 
expensive expansion interface and special soft- 
ware to use the 25 millisecond interrupt. To 
keep accurate track of the time and date, your 
computer must remain on 24 hours a day. 
Without disk, special tape software must be 
loaded if an inadvertent reset should occur. 
And don't forget that a CMD'T" must be ex- 
ecuted before every CLOAD and CSAVE. 

But more important than any of these, is the 
deleterious effect the 40-times-per-second inter- 
rupt and update can have on a program is ex- 
ecution. To keep track of the real time, the in- 



terrupt method steals valuable program time. 

This month's column will present two inex- 
pensive alternatives to the expansion box clock. 
The first of these is based on a once-per-second 
interrupt, reducing execution-time overhead to 
a reasonable amount. The other system uses a 
new integrated circuit clock chip, MSM5832, 
manufactured by OKI and available for $9.80 
from Digi-Key Corp. (P.O. Box 677. Thief 
River Falls, MN 56701, 800-346-5144). 

Before we start wiring, let's Hnd out what's 
important to know about computer clocks. The 
primary consideration regarding the clock itself 
is accuracy, especially if it is to be used by the 
computer to control external machinery, for 
example, which is critically time-dependent. 

The expansion interface clock uses a quartz 
crystal time base, which is accurate to .001 per- 
cent. This percentage tells us that after 100,000 
seconds (about one day), the clock will be fast 
or slow by one second . 

But, there is an even more accurate source: 
the power line itself, which, because il is linked 
into a large network of generating systems, 
must maintain a virtually absolute synchroniza- 
tion over the long term of 60 clock cycles per 
second. Short -duration lags and leads may ap- 
pear, but the percentage of error over a year is 
negligible. 

Ancieni History 

Other things to consider are 60 seconds to the 
minute, 60 minutes to the hour. That's our leg- 
acy from the Babylonians and their base-60 
number system, so the computer clock has to 
remember that 59 plus one carries into the 
hundreds place. Then the Caesars gave us 
Julius and Augustus to deal with, meaning a 
duodecimal year, and some irregularly num- 
bered months also turned up. 

And finally, a pope named Gregory is re- 
membered because the calendar bearing his 
name dramatically dropped a few days right 
out of the middle of the sixteenth century and 




1MB aA 



left us with an uncomfortable phenomenon 
known as leap year. Because of the vagaries of 
personal pride, tradition, astronomy and Re- 
naissance, no number system, not even hexa- 
decimal or octal, can compare in complexity 
with our very own calendar, 

Fig. 1 presents a very simple interrupt-driven 
clock. You'll find no provision for battery 
backup, since clock updating is done by the 
computer— no power, no TRS-80. The trans- 
former is 6.3 volts (Radio Shack #273-1384 will 
do fine). It both powers the circuit and provides 
the 60-Hz pulse to the system. The sine-wave 
pulse is shaped into a neat digital signal by 
Schmiti Trigger Zl . Z2 divides the signal by 12, 
providing five pulses per second, and Z3 then 
divides that by five. We arc left with a one-sec- 
ond pulse at the output of Z3. 

This signal isn't useful exactly as it is, 
though. Why? When the computer receives any 
interrupt, it sets aside its current activities and, 
via a specified program, services that interrupt. 
Within a few microseconds it's done with that 
process, and it tries to return to the main pro- 
gram. But the divided -down, one-second pulse 
is too long. It's on forone-half second, then off 
one-half second, which means that it will still be 
on when the computer returns to the main pro- 
gram. The computer, being ignorant and slav- 
ish, will bounce unquestioningly back to the in- 
terrupt routine and update the time again. And 
again. And again— until the pulse turns off. By 
this lime, the clock is probably telling you it's 
tomorrow. 

To remedy that problem, the one-second 
pulse is fed into a fiip-flop. The computer pro- 
vides a very useful handshaking signal called an 
"interrupt acknowledge" (INTAK), which in 
effect says, "Okay, bud, I got yer order. Now 
lay off." So when the clock's interrupt pulse 
goes on, INTAK immediately resets the flip- 
Hop, cutting the interrupt off; the CPU updates 
the clock, and is able to return to the main pro- 
gram. It is not again disturbed until the one-sec- 



•^ 




w 






^ 1 


J lA 

1 ;« 







Fig. I. Real-time Uock Using One-second Interrupts 



ZQ • 60 Microcomputing, October 1980 



Enjoying 80 MICRO? 

then read on... 



80 MICROCOMPUTfNG has proven, in 
Its first several issues, that it can give you 
more Information on the TRS-BO* than any 
other single source. The magazine has 
grown more Intormative with each month 
and we still have lots more interesting 
ideas In the works for you. 

With the TRS-80' (or 90. . .etc.) being 
the most popular microcomputer in the en- 
tire world, you are going to benefit from 
this in many ways. The more computers 
there are out there of one kind . . . the more 
good programs you are going to have tor 
this system. I hope that Is obvious. You 
may be sure that 80 MICROCOMPUTING 
will be packed with the shorter programs 
and reviews of the larger ones. You can 
waste an awful lot of money on stuff that 
looks great in the ads, but fizzles out when 
you try to use It. You need our reviews. 

The wealth of programs will also mean 
that there will be much better programs for 
the TRS-80* than any other system. Put 
yourself in the seat of a computer pro- 
grammer and you'll understand this. If you 
are going to spend several months de- 
veloping a comprehensive program, and it 
takes all of that to write and debug a big 
program, would you write It tor a system 
which has sold one hundred units or one 
which has sold over 300,000 systems? The 
answer Is obvious. . .and this is why we 
are already seeing programs coming out 
for the TRS-80* which are far better than 
anything for any other system on the 
market. This is tough for other systems 
. . . the law of the computer jungle. 

Between our connections with Instant 
Software, the largest publisher of micro- 
computer programs in the world, and 
Kilobaud MICROCOMPUTING, you know 
that 80 MICROCOMPUTING Is going to be 
your most important link with software for 
theTRS^*. 

With Instant Software being sold and 
promoted In every country In the world 
where the TRS-80* is being sold, our input 
of programs Is also the twst In the world. 
We get programs submitted from every- 
where. . .often from 50 to 100 a week! 
You'll get the cream of the crop either pub- 
lished or reviewed In 80. 

HARDWARE TOO 

The same law of the computer jungle 
holds for hardware. Would you, as a manu- 
facturer, market an accessory for a system 
which has sold 100 units or would you go 

'TRS-SO II a I'Klamaih at Tandy Corp 



first for the one which has sold hundreds 
of thousands. It is, as with software, self- 
evident why the great bulk of the hardware 
accessories for computers are tor the 
TRS-80* these days. 

80 MICROCOMPUTING has the advan- 
tage of the use of the largest and most 
complete microcomputer lab in the 
world... the one developed for instant 
Software and Kilobaud MICROCOMPUT- 
ING. This means that most new pieces of 
equipment are tested and In use by our 
staff. . .and this means that we can tell 
you what we think is outstanding. , .and 
where we find ripoffs. This lab is Important 
to you. 

SUBSCRIBE 

If you are not already a subscriber to 80 
MICROCOMPUTING, please get signed up 
right now. The yearly rates are S18, and 
that is a bargain. Just one single program 
of use to you can be worth much more than 
that. One review of an accessory could 
save you many times that much invest- 
ment. I would appreciate it if you would ap- 
point yourself a committee of one to get 
more subscribers for the magazine. You 
will benefit even more than we do here at 
the magazine. . .because the more read- 
ers we have, the more ads we will be able 
to attract. . .and the more ads, the more 
pages of articles you will get every month. 

The 80 market can, I think, support a 
couple of hundred pages of ads... and 
that would mean a magazine of nearly 500 
pages a month. That should hold you. You 
may not have time left to use your comput- 
er. 

ENCYCLOPEDIA 

If you've read Kilobaud MICROCOM- 
PUTING, you know that I try hard not to 




duplicate published material. My concept 
is that every reader should save every 
Issue (we sell Inexpensive boxes tor this so 
they can sit on your library shelt) and treat 
the magazine as a continuing encyclo- 
pedia of computing. I make sure that much 
of the material in each issue is written in 
simple language so it will be understand- 
able by even the rawest newcomer to com- 
puters. Oh, I have articles for the more ad- 
vanced users too. so you'll have some- 
thing to look back over later and use as 
your understanding of your system grows. 

Try to think of 80 MICROCOMPUTING as 
more of a large club newsletter than an 
ivory tower high-level publication. I'll leave 
the pomp to other publishers. . .the ones 
with the well-deserved inferiority com- 
plexes who cater to their inadequacies by 
publishing esoteric baloney. This 
magazine Is written by the readers and 
edited by people whose aim is to help you 
enjoy your TRS-80' . 

SAVE 

With each issue costing S2.50 at your 
computer store, that's $30 a year. For$18a 
year you can subscribe ... at least for now. 
As the magazine expands, please do not 
be surprised if the cover price Increases, 
along with the subscription price. I started 
73 Magazine for radio amateurs twenty 
years ago with a cover price of 37c (two for 
73«) and it is up to $2.95 a copy now (and it 
is the largest of the ham magazines). 

For you bargain hunters. . .and those 
who find that one year goes by all too rap- 
idly, the three year rate for 80 is $45. This, 
too, will be going up . . . reflecting the infla- 
tion, paper increases, postage increases, 
and a short vacation for me in Hong Kong 
next year. Someone has to pay for that. 



H rn« coupon balow ria* M«n uaM. pMaM Ml oul tutMcnplion lOfin ox ttM RaM*' Svnica can] m IHe bach Ol Tha magv* 



I Sign me on as a subscriber to 
80 Microcomputing for only $18 a year! 



Card»_ 



Exp.. 



Signature 



Name 



Address 



Cily 



L , 12 issues-$18 

LJ 36 issues -$45 

LJ Please bill me 

I i Payment Enclosed 

I ; Master Charge 

Li VISA 

L I American Express 



Slate. 



Zip- 



m 



microcamputing 



Pe'erborough, N,H. 03458 



Subscirption D«gins wilh neil publisheQ igbub 
Back issues, while available are $3 each 
Canada S20 pet year US lunds 
All olher (oreiQfi subscrrplions: 128 one year only 



ond pulse again trips the flip-flop. 

Round-lhc<lock Time 

You can build this real-time clock for under 
$10 (cheap enough so you can loss it out if you 
purchase an interface). But for a few dollars 
more, the luxury of round-the-tlock time is 
available. The secret is the OKI clock /caJender 
integrated circuit, which is set up for use with 
microcomputers instead of LED readout digits. 
To make it work you will need a 32.768-KHz 
watch crystal (also sold by Digi-Key), a port 
chip available at Radio Shack, and some simple 
logic. 

The clock chip provides just about all the 
features we might need: time in hours (12 or 
24-hour formal), minutes and seconds; month, 
day and year (even leap year); and day of the 
week. Beyond the basics, the MSM5832 can 
provide timing signals to the computer 1,024 
time per second, once per second, once per 
minute, or once per hour. A battery backup of 
jusi 2.2 volts will keep it timing when the rest of 
the system is off. Fig. 2 presents the complete 
timekeeping circuit for the TRS-80. (Since 
74LS260's were in shon supply when this arti- 
cle was being prepared, Fig. 3 is an alternate for 
that part of the circuit.) 

The main disadvantage of the integrated cir- 
cuit clock device is its technology. Al present, 
low power consumption (for battery backup), 
high density (to squeeze the clock /calendar on 
the chip), and high speed (to be compatible with 
fast-moving microcomputers) are not all eco- 
nomically possible. 

Although the MSM5832 is billed as a micro- 
computer-oriented clock, it is not directly com- 
patible with the TRS-80. Intermediate logic 



must be used to latch onio the clock informa- 
tion in its own good time and feed it to the 80 as 
the computer's signals speed by. 

The INS82S5 peripheral interface device 
does this job, setting up a slower, "private" 
bus between itself and the MSM5832, The data 
flows to and from the clock through the 825S's 
port A, the clock's address (for seconds, min- 
utes, etc.) is selected through port B and special 
timekeeping features are commanded through 
port C. 

The 8255 circuit is wired so that the clock can 
be placed al an appropriate place in the 
TRS-80's memory map. The Z-80 microproces- 
sor has 16-pin connectons which are used to 
produce an address, or specific memory loca- 
tion. The highest number that 16 lines can pro- 
duce is 1 1 1 1 1111 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 in binary or 65,535 
decimal. Within this universe reside the differ- 
ent types of memory used by the 80. 

BASIC ROM uses the lowest 12.287 bytes of 
memory (OOOOH to 2FFFH). The keyboard 
needs only eight bytes, but because of elec- 
tronic and software design convenience, actual- 
ly takes up an area 1 .024 bytes long (3800H to 
3BFFH). Cassette, printer and disk eat up a few' 
b>ies from 37EOH to 37FFH. and the video 
screen has a l.024-byie block of memory re- 
served for its own use at 3C00H to 3FFTH. A 
full complement of RAM takes up 49,152 bytes 
from4000HtoFFFFH. 

That's a total of 63,504 bytes. What has hap- 
pened to the remaining 2,032? They are blank, 
ready for crafty TRS-80 users to put them to 
work. 

Bui we have to fit our clock in place careful- 
ly, if only because some manufacturers (Ex- 
airon with their Stringy Floppy and Personal 




Fig. 2. Real-lime Clock Using MSM5832 Clock /Calender 



» 




4 


1 


II * 


11 5 


)• 


• 


X 


91 


<i 



rns-ro 

EDSE 
COttCCTOf 



SB 



Computer Products' REX-80) have beat us to 
it. using this blank block for their own ROM. 

Besides, in the near future this column will 
present a way of adding 2K of your home-pro- 
grammed ROM to the system from 3000H to 
37CFH. So we will place the clock at 37DOH, 
37DlHand 37D2H,outof the way of the oper- 
ating systems mentioned above, and just below 
the cassette, primer and disk addresses. In Fig. 
2, Zl and Z2 do the decoding work, permitting 
our access to those 1 3 addresses only (See Table 
1 for details). 

Complete software for bolh clocks will be 
presented next month. 

Assembling the Clock 

Wiring the interrupt -based clock is very sim- 
ple, and. except for the transformer, it can be 
done on a single board, the RS #276-170 (Fig. 

I). 

For the interrupt -based clock, only three 
contacts of an edge connector are used, so you 
might consider mounting the entire circuit in- 
side the TRS-80 case. The OKI clock/calender 
is larger and needs many of the computer lines, 
so an edge connector is imperative. 

Cable connectors for the TRS edge card can 
be purchased from several sources, including 
Digi-Key and Advanced Computer Products 
(P.O. Box 17329, Irvine. CA 92713; 800- 
854-8230), and cost about $12. 

Those with more patience and less cash can 
purchase Texas Instruments 40-pin connectors 
with 0.1-inch spacing. Digi-Key sells these 
$2.76 connectors, which can be combined with 
inexpensive multi-conductor cable sold by BNF 
Enterprises, formerly B & F, Peabody, MA. 
Extender cables are available to connect any 
number of components to the TRS-80 bus from 
Exairon (3555 Ryder St., Santa Clara, CA 
95051; 800-538-8599). A two-for-one cable is 
S 1 5 , and each additional connector attached to 
a cable is $5. 

The MSM5832 circuit is a bit more compli- 
cated than the basic interrupt clock and sockets 
should be used for Z3 and Z4. The clock chip is 
one of those siaiic-sensilive circuits which 
should be handled carefully, even though it em- 
ploys internal protection. Most of all, make 
sure you do no experimentation or testing with 
the power connected. Complete the circuit. A 



(Ml *MWW4t 





IS 


8 


JO 


»« 


It 


M 


11 


" 




>l 


1* 


M3 


II 


«» 


I* 


«• 


10 


IT 


ll 


H 


19 


s 



Of Itr 



Fit. 3. Real-time Clock Using MSM5832 with Alternate Circuit to Replace 74LS260 



22 • 80 Microcompuhng. October 1980 




^APPHCAnONS 



How To DMo4t TiK OKfc AdikHi 
Write ihe HUteu in boch hcK tnd binvy an] ddcnmiw the atrrcipondlna Z-K) iMmt bnn: 
3 T D-^_ -^ _ 



11 
IS 14 13 12 



U. Toaeaie 37DO, cighi ofihoc bits (addreu tine) rnuw be I . Foi* of ihc biu miat beO. 
b. Tlie lowtsi four biis will change as we seiea 8255 pons A, B, or C [3700, 37D1, tnd 37D2). 
2a. The 8255 iniegnled circuit ii turned on when any addreu from 37DO to 37DF appean. Thii "chip Ktod" (CS) 

lignal must be Tof the S255 to mpond. 
3a. The unalleit pouibic number of [C chips ihouid be u*ed. 

b. Only chip* thai lomeone manufaciures should be uMd. 

c. Thechipayoo need will alwayibeoui of s«)ck. Prepare ofaioni. 



1 T^R H mo uniqiK 17D0 aiUnu deoxki mvle. lo don't look for one. 

2 iRKead, Temember the rula of logic: 



INFUT 






T)^*f G«t 




A B 


AND 


NAND 


OR NOR 


XOR 








1 


1 





1 


D 


] 


1 


1 


1 





1 


1 


1 


I 1 


1 





1 






3 Put the "I" linct(I3, 12, 10.9,1, T, 6, and 4) inio a p4cnliral and ch^t ei(ht-inpu< NAND lalc (type 74LSMk. 
Rcnih: a "0" output. 

4 Put the -O" linn (15, 14, II. and 3). plinibc above "0" output Into i nve4nput NOR jate (type 74LS2M). 
Rauh: a "1" output. That decodei all the linci, and it'i pretty clou to what we need. 

5 Put ihii ■']■■ output into an invener to chanje it to the "0" needed to trigger CS. Wail, now. don't get a Kparait 
inverter chip. Since the 74LS2«) hai another nve4npui nor gate on board, send the previoui "l" oulpoi inio ali 
five input! of thii gate. Voilal InUant invertei. 

6 Uie Fig. 1 when 74LS2Mk are out of nock everywhere you call. 



TO 



-T T — *■ 



Il.Zl.JI 

DZ 



o. 




Photo 1. The complete dock /calendar can be 
built on a smalt circuit board. Notice the 
32. 768 KHz crystal on the far left; it is at- 
tached to the board with instant glue. 



difference of 0,3 volts between certain pins of 
this chip can be deadly. 

This board can be wire-wrapped or soldered, 
though use great care, Uttle heat and short leads 
when soldering the crystal in place. Photo 1 
shows the entire circuit on a 11276-170 circuit 
board. 

Very important to the proper operation of 
these clock circuiu is a ground connecting the 
computer at edge card pin 29 to the peripheral 
device's ground, as in the schematics. 1 have 
seen, several home-brew devices which would 
function in most frustrating manner until this 
ground was put in place. Also, take note of the 
capacitors between Vcc (collector -voltage sup- 



" :m. 



__ R(CH*nC[*K.C 

-=- Hicao CCLLS 



T sal I IV 



ONLT 



Fig. 4. Power Supply with Battery Backup 



TTit edilon pitad total insanity in the matter of leaving Dennis Kilsz 's photos out of last month 's Applications. Space was the first consideration. We 'It try to make amends in a future coiumn.—Eds. 



Features of the GUE FIGHTER : 

REDUCES OPERATOR FAT10UE THEREtY ALL0W1N0 MOM VR- 

CIENT USE OF THE COMPUTER 

INSTALLS EASILY WITH PRESSURE SENaiTIVE ADHESIVE. MO 

SCREWS. CLIPS, OR DRILLING TO DAMAGE MONITOR 

DESIGNED TO MATCH TRS-80 STYLING FROM THE BLACK AND 

SILVER BORDER TO THE LETTERrNG TYPE FACE 

FITS BOTH THE MODEL I AND MODEL II 

DOES NOT VOID THE COMPUTER WARRANTY 

ENHANCES THE APPEARANCE OF THE MONTTOd 

PROVIDES A DURABLE, EASY TO CLEAN SURFACE 

PUwn* am] Addrtaa Typml or CtMrty PrtnUtf wrteh 
Chach or Monay 0r4«r for t9.9S* P«r Unt. COO'S 
•MICE INCLUOCS SHtPPWC ^r* S2.50 A(Mitt«n«l 9*r Order, norida a*>Klwit« 

T*»-M m * TMUICMJUm OF TANDY AM 4^, &•!•» T«a. 

I SOUTHERN INNOVATIVE DESIGN 
1520 NORTHEAST t2TH STREET 
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA 32601 ^373 



tel |igM*n«# 



'»m^»*v r*tt«M». rin*it« «• 
>—»»<» « Mr« «•«»« >*4 <>WK>Uwi. 

hair* )• »r— f ftf ok^ 



■ n —Jf Sanntoa — tamptgaBB 



BO klicrocomputlng, October 1960 • 23 



SnnnnRtl hvlrn Hnldklnnn - www trs-RII nnm 



f(9APPll€ATK>IIS 



1 

FUNCTION TABLE 


AooMnmn/Ts 

«• «■ A* Ai 


miwnmx. 
cwMm 


MTAI/O 


DATA 

UMrrt 


WOTM 


Di ■>• Di Di 





S 1 




• • • 


0-9 


S> M S'fl V* rMM 10 »<o irr«*p«c1'va oi npul 
data Do-> Di whan wrtia miruoHon « •■•cutad 
«Jtn ■ddrais t«l«cIion 


1 D 


S10 




• • 


0-5 


10 
110 
10 


MM 
Ml 10 




. . 


0-0 




H t 




4 • * 


«-% 


10 10 


MIO 




• t 1 


yC-2 


Di 1 IotPM Ot>-"l"lw»iriewtonMM 
Or- -0 Km Ml Oi r "0* torta Iteuf iWHMt 


Olio 


W 






- « 




1 t 1 


01 




* ■ * 


0-0 


0) 


DIO 




• t 


0-3 


Ol - t Iv JOaay«mii»o«««»J 

tb '--O'**O>nMrsiAMon0tZ '' 


10 1 


wot 




. . . 


0-0 




• 1 1 


MO 10 






0- 1 


110 1 


VI 




tt * • 


0-.0 


11 


Y 10 




• * * 


-• 


(1) ■ IMIoMdM »• 1 

(II H Of PWMHjWy Ml n 1 «pi)neomBi«ono('"onit»?OM» DJ-i»l»inl»"'«li*'»MMo 

Addrtss Decoding Table for ZI/Z2 



Mea culpa, indeed. Chuck Lingo writes from 
Gardner, KS about those BASIC commands 
accessible using Seespol! (July): 

Your article said all BASIC commands, yet 
there are only 64 graphic characters and S6 pos- 
sible key combinations. Where are things such 
as CHRS, STRS, LEFTS, RIGHTS. . .etc.?" 

An earlier version of the Seespot program 
being developed made those extra commands 
available, but I lost them along the pathway to 
user convenience. Sometime soon this column 
will present a quick way of evoking all those 
BASIC commands via single keystrokes. 



ply) and ground in both circuits. These should 
be mounted as close as possible to their respec- 
tive int^rated circuits so they can filter out ex- 
traneous signals caused by fast-switching ICs. 
The pull-up resistors (Rl to R12 in Fig. 2) are 
essential to the operation of the MSM3832. See 
Fig. 4 for a diagram of the power supply with 
battery backup for the MSM5832 clock, 

Next month's column will cover machine 
language and BASIC software for using these 
real-time clocks. 

Lettcn about AppllcaUons 

Some unexpected difficulties can plague 
those of us working on hardware additions to 
the TRS-80. Ron Gillen of Hustisford. Wl 
writes to say that TRS-80 "edge card connec- 
tors are not created equal ... I purchased a 
40-pin edge card connector to replace the failed 
(cheap) Stringy-Floppy 'Kel-AM' connector. A 
much more rugged Alpha Mfg. connector was 
used and, to my dismay, the pins on the edge 
card side are reversed as pairs. That is, Kel-Am 
places pin 1 at the top of the edge card and the 
particular Alpha that I purchased places pin 1 
at the bottom of the edge card. This reversal of 
pairs, which I did not suspect, caused strange 
and interesting results on the TRS-80 when con- 
nected to the ESF cable." 

I had the same problem as Ron while build- 
ing a prototype for this column, so check those 
cables carefully. 



face published earlier this year. By the time the 
article appeared in print. Radio Shack had dis- 
continued the 8 1 LS95 and 8 1 LS96 circuits . For 
those still interested, these ICs may be obtained 
from any of the mail order firms mentioned in 
this column . 

Will readers who have built or plan to build 
the device please drop me a post card (Rox- 
bury, Vermont 05669)? Future columns will re- 
fer to this small interface if readers have built it 
and find it worthwhile. 



A quick note on the vagaries of electronic de- 
velopments: This month's topic was well on its 
way to completion using some entirety different 
hardware. Until March, when OKI officially 
introduced the MSM5832, there were only stan- 
dard clock /calender chips on the market. 

In order to make them microcomputer com- 
patible, the seven-segment LED display out- 
puts had to be converted to binary , using either 
a home-programmed PROM or a special-pur- 
pose National Semiconductor IC. The clock 
chip's digit strobe was converted into an ad- 
dressing circuit, and some fancy electronic spa- 
ghetti allowed this entire mass to act as a com- 
puter clock. 

It also cost a lot of time, more money — $30 
and having a friend who could program small 
PROMs. The OKI data sheet walked through 
the door at just the right momem, promising to 
be the perfect solution. But that solution is still 
some time away, when a computer-bus-com- 
patible, high-speed clock chip finally appears 
on the market.! 



EDUCATION ^(9 

bv Earl R. Savage %^^^ 



Several readers have asked where to get parts 
for projects described in this column. In most 
cases, parts are readily available from a local 
Radio Shack. Where special parts are needed, 
the names and addresses of suppliers will be 
listed. This question was prompted by the inter- 



T^e first question of the new 80 owner 
is: "How and where do 1 get programs?" 
You may be a teacher carrying your personal 80 
to the classroom. You may be a parent wishing 
to supplement your child's schoolwork. Per- 
haps you arc in charge of a learning lab with 
several 80s, or a parent wanting to get your pre- 
schooler off to a good start. In any case, there is 
always a search for good programs. 

That need arises again and again when talk- 
ing with educator-users. Unfortunately, there is 
no simple answer because the sources are many 
and, at the same time, few. 

At this point in time, there are several ways 
to acquire instructional programs: 

• Write your own programs; this is probably 
your very best source. Better than anyone, you 
know what you want to teach and you know the 
student(s) — where he needs to begin, how he 
learns best and so on. If you don't know the 



Savagi 



subject well enough — small engine repair, for 
example-collaborate with a colleague who 
does. 

This program source is the least expensive 
but it does take time, a commodity that most of 
us have in short supply. Since your time is not 
unlimited, why waste it reinventing the wheel? 
Write what is not available and get what some- 
one else has already invented. 

• Copy programs from magazines and 
books; program listings can be found in many 
books and magazines. It is true that most are 
not instructional, but if you look carefully, 
you'll be surprised how many fall into that cate- 
gory. In addition, you will find others that you 
can modify in one way or another to turn them 
into teaching programs. 

• Exchange programs with others; this can 
be a really fine source of programs. You will get 
a bummer now and then, but that happens 



24 • BO Microcomputing. October 1980 



1. Outlasts every competitor — 200,000,000 
character head warranty 

2. No duty cycle limitations— even in demanding 
business applications 

3. Professional print quality— 9 x 7 matrix 

4. Rugged business use construction — metal 
chassis — two motors 

5. 80 characters per second 

6. Upper and lower case — full 96 character 
ASCII set 

7. Double width characters 



8. Connects directly to TRS-SO:"* APPLE" and 
other computers 

9. Block graphics— 64 shapes for charts, 
graphs, diagrams 

10. Friction and pin feed 

1 1 . Plain paper — up to 3 parts 

12. 6 and 8 lines per inch — program controlled 
paper savings 

13. 80 and 132 columns— program controlled 

14. Price— the best value in the industry. Call or 

whte today for the name of your local 
Mtcroline 80 dealer. 



^>KlOAJ^ 



X"-' -V:.'- ..rr- 



..'^-i-i' 



. •■-•"^ -^ A';" '••** 



"■^t 



14 REASONS 
WHY TRS-80 
OWNERS 
CHOOSE THE 
MICROLINE80 



All fourteen are standard with every 
Microline 80. The only options are 
snap-on tractors and a buffered (up to 
2000 characters) RS232 interface. 



OKIDATA 



^246 



TR5.M ■> ■ raguiCTM) tr>d« mark ol Radio Shack, a division ol Tandy Co»p. 



Okidata Corporation 

1 1 1 Gaither Drive. Mount Laurel. New Jersey 08054 

Telephone: 609-235-2600 



■Header Service — see page .Vb 



80 Microcomputing. October 1980 • 25 



so EDUCATION 



when you buy them, too. Exchanging what you 
have written for what someone else has written 
is a good and inexpensive way to build up your 
program library. The cost is limited to your 
blank tape, postage and, in some cases, a nomi- 
nal fee. 

There are some educationally oriented ex- 
change groups on my present list. I'll share the 
names and addresses of any exchange groups 
that send me information about themselves 
provided that they refuse to exchange copy- 
righted programs. (1 won't help them break the 
law.) If you represent such a group, send me 
your list and your rules. 

• Buy the programs you need; there are 
stHne competent and reliable people out there 
who are writing and selling educational pro- 
grams. 1 am also painfully aware that there are 
some incompetents and/or crooks doing the 
same thing! 

There you have the methods of acquiring ed- 
ucational programs: write them, type them, ex- 
change them and buy them. Do some of each. 
And don't forget that you can often modify a 
program to improve it or make it useful for an- 
other purpose. 

EdHCatlonal Review: Three Program Books 

As 1 mentioned above, one of the less expen- 
sive ways to get programs is to type them from 
listings in books and magazines. It takes some 
time and care but the cost is much less than buy- 
ing them on tape. Here are three books in which 
you may be interested. 

• J7 Pracitical Programs and Games In 
BASIC (Ken Tracton; Radio Shack #62-2008) 

The presentation of these programs includes 
a brief description, any math formulas used, a 
sample run, a list and a flowchart. As the title 
indicates, the programs are in BASIC. Most 
will run on Level II as written, but a few require 
modirication. For Level I users, more extensive 
nwdirications are needed. 

Though this volume is well written, there is 
little here applicable to education except for the 
advanced math student. 

Contents: mathematical functions (42); 
games (8); electronics (3); miscellaneous (4). 

»80 Programs For The TRS-^ (Perry and 
Brown, editors; 1001001 Inc., Pcterbwough, 
NH 03458) 

This book was offered originally as a bonus 
to charter subscribers of this magazine. The 
listings are in small print but there are plenty of 
them . Ail but a few of the programs will Tit into 
a 16K machine. You will find a variety of edu- 
cational programs here. 

Contents: instruction (IS); business (13); 
games (1 3); utility (6); personal use (10); energy 
conservation (3); amateur radio (6); electronics 
(4); miscellaneous (8). 

Instruction breakdown: electronics (1); math 
(6); social studies (4); reading/spelling (3); 
music (1). 

9TRS-80 Programs (Rugg and Feldman; 
Radio Shack #62-2064) 

This book contains 32 programs for Level II. 
All will nt into a 16K machine and most will fit 
into 4K. Each program is explained in thorough 



detail including suggested modifications for 
different uses. The program discussions are so 
complete that this volume is excellent for study 
by example, to improve your own program 
writing. One of the instructional programs 
(Flashcard) can be used with many subjects and 
grades. 

Contents: instruction (7); games (13); per- 
sonal use (2); business (1); math funaions (9). 

When you are typing a listing into your 80 be 
very careful— go slowly and check often what 
you have entered. You know that the smallest 
mistake can prevent a program's running. Es- 
pecially watch out for the letters 1 and O as 
compared with the digits I and 0. 

If you have several programs to type, try to 
talk a friend into typing half of them. You can 
then exchange cassette copies and each of you 
will have saved half the time. In any case, it is a 
good idea to take a typing break now and 
again; being tired leads to misieaks\ 

Recording Scores 

You may want to record your student's score 
on an instructional program. If you have even 
the simplest printer, you don't have to copy 
scores manually from the display. The follow- 
ing listing will do the job on the Radio Shack 
Quick Printer II. Change the commands to suit 



your printer: 

10» PRINT -PLEASE SWITCH ON THE 

PRINTTER AND THEN PRESS ENTER." 
1055 l^ lNKEYJ = --THfcN 1031 
1040 LPRINT -NAME : "Ai I'NAME 

PKEVIOUSLY ENTERED 
10*5 LPRINT -PROGRAM ; AMATEUR 

THEORV II" 
1050 LPRINT "SCORE "R"R1GHT OF "T" 

ATTEMPTED- 
IMS FOR X - 1 TO 4 : I PRINT , NEXT 
1060 END 

The variable names will have to be changed 
to agree with those in the program. If you're 
wondering about line lOSS. that simply runs the 
paper up four hnes so thai the printout clears 
the tear bar. 

This small section prints the essential infor- 
mation and is easily expanded to include what- 
ever you want on the record. Best of all, not on- 
ly can you put it in programs that you write, but 
you can insert it easily into any you have written 
or any that you have bought. 

A Remioder 

EXin't forget to send me information on your 
program exchange group so I can pass it along 
to other readers. And let me know of any spe- 
cial topics you would like discussed in the fu- 
ture.! 



SijACGOUtimilT 

^^^ ^^^ Ku MInhaol TannAnKoitm f^ D A 



by Michael Tannenbaum C.P.A. 



^ ast night, a warm Sunday evening, while 
my dog and 1 took our customary walk, I 
bumped into my next door neighbor. He looked 
harassed and down in the dumps. On inquiry, 
he told me a sad tale of his slaving over the 
books in his offlce all weekend long. His major 
problem was getting the payroll recordkeeping 
up to dale in order to file his quarterly returns. 
His was a sad. but familiar talc. 

CP/M and CBASIC 

Radio Shack has recently released the Model 
II Payroll package (Catalog » 26-4303). Al- 
though this effort has some flaws (such as no 
New York city withholding computation), it 
represents a substantial piece of work. It can 
certainly be considered for locations where a 
city tax is iKM required or can be calculated as a 
percentage of gross pay or federal tax. 

In addition to the Radio Shack package I will 
also evaluate the Structured Systems Group, 
Inc.. (SSG) CP/M (Control Program for Mi- 
crocomputers) payroll package. 

It's no secret thai TRSDOS has many disk 
operating system competitors. The most popu- 
lar of the alternate systems is CP/M, developed 
by Digital Research, Pacific Grove, CA. CP/M 
was established as an industry standard long 
before the Model I TRSDOS was a working 
system. In fact CP/M was almost adopted as 
the Model 1 operating system and was licensed 
by Tandy although it was never released. 



The major problem with CP/M in the Model 
I was that standard CP/M required low mem- 
ory in order to work. This area was already 
used by the Level II ROM. CP/M had to be re- 
written to function above the ROM. 

Because CP/M has been readily available, 
many firms have developed software to inte- 
grate with it. One such firm, Software Systems, 
Inc., developed a BASIC interpreter called 
CBASIC. CBASIC differs frcnn standard Ra- 
dio Shack BASIC by requiring a compilation 
phase before execution. At the conclusion of 
the compilation phase, a special program is 
created that can be executed but ikM listed. It is 
interpreted by the run-time module of the 
CBASIC system. In this way vendors of 
CBASIC programs can retain control of the 
source code. This means that purchasers of 
CBASIC programs cannot modify the pro- 
grams without the assistance of the vendor. 

SSGPayrol 

One of the vendors using CBASIC and 
CP/M is SSG of Oakland, CA. Their payroll 
system is distributed by computer stores 
throughout the country and is part of a total 
integrated accounting system. Although the 
system is distributed on three single-density 
eight-inch disks, it will run on a [wo-drive 
Model II. Drive A (equivalent to drive in a 
TRSEXDS system) contains the system and drive 
B (equivalent to drive 1) contains the data, The 



26 • 80 Microcomputing, October 1980 



Transform your programming language 
into a real data base management system 



MDBS Interlaces 
with CBAStC under CP/M. 
wilh TRS-80 (Models I and II). 
and with APPLE DOS. 



A major breakthrough In data handling for 
micros! At best, existing programming 
languages provide only rudimentary tile 
handling capabilities- With MDBS 
(Hierarchical Data Base System), you can 
now transform your programming 
language from an ordinary file handling 
system tnto a flexible, powerful, and 
productive data base management system. 

MDBS provides the two components any 
genuine data base system must have: 

1. The Data Description Language (DDL), an 
easy-to-use, stand-alone language for 
specifying blueprints or schemas of data t>ase 
organization. 

2. The Data Manipulation Language (DML) for 
manipulating (storing, accessing, modifying, 
deleting) data organized according to a data 
base blueprint. The DML extends your data 
handling capabilities by allowing you to 
embed powerful data manipulation 
commands in the programs you write. The 
commands are stated through the "CALL** 
facilities of your programming language. 

MDBS users are, . . 

• free of the need to design files. 

• tree of the need to merge files, there is no 
scattering of data over several files. Records of 
many different types are automatically 
maintained in a single, integrated 
organization. . .one that can be spread over 
numerous disk drives. 

• free of the need to be concerned with disk I/O 
because it is handled automatically by MDBS. 

HDBS offers. 

• hierarchical schema designs. 

•data base schemas of up to 254 record types; 
each record type may contain up to 255 fields. 
The size o! a field may be up to several 
thousand bytes in length 

• data bases spread over one to eight disk 
drives HDBS is independent of the sizes and 
types of drives 

• user-delined names for fields, record types. 
and sets. 

• records maintamable in several sorted 
orders. . .and in other orders as well. 

• written in machine language for maximum 
execution efficiency and minimal memory 
usage. 

• available versions: Z80 {requires approx. 18K), 
6502 (approx. 26K). 8080 (approx. 22K). Total 
memory requirement must allow for buffer 
areas 

For more information on the HDBS, write or call 
us todayl 



I 



I 



HDBS can be used to extend any of the 
following programming languages under 
the indicated operating systems: 

CP/M with CBASIC ; Microsoft BASICS, 
FORTRAN or COBOL: InterSystem 
PASCAL/2: Sorcim PASCAL/M: Micro Focus 
CIS COBOL: Digital Research PL/I 
MVT/FAMOS with BASIC 
OASIS with BASIC 
TRSDOS and NEWDOS (Models I and II) with 

Disk BASIC 
North Star DOS with North Star BASIC 
Apple DOS and Applesoft BASIC 
t^achine Language interface available on all 

above systems. 
Note: Because HDBS can be integrated with a 
wide range of languages and operating systems, 
it provides uniform methods of data handling 
across those many languages and systems. 

HDBS/QRS. An interactive Report- 
Writer/Query-System with these features: 

• may be customized for non-technical users, 

• complex retrieval conditions may be specified, 

• detailed reports can be quickly generated, 
•wildcard and "match-one" string specifications 

included. 

HDBS/SRS. This Schema Redesign System 

permits. . . 

• renaming fields, record types, sets. 

• adding new fields to existing record types. 

• allocating additional pages to an existing data 
base 

Ordering information (applicable to Z80. 
8080, and 6502 versions): 



MDBS 

HDBSORS 

HDeS-SRS 

HOeS-ORSSRS Package 

MDBS e-pansion lo MOBS' 

MDBS Manual 

DOS M.inual 

SHS Manual 

System Spa:ilM::Wanmls(each| 5 00 

GijiOi' to 

Dma Biise Managemenl 10 00 

■HDBS maf De expanded al any 
tirne In lull netwo'li aala base 
managemeni system 
MDBSDMS MDBS DDL 



(300 00 
300 00 
150 00 
675 00 
650 00 
35 00 
5.00 
SOO 



HQ SP' 



mended 



■ah 




Norlfi Star DOS and BASIC 
CP M - CBASIC 
CP M - Mic'osoM BASIC 4 XX 
CP M - WTFobc't BASIC '. KX 
CP'M Microiioll BASIC □' 

FOHIflAN Com[)iK>t 
CP M ■ Mi,-tr,-.nt' r(iHUl.-l>0 
CI' M iiil."'.y5t.:i-. I'ASCAt.^'Z 
CP M SiT-iri' I'A^iliAlJIil 
CP M 0'ijit..i "i-.f.,ri^h PL/I 
CP M ■ Mii.-i. '"iji.L]'. CIS 

COBOL 
TqSDOSME'/rtJOS ana TRS 
Disn BAS'C iMo^pis ' ,in'; ih 
Ac'Die DOS fln.T AppiPicjfl HASIC 
WVT FAMOS a-T BASIC 
OA'^iS .in-lOASI? BASIC 
\Ui ' •'•-■■ L.i'iQLi.i'ii' '''nqrami 
.SiH..it, ,„,.. ,,, ,v','»mi 



:-L,l='i InrJ'jnj rmiOffiis .nl.l -I"-.. 

We .iC[;<?pi Visa ^nn Mask-r C'^aige 



iWllcrr 
Data Base 
Sysf cms. f tic. 

Box 248, Lafayette, Indiana 47902 
317-742-7388 or 317-448-1616 




Micro Data Base Systems, Inc. 

Settinq standards of excellence (or data base software. . .worldwide. 



^(pACCOUNIANT 



CP/M and CBASIC software required lo run 
the system are not included. 

Simple payroll systems usually involve a 
combination of automated and manual tech- 
niques. Automation is generally applied to the 
mechanical calculation of the withholding taxes 
and net pay. Check writing and maintenance of 
employee cfunings data must be accomplished 
by hand. Because many devices used for auto- 
mation purposes have the capacity to store the 
payroll data, cumulative totals can be carried 
forward to permit the preparation of required 
tax returns. 

Payroll preparation docs not require comph- 
cated calculations. Most of the parameters are 
defmed by federal, state and local withholding 
charts. Since these charts are usually quite 
short, they can easily be accommodated in 
memory and referenced by a table look-up rou- 
tine. This routine usually converts gross pay to 
an annualized figure by multiplying it by the 
payroll frequency. The resulting figure less ex- 
emptions is referenced to the various tables to 
calculate the tax due. The tax is then divided by 
the same payroll frequency to determine the tax 
required when calculating net pay. For the cur- 
rent pay period these calculations must be per- 
formed for every eligible person on the payroll. 

A series of parameters is supplied for each 
employee to determine which tax table is used 
and which exemptions are to be applied. Typi- 
cally these are specified on the employee earn- 
ings master file. This master file is usually quite 
long and complex. For example, the employee 
master file in the SSG payroll system is almost 
700 bytes long. 

The need for such large Tiles limits the 
amount of data that can be accumulated for 
each employee. For this reason neither Radio 
Shack 's nor the SSG 's payroll system have a de- 
tailed employee earnings history. Both systems 
carry cumulative quarter-to-date and year-to- 
date information only. This can create a prob- 
lem if it is necessary to know payroll data by 
employee for specific pay periods. Otherwise, 
both payroll systems will do an excellent job of 
keeping payroll reccvds. 



Stmilar Fealura 

The features of the two systems are stmilar in 
many respects. Both calculate deductions from 
employee wages for federal income tax with- 
holding. Social Security, state disability and 
state and local income tax. 

Both systems allow you to preload the em- 
jAoyK payroll earnings record with informa- 
tion that remains constant for each pay period. 
If there are no changes, payroll calculations will 
be automatic. Default tax rates for FICA and 
federal withholding tax tables are also provided 
by both. 

The Radio Shack payroll will not handle lo- 
cal income taxes, if withholding is based upon a 
table. It will only handle local income taxes if 
the withholding amount is calculated as a per- 
centage of gross pay of Federal Tax, 

Radio Shack's Model II Payroll package 
uses two special function keys, Fl and F2, to 
control editing and data entry. Because the 
SSG's package was not designed for a specific 



function, keys are not enabled. The control key 
and lettered key combinations are used to allow 
you to call files or update records. 

While the SSG system provides payroll with- 
holding tax tables for New York state and New 
York City, the Model 11 Payroll package pro- 
vides the guidelines to generate the necessary 
tables for all 50 states. 

Payroll data is entered into the SSG system in 
batches. Although the screen presentation and 
data entry phase are relatively cumbersome, the 
number of different items that the system will 
accept is outstanding. Data such as withholding 
tax overrides, special payments and expense re- 
imbursements are easily accommodated. 

The Model II Payroll's data entry screen dis- 
plays the full gross to net calculation. Changes 
are easily made to the necessary fields and the 
calculation is updated instantly. In addition, 
there is a time card calculator mode which al- 
lows you to input daily hours and calculate the 
weekly hours right on the screen, which is a 
great aid to data entry . At the conclusion to the 
data entry phase, a payroll journal can be 
printed . 

In the SSG system the data that is entered 
must be sorted and a batch listing prepared be- 
fore the payroll can be calculated. From a secu- 
rity point of view, separating the data entry 
function and calculation procedure is better. In 
the Radio Shack system it is quite possible to 
edit a payroll after checks are printed, and re- 
print a single check. It is not possible to do this 
in the SSG system. 

Both systems use a preformatted check. 
Checks will have to be ordered that arc compat- 
ible with each system's printing program. Both 
systems print payroll journals, check registers, 
and journal entry data. Both can also be inte- 
grated into a companion general ledger system. 

The SSG program differs in handling payroll 
expense information. In the SSG system it is 
possible to arrange employee payroll expense in 
five categories on a percentage basis. For exam- 
ple, if a employee works half his time in design, 
and half his time in sales, it is possible to dis- 
tribute half his earnings from a sales payroll 
category and the balance from a design payroll 
category. The Radio Shack Model II Payroll 
cannot. Regular timcv overtime, double-time, 
vacation and holiday payroll categories are 
used instead. 



AppHcatioB Umlti 

The lack of a payroll distribution by cost cen- 
ter in the Radio Shack payroll could limit its ap- 
plication in firms with many payroll cost cen- 
ters. The only alternative would be to prepare a 
separate payroll for each cost center, so that 
payroll expense can be charged to the proper 
accounts. 

However, in environments where an analysis 
of gross pay is necessary and overtime pay, va- 
cation, holiday and sick pay must be separately 
identified, the Radio Shack payroll system has 
a clear edge. In the SSG system these items are 
not separately identified. They are combined 
with the FICA and UIT tax expense in deter- 
mining the total salary charge. 

From an accounting standpoint, combining 



salary and non-salary amounts into a single ac- 
count is not desirable. To perform a payroll au- 
dit the pure salary expense figure must be avail- 
able for review. 

Both systems prepare a full spectrum of 
quancrly and annual reports. In addition, mas- 
ter flic printouts and individual employee rec- 
ords are available showing cumulative earnings 
paid, along with other year to date statistics. 
The SSG master file also has provisions for ac- 
cumulating data, such as accrued vacation and 
sick pay. These statistics are not available in the 
Radio Shack payroll. The SSG payroll costs 
S1,2S0 and is available from distributors of 
CP/M systems throughout the country. In or- 
der lo run the payroll, purchase of the CP/M 
operating systems and CBASIC is required. Be- 
cause CP/M for the Model II costs S195 and 
CBASIC costs an additional SI 00, the total cost 
of [he SSG payroll system is a shade over 
SI, 500. The Radio Shack payroll system costs 
less than S400 with slightly fewer features. 

There has to be a powerful incentive lo spend 
the additional SI, 100 for the SSG payroll sys- 
tem. 

The SSG system represents a mature soft- 
ware system which has already been used many 
times. The Radio Shack system, on the other 
hand, is a brand new package. Experience with 
new software products indicates that there will 
probably be a "shakeout" period before all the 
bugs are worked out: Bugs can contribute sig- 
nificantly more than $1,100 of aggravation in 
an industrial environment. 

An example of the care in the SSG system de- 
sign is the use of data files with numbered ex- 
tensions. If a foreign file gets into the system, 
the internal number checking of the operating 
system will indicate that an error has occurred. 
These advanced techniques are generally trans- 
parent to the user, but should an error occur, 
an error message will appear so that recovery 
procedures can begin. 



More Infonnatlon 

Considerably more information is provided 
about the SSG system than the Radio Shack 
system despite the fact that Radio Shack 's has a 
source code listing. The SSG system is also de- 
signed to accommodate additional custom pro- 
grams. If you wish to write a program to aoru- 
mulaie employee earning statistics, it can be in- 
corporated and sdected from the menu. The 
structure of all files and a complete input and 
output tracking of each run is provided for pro- 
gramming. This can also be used to aid restart 
and error correaion procedures. 

While there is no doubt that Radio Shack 
software will also include this data at sometime 
in the future, the payroll documentation pack- 
age is not there yet. It is a good bet that as Ra- 
dio Shack software is distributed to more com- 
mercial environments, the documentation and 
system controls will eventually evolve to the 
same level as the SSG system. 

Although the SSG system represents a more 
mature, flexible and comprehensive system, the 
Radio Shack payroll system, if used with 
knowledge of its limitations, will prove a useful 
accounting tool as well. ■ 



2a • SO Mlcrocomoutina. Octobar 1980 



NOW YOU H;^€ a 
CHOICC OF SOFTWMVC 

FOR YOUR 
MODEL I or MODEL II. 



Structured Systems Group 

Grohom -Dorian 

AAogic Wond 

Digital Research, Inc. 

Osborne/McGraw Hill 

Compiler Systems 

Software Mart Software 

Software-Mart .» 

24092 Pandora St • El Toro CA 92630 

In California Call (714) 7687818 Call Toll Free 1 (800) 854-7115 

OS 24 Hour Service ^^ 

OUR DEST ADS ARE NOT WRrFTEN — THEY'RE RUNMNG ON TRS-dC* 

All Software Mirt Proflitflw */• Mitd on an "M to" baste and wttti -A« Fauns" Pnca* «i»d proQf«m» ara aubiaci to chang* witlKMit no**e»- 
Maglc Wand™ is a Trademark of Small Business Appiicattons. Inc. 



If You've Ever Dreamed of Flying 

These 7 flight simulation programs can take you aloft, into the realm of powered 
flight. We*re Instant Software— Fly UsI 



Night Flight 




May, 1941— The dreaded Axis ballleship, 
the Bismarck, has broken out of the Nonh Sea 
and is now somewhere in the North Atlantic. 
Your mission is to make a nighttime photo 
reconnaissance flight over the Bismarck. These 
photos will help the Admiralty determine the 
extent of damage done to the Bismarck in a 
previous battle and whether the British fleet has 
a chance to sink the German pocket battleship. 

The Night Flight program lets you take-off, 
fly, and land a propeller driven aircraft. You 
can practice approaches and landings with a 
full on-screen display of the landing field infor- 
mation. The instructions with this program can 
practically teach you to fly. 

Somewhere out on the cold, gray North 
Atlantic, the Bismarck tries to elude her pur- 
suers. Your photos are vital. Launch yourself 
into the night sky with the Night Flight pack- 
age. 
OnlerNo. 0117RS9.95 




Ah* Flight Simulation 

Your aircraft is on the runway loaded with 
fuel, instruments feeding the computer a con- 
stant stream of information. 

A glance at your flight screen gives you air- 
speed, altitude, and compass heading. After 
you take-off, the all important Ascent/De- 
scent -Turn /Bank Indicator will tell you the at- 
titude of your aircraft at a glance, whether you 
are climbing, diving or banking into a left or 
right turn. 

Your mission is a shon one. You have a max- 
imum possible range of about 50 miles, on one 
precious tank of fuel. Your objeaive is to take- 
off, fly the aircraft, and land without crashing. 

You may not have been at the controls of an 
aircraft before. The basic flight instructions 
enclosed will be invaluable. Included are ex- 
planations on basic aerodynamics and prin- 
ciples of flight, plus illustrations telling you 
how to recover from dangerous maneuvers. 

Your aircraft will respond rapidly to the con- 
trols, and your movements must be delicate. 
Too much airspeed and your aircraft could ex- 
plode from overstrcss. If the airspeed is too 
slow, you might stall and crash. A clumsy turn, 
and you might find yourself flying upside 
down, fighting to regain control. 

It will take a few hours of flight time, before 
you can take-off and fly a correa flight plan. 
By then you will be expert enough to attempt 
acrobatic maneuvers. 

With Air Flight Simulation and enough 
flight lime, the sky's the limit! 
Order No. 0017R $9.95 




Instant Software 



'" 1M IIS 



Flight Path 

The Flight Path package will let you experi- 
ence all aspects of modern day aviation. 
Mounlain Pilol transforms you into a daring 
bush pilot as you fly badly needed supplies to 
a remote gold mining camp. You'll have to 
cross a hazardous mounlain range, while 
struggling with headwinds, tricky navigation 
and rapidly diminishing fuel. 

Watch your airspeed, altitude and rate-of- 
climb or you could stall-out and crash. If you 
deliver your supplies, you can't relax; you 
must return over those mountains with a 
heavy cargo of gold bullion. 
O'Hare is a control tower simulation where 
you become an Air Traffic Controller. The 
lives of hundreds of people become your 
responsibility as you guide aircraft through 
your control sector to a safe landing. 

You'll have lo deal with different aircraft 
requirements, wind change warnings and 
potential midair collisions. But no matter 
what happens, you must bring in each of the 
twenty aircraft in your tour of duty. 
Precision Approach Radar combines the skills 
of pilot and Air Traffic Controller. You 
become the pilot's "eyes" as they try to land 
in limited visibility conditions. Your com- 
mands guide the aircraft in its approach to the 
field and a safe landing. 

The Flight Path package covers both sides 
of flight procedure, from the thrill of flying to 
the tense drama of air traffic control. 
Order No. 0171R $9.95. 



TO ORDER: Look for these pro- 
grams at the dealer nearest vou (see 
list of dealers on page 206). If your 
store doesn't stock Instant Soft- 
ware send your order with payment 
to; Instant Software, Order Dept., 
Peterborough, N.H. 03458 (Add 
$1.00 for handling) or call toll-free 
1-800-258-5473 (VISA, MC and AE 
accepted). 



Price! subject to change without notice. 

PETERBOROUGH, N.H. 03458 
603-924-7296 



Jet Fighter PUot 

The Jet Fighter Piloi package lakes you as 
close lo real combat riying as possible- - .with- 
out pulling G's. 

In this brilliantly realistic simulation, you 
become the pilot of a high performance, twin 
turbo-jet fighter. Total control of the aircraft is 
yours. 

At the start of your mission, you'll go 
through an entire engine start procedure before 
your night (provided your ground malnienance 
is up to par). Your takeoff will be from either 
ihe deck of an aircraft carrier (via a steam 
catapult) or from an airfield. 

All controls respond the iame as they would 
on a real jet fighter. You'll have to constantly 
monitor your display and make adjustments lo 
your throttle, flaps, rudder and air spoilers. 
You decide when to retraa naps, landing gear 
and release the auxiliary fuel drop-tanks. 

Your on-board navigational computer will 
direct you to your selected airpon. The 
Glidcslopc/ Localizer information will aid you 
in approaching attd landing on an aircraft car- 
rier deck or airfield. 

The Weapons Control Computer will arm 
your missiles, provide you with the range and 
bearing to a target, and lell you when lo attack. 
And, if things should get a little loo hot. you 
have an ejection seat command for egress. 

For a carrier-based landing, you'll have to 
deploy your tail hook. For a land-based land- 
ing, you'll need reverse thru-sl and your drag 
chuie. 

After you've flown a few missions with the 
Jet Fighter Pilot package, you'll know you've 
earned vour wings. 
Order No. 0159R $14.95 







i 




Ball Turret Gunner 



"No personal consideration should stand in the 
way of performing a public duly. " 

A I9ih Century Terran mililary commander 

For years the Petro Resource Conglomerate 
has attacked our photon collection stations and 
strangled our deep-space trade routes. The 
PRC Exxoneraior Class light fighters (code 
rumc: Gnat) have been their main weapon. 
Now you can strike back, by joining the Ball 
Turret Gunner Service. 

Imagine yourself at the control console of an 
LW-1417 Stratoblazer (Type B Strategic Laser 
Weapon^ Your Hindsight Director informs 
you that a Gnat fighter is coming in for an at- 
tack. You pivot your gigawalt laser turret until 
you can see the target on your monitor. The 
Range Indicator shows him coming in fast. The 
Targeting Computer studies his course and 
speed as your finger tenses over the firing key. 
You know you'll have only a fraction of a sec- 
ond in which to react. The tinai fighter's eva- 
sive maneuvers cause him to dance in your 
sights. Suddenly, you sec the FIRF, Command 
and you react instinctively. Your laser beam 
lashes out and reduces the Gnat to an expand- 
ing ball of ionized gas. Mission accomr^ished! 

Ball Turret Gunner, with your choice of mul- 
tiple levels of difficulty, optional sound effects 
and superb graphics, is more than just a game. 
It's an adventure. Experience it! 
Order No. OOSIR $9.95 



Airmail Pilot 

Let the Airmail Pilot package take you back 
to the early days of aviation history. Your 
plane is the Curtis JN4-D, affectionately 
known as the Jenny. You must fly the mail 
from Columbus to Chicago. 

The Jenny carries only 26 gallons of fuel. 
You'll have to stop along the way. Bad 
weather may force you down. Electrical 
storms may turn your aircraft into a mass of 
flaming wreckage, or ice may form on your 
wings and plunge you to certain death below. 
But, the mail must get through. 

The onboard clock will show your elapsed 
time. Your mission is to complete the flight as 
quickly as possible. 

Experience the thrills of flying, when air- 
craft were mere fragile machines of wood and 
fabric, with the Airmail Pilot package. (Scarf 
and flying helmet optional.) 
Order No. 0106R $9.95 



Cosmic Patrol 

WARNING: PLAYERS OF THIS GAME 

SHOULD BE PREPARED FOR A STATE 

OF REALISM HITHERTO 

UNAVAILABLE ON THE TRS-80 

The Cosmic Patrol program puts you in the 
command chair of a small interstellar patrol 
craft. Your mission is to defeat Terran space 
and prey on the Queion supply ships which 
carry essential pans and lubrificants for that 
implacably hostile robotic force. The drone 
freighters are fairly easy pickings for the ac- 
comphshed starship pilot, but beware of ihe 
l-Fighter escons. They're armed, fast and pi- 
loted by intelligent rot>ols linked to battle com- 
puters, Phey never miss. 

The Cosmic Patrol program is not jusi an- 
other search and destroy game. With its fast, 
real-time action, impressive sound option and 
superb graphics, this machine-language pro- 
gram is the best of its genre. 

Don't keep putting quarter after quarter into 
arcade games or spending big bucks for video 
game cartridges. Get Cosmic Patrol from In 
slant Software— and get the best for less! 
Order No. 0223R $14.95 




Instant Software 



PrIcM lubjecT to changa without notic*. 

PETERBOROUGH, N.H. 03458 
603-924-7296 



so REVIEWS 



"'Typical program samples 

include preliminary comments, 

fully annotated source code, 

line by line explanations 

and descriptive notes, " 




Insidt Level II 

Jolu MattBtr uhJ Bryo Momrord 

Mamronl Mkro Systcna 

SoBBMrtawl, CA 

Soflcover, 65 pp. 

S15.9S 

br DmbIi BadKKT Khtz 



Computers like the TRS-80 have somewhat 
dulled our sensitivities. We aoxpt crude 
screen imagery and dream of hi^ resolution 
graphics, which arc still a far cry from fine- 
grained photography. 

Four hundred years of design have given us a 
wealth of elegant typefaces that express the util- 
ity of writing and please the eye, yet we are con- 
tent, even enthusiastic, with the unpleasant dot 
matrix characters on video and printer. We per- 
ceive squawks and bleeps as something reminis- 
cent of music, in spite of composers and per- 
formers who cringe at these frigid sounds. 

It was a refreshing experience to receive In- 
side Level II, a volume of valuable information 
about the TRS-80's ROM, yet immensely 
thoughtful, literate and cleanly designed. 
Mumford Micro Systems may be a small com- 
pany, but it isn't a member of the "type it, copy 
it, bind it in the attic" crowd, represented by 
many shoddily prepared volumes. 

Pioneers though we all may be in this Held, 
we should not permit our aesthetic senses to be 
bludgeoned. For their anistic efforts alone, 
Mumford Micro is to be thanked. 

Inside Level II is the result of a cooperative 
effort by John Blattner and ayan Mumford. It 
presents 18 chapters of detailed descriptions of 
and applications for ROM subroutines and en- 
try points. 

Blattner and Mumford tell us in their intro- 
duction that there is an efHcient scheme for 
linking BASIC and assembly language pro- 
grams: "The result can be a single, smoothly 
joined program that combines the best features 
of both languages - the ease of writing, string 
capability and input-output powers of BASIC, 
together with the speed of execution of assemb- 
ly languages. It is not atypical for 23 percent of 



a given program (written entirely in BASIC) to 
require 95 percent of the operating time. If this 
time-critical part can be rewritten in assembly 
language and efficiently linked to the remain- 
der of the BASIC program, one can enjoy the 
best of both worlds." 

The text begins with a general presentation of 
the way BASIC is organized throughout ROM 
and RAM. Important memory locations and 
the major entry and exit points of ROM sub- 
routines arc detailed. ROM utilities (registers, 
buffers and variables] are covered, and three 
chapters arc dedicated to manipulation of 
numerical data. 

Significant input/output routines are 
carefully explained, and a potpourri of miscel- 
laneous Level II subroutines is also covered. If 
you are looking for a list of the tokens used by 
BASIC, they are in this book; you'll discover 
the easiest ways to send text to the screen, get a 
string of characters from the keyboard and pro- 
duce text on a [Hinter. With each and every rou- 
tine that has a link to the disk system there is a 
boldface paragraph marked "Disk System 
Caution". 

Part Two of Inside Level II applies the ma- 
terial from Pan One, encompassing assemblers 
and monitors, relocating BASIC programs, 
VARPTR use. BASlC-assemblcr program 
hnking, expansion of USR calls from one to 
ten, linking multiple program segments and 
tape load/save. The book concludes with sam- 
ple composite (BASIC/assembly) programs 
and tape utilities to CSAVE/CLOAD compos- 
ite programs at speeds higher than SOO baud. 



Typical program samples include preliminary 
comments, fully annotated source code, line by 
line explanations and descriptive notes. Not- 
withstanding the detail and careful illustration, 
Inside is by no means an easy book. We've all 
heard by now from the purveyors of instant so- 
lutions the problems of learning machine lan- 
guage. There are no tricks. 

Although machine code and assembly lan- 
guage are viewed as drudgery, it's not possible 
to put shortcuts to work unless we have some 
idea of how they function. Consider that BA- 
SIC is already a kind of black box; sudden 
death during string sorting is just one example 
of that. Imagine debugging a BASIC program 
full of ROM subroutines — it's a shortcut to 
madness! Blattner and Mumford say it bluntly: 
"To take full advantage of the information in 
this book requires a knowledge of Z-80 assemb- 
ly language programming." 

It should be noted that Level II is undergoing 
some change and improvement, and newer 
TRS owners will enjoy better performance 
from their computers. Lest these alterations 
should cause some nervousness about (he relia- 
bility of books like Inside Level 11, let me men- 
tion that the changes being made in Level II 
arc, for the most part, refinements and there- 
fore will have little effect on major subroutines. 
Some change is made on cassette loading and 
saving, and a few bugs (remember POKE 
16553,253?) have disappeared. The new edition 
of Stipermap from Fuller Software indicates 
the differences between new and old Level II 
ROMs ■ 



TRS 132 Formatter 
Small Systems Software 
Nrwbory Park, CA 
SI 4.95 

by Hugo T. Jacluoa 

I'^ven before I ordered the TRS 232 Printer 
^Interface from Small System Software, I 
could tell from the description in the adver- 
tisement that I would not be happy with the 
available software needed to run it. 

When compared with the rather impressive 
features of their TRS 232 Formatter program, 
it was obvious that the software sent free with 
the interface unit was just a bare bones pro- 
gram. As a cautionary measure, I order the 
Formatter program at the some time I ordered 
the equipment. 

Because the supplied program makes no at- 



tempt to monitor line lengths, the first program 
I tried to run ended unsuccessfully. My printer 
output the first line of data until it reached the 
end of its carriage, where it stayed, typing letter 
over letter, until my program had kicked out 
what it considered to be the last character in the 
line. So much for the free software! 

Gcttlag There From Het* 

The Formatter program comes complete 
with a seventeen-page comprehensive manual 
which serves as an example of how documenta- 
tion should be presented. After listing all the 
available options, along with a brief description 
of each, it details the loading procedures and 
memory size requirements for the program. 

Having studi«l the manual, I reset my com- 
puter, set the memory size as required and load- 
ed the Formatter (which is a BASIC program). 
When you type run, the program POKEs the 
machine language program into high memory 



32 • 80 Microcomputing. October 1980 



and cycles through the various options. It 
modifies the machine language program now in 
memory to reflect your choices. You can then 
delete the Formatter program and load or run 
any of your own programs. 

What options are available lo you? First of 
all, the Formatter supports nearly every baud 
rate I've ever heard of, and even if your printer 
doesn't accept one of the ten available, the 
manual describes how to modify the program 
in order to create non-standard baud rates. 

If your printer requires a line feed after a car- 
riage return, the Formatter generates one auto- 
matically. If your printer recognizes form 
feeds, it also generates these instead of a num- 
ber of carriage returns or line feeds, to get you 
to the top of a new page. Needless to say, if it 
can execute line feeds, this saves your machine 
a fair amount of wear and tear. 

One of the best features of the Formatter 
program is that it allows you to set the maxi- 
mum line length. If the program you arc run- 
ning exceeds the maximum chosen, the For- 
matter automatically generates a carriage 
return (and line feed if needed), carrying the re- 
mainder of the text onto the next line. 

Hm Early Um Optioii 

Another great feature of the program is the 
"Line l-ength For Early Line Termination." 

Say you have a line in your program that is 
eighty characters long. As your printer has only 
a seventy -column carriage, you have asked for 
a line length of seventy. 

But what if the last word in the line being 
printed is microcomputing! Normally, micr 
would appear at the end of the line and the re- 
maining letters on the following line. 

By taking advantage of the early line option 
and requesting an "intelligent" termination at 
sixty characters, the Formatter program begins 
testing every character from sixty onwards until 
it finds a spatx, comma, colon or semi-colon. If 
and when it does, the program ends the line at 
that point, generates a carriage return, tabs in- 
ward five spaces and prints the remainder of the 
line. This makes for more readable listings. 

If your printer requires nulls before it accepts 
any more characters, the Formatter sends up to 
127 nulls after a carriage return before it con- 




tinues sending text to the printer. 

You can also set the number of lines to ap- 
pear on each page, as well as the number of 
spaces to appear between pages. This cures 
many headaches, as I used to waste plenty of 
paper trying to prevent my printer from print- 
ing lines on the perforations of the paper. 

High on the list of program features is the 
option which directs the Formatter to print the 
same information it is sending to the printer on 
the video monitor. 

If you have disks and can't see yourself giv- 
ing them to me, you should take advantage of 
the next option, which disables interrupu from 
the disk controller. If you don't, any generated 
interrupt destroys the baud rate timing loops in 
the Formatter program, and the result is gar- 
bage. 

Additional Fealnres 

The Formatter program even inserts an auto- 
matic keyboard debout>ce routine. To top it 
off, there are four special features, well worth 
the purchase price in their own right: 

To stop printing for any reason, you need 
only press the space bar. After that, you can 
print a single line at a time by repeatedly push- 
ing the space bar. To return to uninterrupted 
printing, push any other key. 

If the program isn't printing properly, or you 



typed LLIST inadvertently, you can stop the 
listing and return to BASIC simply by pressing 
the break key. No more keyboard lockup! 

If you requested the keyboard debounce rou- 
tine, you also can use the clear key to reset the 
lines per page ojunter, insuring that all your 
listings start at the top of the page. If you didn't 
request the keyboard debounce routine, you 
can still reset the line counter by typing 
LPRINT CHRS(3). 

The Formatter also sends to the printer any 
material that is being primed on the screen (bar- 
ring graphics, of course). Now 1 can use the 
TRON and TROFF functions of Level 11 BA- 
SIC intelligently. 

While they arc great features, 1 am sure 
you'll agree that the line numbers just zip by 
too quickly to be of any practical use. Using 
this feature, 1 can now gel a permanent record 
of where my programs have been wandering. 
This option is enabled by executing LPRINT 
CHRS(1) and disabled by typing LPRINT 
CHRS(2). 

Biting the Hand That Feeds 

My only complaint about the Formatter pro- 
gram is that you cannot set a left-hand margin. 
Admittedly, for such a great program, this is a 
small point, but 1 do wonder why it didn't oc- 
cur to them. ■ 



Inseq-M and Insorl-W 
SAM Systenu, Inc. 
Martboro, MA 
TIt&40 32 and 4SK Dbk 
S49.95 

by Oennli Thurlow 

As the darkness slowly parts and the mys- 
teries that have so long enshrouded the 
TRS-80 disk arc revealed, more and more good 
utility packages arc frnding their way to 
market. These packages tend to be for the soft- 
ware developer rather than the end-user as they 
require a working knowledge of disk formats 
and machine language routines. Inseq and In- 
sort arc no exception to the rule. 

The "buy-me" on the (X»ver of the S&M 
package sayi, "A must for anyone writing busi- 
ness programs." At best this is an understate- 
ment. These routines are so fundamental to the 
handling of disk files it's hard to understand 
why Microsoft didn't include them in the Disk 
BASIC. 

Inseq uses six variables, two of which are 
subscripted, and four string variables, two of 
which are also subscripted, as well as USER 
functions one through six. Two invisible bytes 
are also added to each file. 

Swttc Variables 

Inson uses the same variables and memory 
that must be protected when BASIC is entered. 
It uses USER7 temporarily. Both programs 
were written to work with NEWDOS or VTOS. 
(If you have TRSDOS, you have to do a little 
rewriting.) The rewrites are well documented. 
The only thing that might be called a bug is that 



neither system will allow you to specify a drive 
for files you are creating, unless the file name 
has an extension. 

The Indexed Sequential Access Method 
loads into high memory before BASIC is en- 
tered and the controlling BASIC program is 
built by another BASIC program on the disk. 
You may also access the functions by USER 
calls from your own program if you don't want 
to use theirs. You can read files sequentially, or 
refer to them by an index for reading, writing 
or deleting. A housekeeping funaion makes 
sure all files arc closed and parameters arc re- 
set. A Data Base Utility allows you to conven 
already existing files to indexed sequential 
ones, lets you set up empty files to fill later, 
create a file by key from another file, and purge 
and reorganize files on a single disk system. 

Insort allows ascending and descending sorts 
for ASCII or numeric fields. Any record length 
up to 253 is supported; keys can be any length 
up to full record size; sorts can be done on as 
many keys as memory will allow. The number 
generally faUs between 36 and 40. A BASIC 
program can be generated to make the calls for 
you, or you can call them yourself with USER. 
The generated program allows you to make up 
to five CMD calls and/or automatically call up 
the next BASIC program from disk. 

Son times are admirable: 3000 files with 10 
character keys can be sorted in 17 minutes, 50 
files in 35 seconds. The screen constantly tells 
you how the sort is progressing. 

Both ulibties have extensive error trapping 
and flagging. Both are easy to use after a little 
practice with the demonstration flies provided 
on the disk. For TRS-80 dua file processing, 
both are a must!H 



80 Microcomputing, October 1980 • 33 



CP/M®' - based Business Software forTRS-80®^ computers on . 
. . . the fastest Mod-ll CP/M with the most featuresll! 



Over 610,000 bytes/disk 
Downloading package included 
1,200 baud operation of serial 
printers without data loss 
Single drive backup 



Mixed single/double density on any 
of 4 drives (even a l -drive system) 

Ultra-fast disk operation 

Emulation of cursor addressing for 
any of several "dumb" CRTs 



Auto-LF printer support A ASCII 
top-of-form software (LPIII) 

Supplemental document describing 
our implementation 

User-seltable function keys 



MOD-IICP/M $250-00 MOD- 1 CP/M $150.00 CBASICZ*^ (Mod I or II) $110,00 

The following software for Mod-ll CP/M only unless otherwise stated ('-requires CBASIC2): 

MAGIC WAND*' - Full-feature word processing, true proportional 
spacing, file merging, and use of full-screen editor for source 

programs or data $400.00 

RPAIResidentialPropenyAnalysisJ-Analyzes income and expense, 
financing, taxes, inflation and depreciation on home, condo, or 
apartments over a user-selectable time. SKows payoff in terms ot 
ROI, Cap rate, cash-on-cash, Amortization schedules and 
worksheet $300 00* 

demo disk & manual 35 00" 

RBC (Rent/Buy Comparison) - Sales or investment tool to compare 
renting and savings account Investment vs. purchasing a particular 
property $250,00- 

demo disk & manual 35.00* 



RM/CGBGL'^ - Only COBOL for CP/M with alternate keys (multi- 
key ISAM), CRT screen handling, interactive debug. ZBO code, and 
trie most useful Level 2 features. Compatible with Tandy's 

COBOL-but runt laatari $495.00 

PMS (Properly Management System) - Interactive, menu-driven 
system includes full G/L, budgeting, cash journal, delinquency 
list, tenant activity/rent roll, complete audit trail and reports 

on vacancies, lost rent, and vendors $650.00* 

demo disk & manual 75.00* 

APH (Automated Patient History) - General-purpose question- 
asking, answer-printing system furnished as self-administered 
review-of-systemsgeneral patient history (Mod-I also) . .. $175.00' 



Osborne & Assoc. CBASIC source programs (Mod-I also): 

Payroll w/Cost Accounting $250.00' Ganeral Lsdgar w/Cash Journal $250 00* 

Accta. Payabla/Accti. Racalvabia $250.00* OSA CBASIC Books (ea.) $ 20.00 

\fefbailm*'' media: (Qty. 100 prices) 

5V«" single density S2.50 ea. 

8" certified double density $4.00 ea. 



8" single density $ 3.00 ea 

450' tape cartridges $20.00 ea. 




EL«IN 



ATII^ICIS. 
N 



8041 Newman Ave., Suite 208 
Huntington Beach, CA 92647 
(714)848-1922 



Registered trademark of: 
'^Digital Research 
"^Tandy Corp. 
"•^Compiler Systems. Inc. 

•■^Ryan-McFarland Corp. 

*^Small Business Applications, Inc. 

"■verbatim Corp. 



^ 



Distributed in U.K. by: 

Microcomputer Applications Ltd. 

1 1, Riverside Court, 

Caversham, Reading, England 

TEL: (0734) 470425 



SAY MERRY CHRISTMAS #i 



with 






T M. 



microcomputing 



Give all your friends who own a TRS-80* the best possible Christmas present — 80 
jSAicrocomputing. 80 Microcomputing is the only journal devoted to the TRS-80* and 
itsers . . . the only journal pack^H^Bte views, programs, applications and hundreds 
"of dollars worth of software. 80 Microcomputing — the best idea for Christm. 




34 • 50 Microcomputing, October 1980 



Micro Miuk 
Radio Shack 
Tandy Corponitk>n 
Fl. Wonh, TX 
$9.95 

by Allan S. Joffc 

Nothing is forever. You have just played 
your tenth version of Star Trek and 
relaxed with a binary to hex program. Now the 
blahs have set in. The sure cure is lo treat 
yourself to a cassette of Micro Music by Radio 
Shack. 

This package gives you musical notes in- 
cluding sharps, flats and naturals over five oc- 
taves. 

You control the music's tempo with rests, 
tremolos, triplets and staccato notes. There are 
also a number of voice modifying commands 
that change the timbre of the music. 

Innovattoiu 

The documentation is adequate, but. as 
usual, it leaves out some surprises, which prove 
that Murphy will never be forced to the 
unemployment office while computers exist. 
For example, if you program a trill as 
(9TA8B8A8B8). it will trill nicely for about two 
seconds. If you accidentally leave a space be- 
tween the opening parenthesis and the 9, the 
trill will last for about '10 seconds. 

If you enter ((9TA8B8A8B8))— adding an 
opening parenthesis and an additional closing 
parenthesis— the program goes on forever 
unless you break it by holding down one of the 
arrow keys. 

You can turn this bit of adversity into seren- 
dipity by trying the following program: 
((9TC4R8C4R8C4R8CR8)). When you play 
this, the result is a Morse code V that will go on 
forever. This is a simple way to make a V-test 
tape, if that has been the missing element be- 
tween you and happiness. 

If you would like a snappier V, you can 
change the expression as follows: 
((9TC8R8C8R8C8R8C2R8)). and if you want 
to change the tone of the V, you can insert one 
of the tone modifiers such as L, Y or Z between 
the 9 and the T. 

Limilalioiis 

If your musical selections act peculiar or even 
weird, look out for inadvertent spaces after 
opening parenthesis and, the worst offender of 
all, an accidentally inserted closing parenthesis. 
This latter beast will usually cause a slow tem- 
po, a batch of notes that you know you did not 
insert into the original effon. 

If you have to interrupt the program while it 
is playing, use the right arrow key only. If you 
lose sight of the blinking asterisk, which is your 
location guide on the screen, find it by using the 
up arrow key only. Using the down arrow key 
to locate a missing cursor generally results in 
having to reload the system cassette. 

There is another limitation worth mention- 
ing. You do not have unlimited space to write 
your song. You have exactly 16 full lines of 
characters before you start writing over the top 
line. This is only destructive if you are busy 
transcribing a Bach fugue and forget to watch 



the screen! 

With careful keyboard work, some study 
and the ability to read music, you can enjoy this 
fine extension of your TRS-80 and Tandy's 
never-ending fight to educate, instruct and, 
now, amuse. 

The sample listing in the documentation is a 



real tour de force presentation of the "Flight 
of the Bumblebee." It's well worth the effort to 
key it in and then play with the tone modifiers, 
particularly the Z modifier. If you are old 
enough, it will bring back memories of the 
"Green Hornet."! 



Mlcnh«poly 

D. Perrin 

LevH IV Products, Inc. 

Uvonia, Ml 

By Alan and Nkk Grassel 

One of the nice things about computer 
games is that they usually eliminate the 
aggravating paper shuffling and bookkeeping 
that take the fun out of a game. 

With Micro-opoly you get the added bonus 
of an honest banker. It is written in BASIC for 
TRS-80 Level II with at least 16K. 

The single sheet of typeset instructions, will 
not answer all of your questions about the 
games operation. 

As it stands, if the computer wins the roll of 
the dice, and goes first, you will probably find 
yourself shouting, "Whoa, wait a minute!" 
You can figure out what's happening, but it 
was the job of the program author to dehneale 
this in his instructions. 

The program and documentation also 
assume you already have an understanding of 
the board game Monopoly. 

Your answers are entered through INKEYS. 
The H command is to access the information 
displays. The computer can either display a 
specific propeny you request or it can display a 
rundown of both opponents' holdings. You 
can use these information displays to help you 
plan strategy. 

New zoning ordinances were passed for this 
game. You do not need to own all the property 
in a color sequence to build on any square you 
own, except railroad or utility. 

Though the computer is limited to buying 
houses for only one property at a time, you can 



buy up to four houses or a hotel for as many 
squares as your bankroll will allow. This is a 
cash-only society. No credit allowed. 

If you land on computer property, you'll 
have to pay rent . The computer displays ' 'YOU 
LANDED ON ( name )" and it flashes the 
property name. Then it displays "THAT 
COSTS YOU ($)". 

If you are forced into a negative cash situa- 
tion by any payments the computer requires 
you to sell houses or hotels until you have a 
positive cash balance. You also have the option 
of continuing to sell property until you have 
sufficient cash on hand to feel safe. 

Prognnnming Differences 

There's a little programming quirk involved 
in the property purcha.sing which should be ex- 
plained here. To add houses, enter the number 
you wish to add. To upgrade to a hotel, you 
must enter 5, although four houses plus one 
equals a hotel in Monopoly. 

Other rule departures from the Parker 
Brothers' board game. Monopoly, require 
automatic and immediate payments when you 
land in jail; houses are sold back to the bank for 
full price (not half price); rolling doubles three 
times in a row will not send you to jail; you can- 
not sell or trade property squares; there is no 
Get Out of Jail Free card; and Free Parking is 
the repository of all funds which normally go to 
Poor Tax, Hospital Bills, etc. The first player 
to land on Free Parking gets the money as a 
bonus. 

Purists will decry the changes, but for the 
most pan it leads to an interesting game with a 
reasonable time frame. And there's no arguing 
about who picks up the game and puts it 
away. ■ 



IMYPROPI-RTY 11385 








•YOUR PROPERTY 11500 


NOISSS PROI'tRTY i IHOUStS 






NO"" PROPERTY ■ fHOUStS 


1 MED AV 





4 


BALTIC 





6 READ* 


3 OWNED 


9 


VT.AVt 


a 


1 ORIENT 





12 


CHARt Y 





10 -CONN 


n 


n 


ELEC 


10 X DICES 


14 STATES 





15 


VA.AVE 





Ih PENN » 


3 OWNED 


n 


JAMES 





19 .TENN- 





u 


K Y.AVE 





20 NY.AVt 





26 


B&Ot 


1 owNtn 


24 INDAV 





17 


ATLANT 





25 ILL.AV 





n 


VENTNR 





JO MARVIN 





29 


WATER 


10 X DICES 


n PACIF- 


1 


3! 


PA.AVE 





n NC.AVE 





38 


PARKPL 





16 SAL 1 


] OWNED 


40 


BWAIK 







Fig. 


/. Specific Property Display 





80 Microcomputing. October 1980 • 35 



^REVIEWS 



Modd 440 Piper Tiger 
iBtctral Dmti SjrstcMS, Ik. 
Natick, MA 
S995 tlBMlanl prlalcf 
$1094 wttk grapkk optioa 

by James H. Sbcata 

When it became obvious that my printer 
was inadequate, I started looking for a 
new one. Naturally, I wanted as good a printer 
as possible. Dealers whom I asked declared that 
Integral Data Systems' Brighter Writers had 
performed satisfactorily with only minor 
breakdowns. They recommended the IDS 
Model 440 Paper Tiger. 

Rmovablc Caic 

The Tiger has an attraaive, removable mold- 
ed plastic case. It can be removed by twisting 
four knurled retainer nuts. 



Ail of the controls are reached through cuts 
in the plastic case or are mounted on the metal 
back plate of the printer. A fuse socket, a 113 
V-230V selector switch and the main power 
switch are all found on the back plate. There 
are no unguarded openings, so even a clumsy 
fellow like me can reach behind the printer for 
the switch with relative safety. 

In the top of the case on the right are the 
offline/online switch and a form feed/line feed 
switch. The printer must be offline while the 
"sdf-tcst" is administered or any form feed ad- 
justments arc made. On the left side of the trac- 
tor are the formsct/test switch and two banks 
of seven DIP switches. 

The right position of the formset/test switch 
is the self-test pattern. As long as the switch is 
held to the right, the printer prints full line 
lengths of the 96 ASCII charaaer^ at the select- 
ed print density. This part of the sdf-^eu also 
helps the user align the paper. 



Malllbt 
PAR Sales 

SKramealo, CA 95S1Z 
S39.95 

by Chris Browa 
SO Staff 

There you sii with a substantial investment 
in computer hardware, wondering how to 
make it pay its share of the rent. Everyone tells 
you it's easy to get rich using computers, but 
nobody you know is close to breaking even. 
Then, along comes Richard Alva from DAR 
^ales. 

He says you can make some bucks with your 
machine by providing a service sorely needed in 
your community. This service involves 
performing a rather simple, but dreary task, 
generating mailing labels. 

Ideal computer stuff, eh? 

With DAR software and Alva's business tu- 
telage, you will be able lo establish and main- 
tain mail lists for local businesses and organiza- 
tion. The result: instant money for you and 
your computer. Sound too good to be irtic? 
Maybe it is, since the success is in the selling, 
and Richard Alva leaves that to you. 

Alva Has a Belter Idea 

Richard Alva has had a better idea. Instead 
of going through the hassle of selling his soft- 
ware directly to users, he has gone a step further 
and produced a business package for com- 
puterists. It is up to them to fmd and then sell 
their users. 

The package is called Maillisi and comes 
with software documentation and 100 promo- 




tional letters. Alva's intention is that these will 
be used to drum up interest in the service. He 
even includes an instruction manual detailing 
how [o set up your business. 

The author has calculated the costs involved 
in supplying the service and offers a suggested 
price list: ten cents for entering a three-line 
name and address; add three cents if a special 
code is used; add five cents if remarks are 
entered, etc. 

You say you haven't got a printer? Wdl, 
don't worry. Richard Alva has thought of that 
too. J ust copy your data tapes or disks and send 
them to DAR. For a nominal fee (three cents 
per label), Alva will do the printing for you. 
The same is true for sorting. Normal program 
sort priority is by zip code but, if necessary, 
DAR will sort your data in other formats. 
Again, for a nominal fee. 

The Software 

The program cassette supplied has two pro- 
gram dumps. The first is a 32K, disk-based ver- 
sion of Maillisi, the second is a 16K tape-based 
version. The disk version requires only one 
drive and most of the additional memory re- 
quired for the disk version is taken up by 
operating system instructions. 

Th< Maillist program creates three files on a 
disk. Each file is capable of holding up to 125 
names and addresses, and entries are coded to 
the disks. Each disk can hold 37S entries. The 
user manual provides detailed instructions for 
opening, changing and deleting entries in the 
files. The step-by-siep intructions seem clear 
enough for the most novice of operators. 

A file son time in the standard zip code for- 
mat takes only 15 minutes, according to Alva. 

1 f you think you have a knack for selling and 
want to get a sideline going, DAR's Maillist 
package can give you a start. It comes with a 
30-day, money back guarantee, if not fully 
satisfied, and a promise from Richard Alva 
that you will earn at least ten dollars an hour 
for your trouble. If he can sell you, maybe you 
can sell too.l 




Part of the sdf-tcst is supposed to occur 
automatically upon power up. ^xmtaneously 
printed characters presumably indicate a mal- 
function. 

Both paper tractors are continuously ad- 
justable, so odd-sized paper widths can be han- 
dled, as well as the more common widths, up to 
a maximum of nine and one-half inches. A 
paper roll holder is available as an option. 

Two sets of DIP switches control the remain- 
ing adjustable features of the printer. Though 
plainly marked, they are small and close 
together, and you might easily move more than 
one switch at a time. 

Switches one and two on the left bank con- 
trol the adjusuUe print sizes— 8.3, 10, 12 and 
16.3 charaaers per inch. The print line is eight 
iiKhes long, making the line length 66, 80, 96 or 
132 characters, rcspectivdy. The printer ig- 
nores changes in these two DIP switches, unless 
the main power switch is turned off. It is prob- 
ably a good idea to turn off the main power 
switch while reconfiguring any of the DIP 
switches. 

Switch three selects an eight-line per inch or a 
six-line per inch vertical spacing. Letters and 
normal printing can be at six lines per inch, 
while manusCTipts and other matter requiring 
double spacing can be printed at eight lines per 
inch to make them less wasteful of paper. 

Switch four enables or disables a one-inch 
skip at form boundaries. I have found this 
feature useful for program lisbngs. 

Switch five enables or disables an automatic 
hne feed with carriage returns. If a TRS-80 pro- 
gram was originally written for a printer 
without an automatic line feed, the necessary 
line feeds were probably incorporated in the 
program, and this switch must be disaUed. The 
Electric Pendl defmitdy requires that this 
switch be off. 

The Paper Tiger utilizes a 7 x 7 dot matrix 
with upper and lowercase letters. Its speed 
varies with character size, but is in the 30-100 
characters per second range. This is fast enough 
for most hobby use. 

No Mcduakal Fdlara 

Overall mechanical performance of my 
Paper Tiger is excellent . I have had no 
mechanical breakdowns that required service. 

1 have had certain software problems operat- 
ing the Tiger in conjunction with my TRS-80, 
thou^. I found out that TAB characters do 
not work past the 63rd character in a printer 
bne. There are, of course, programming alter- 
natives to the TAB command. 

Once my Tiger hung up on a program listing. 
The BASIC line that caused the trouble was a 
long, multi-statement one. I simply broke the 
line into several lines of BASIC and had no 
more trouble of this nature. ■ 



X ' 80 MfcrocompuUng, Octobf 1980 



TRS-80* OWNERS: 

• Let the computer write your "Basic" 
program ter you! 

• Draw pictures, animatod figures, data 
terms! 

• Create a library of display forms! 

• Produce "Commercial" gradesoftware! 




Gam- ^ . • . 

Writer * * 

.A— •**>' . 



The Magic Cunor is a Revolutionary Family of Products wtiich 
provides a dramatic new method of reproducing drawings and displays 
that you create on your screen. It makes both simple displays and 
complex interactive data input forms. It stores a "BASIC PROGRAM" 
on disk (or tape) ready lor you to execute alone or as a subroutine It 
produces screens in tjoth standard or wide screen. 

It is available for any level 2. 16K or larger system with tape or disk. 
An optional version is now available which creates an assembly 
language program. 

Be sure to pick out the system that fits your present needs and 
order it today. You may upgrade your original copy by paying ttie 
difference and a moderate service charge. 



MAGIC CURSOR PROGRAMS 

THE MAOIC CURSOR allows you to easily create screens (including 
graphics] on your video A powerful command then generates the 
BASIC instructions to recreate the screen. For the first time, a program 
tor automatic generation of video display forms. (16K Tape or 
Disk) $24.95 

THE MAGIC CURSOR I additionally makes sophisticated Data Entry 
and Display easy With Uagic Cursor I you define the Data Entry or 
Display fields directly on your screen The definition commands 
generate The BASIC instructions to Implement the Data Entry and 
Display The Magic Cursor I has commands which move, center, and 
duplicate blocks of graphical or alpha/numeric displays. You can even 
justify text, (16K Tape Only) $79.95 

THE MAGIC CURSOR II adds the power to write animated games 
easily m BASIC The Magic Cursor II allows you to reload previous 
screens either from memory or from Disk You can then modify tfwm 
and store either the modified screen or only the changes. (32K Disk 
Only) $99.95 

THE MAGIC CURSOR III will be available soon tor the new Model II 
Computer (32K One or more Disk) $149.95 

THE MAGIC CURSOR IV provides the features of Magic Cursor II but 
stores an assembly language program. (32K Disk Only) ... . $99.95 



WRITE FOR OUR COMPLETE 
SOFTWARE CATALOG!! 



P 



CUSTOM COMPUTER CENTER, INC. 

For ordering or information write 

P O Box 58042 / Houston, Texas 77058 

Attn Jim Martens 

or call (713) 474-2484 



t-T 



NEW RELEASES FROM CCC!!! 



Now available for the first timelllll 

A Monitor/Trace program with versions (or lx>th 

Model I and Model ii. 



Trace-so 



TRACE-W lets you ot>serve the inner working of a machine 
language program. It allows you to run a machine language program m 
slow motion and watch the screen. You can stop execution at any time 
and examine the current instruction mnemonic and all register 
contents You can execute your program and watch each instruction 
mnemonic and register contents list to the screen in place of normal 
screen display. 

If you have a printer, TRACE-BO allows you to execute your 
program in slow motion and watch the screen while your printer 
simultaneously prints the machine code being executed, the memory 
location and the instruction mnemonic along with the current register 
contents. 

You can execute a machine language program in slow motion. 
freeze the action, examine and/or change memory, examine and/or 
change register contents and then continue ttie slow motion You can 
speed up past common routirws and slow down to examine other 
routines in detail or operate in single step mode. 

TRACE-SO allows you to trace nOM as well as RAM because 
instructions are emulated in a special execution buffer. 

FEATURES: 

* For both tieginner and advanced programmer 

* More than 20 commands. 

* Trace-so is written In machine language. 

* Traces both ROM and RAM. 

* Level II or Mod I Disk operation. 

* Model II Disk version available. 

* Optionally prints only "Transfer and Control" instructioni. 

* Full speed, slow speed or freeze execution modes. 

* Memory can be displayed/modified. 

* Register contents can t>e displayed/modified 

* l-tex. ASCII and mnemonic display modes 

* Abreviated or full printer format 

* Serial printer output if desired. 

* Option of normal screen display, memory display, trace display or 

clear screen. 

* Learn assembly language programming as well as machine coding 

by watching actual code execution and see assembly language 
mnemonic. 

PARTIAL LIST OF COMMANDS: Load disk file. Trace, Slow Motion 
Execution. Full Speed Execution. Freeze Action, Single Instruction 
Execution. Examine and/or Oispfay memory. Examine and/or Display 
Register Contents, Enable/Disable Screen, Enable/Disable Printer, 
Ascii or Hex Display, Full Screen Memory Display. Line Printer 
Commands, etc 

TRACE-80/MO0-I (for Level II or DOS Operation) $29.95 

Supplied on tape with 3 versions (16K, 32K or 48K). Complete with 

instructions. 

TRACE-80/MOD-II $49.95 



The Restauranteur's Consultant 

by T^ Hafderman 

This food and beverage management tool dramatically reduces 
the human factors in food cost analysis Those tasks required to 
effectively operate any restaurant or (ood service business. Over a half 
dozen reports give uniform, accurate and up to the minute information 
lor profitability And, handling of daily cost changes requires only 
minutes per week instead of hours, because the Consultant makes all 
the necessary conversions from your case prices Reports include 
1 Menu Recipes 5. Food Coat Summary 

2. Ingredient Listing. g. Input Data Sheets. 

3. Supplier Master File. 7. Batch Update 

4. Complete Listing of Food Cost Analysis 

Mod 1, 32K, 2 Disk, Printer or Mod 2 $750.00 



'Trademark of Radio Shack a Tandy Co 



^RetO^r Swvice—set page 226 



80 Microcomputing. October 1980 • 37 



ScannetJ by Ira Goldklang - vvvvw.trs-80.com 



T ¥v.«-ir\: 



J,, 




v'430 






HAVE WE 

GOT A PROGRAM 
FOR YOD! 



The new computers are showing off. 
Over $50 million worth of equipment in over 100.000 
square feet of space, including the latest software and hard- 
ware for business, government, home and personal use. Every- 
thing the NCC show has and more will be on display, and you can 
buy it all right on the spot. 

Computers costing $150 to $250,000, mini and micro com- 
puters, data- and word-processing equipment, telecommunica- 
tions, office machines, peripheral equipment and services from 
leading names in the industry like IBM, Xerox, Radio Shack 
and Apple will all be there. 

There'll be conferences on business uses of small to 
medium sized computers, and how to make purchasing 
evaluations. 

There'll be robots, computenzed video games, 
computer art and computer music. 

Everyone from kids to people who earn their liv- 
ing with computers will have a great time at the larg- 
est computer show ever organized in each region. 
Admission for adults is $5. The public is 
invited, and no pre-registration is necessary 
■r=jp Don't miss the computer show that 

- --_r '_iri__— . mixes business with pleasure. Show 
="-—"■•= — ■ - up for the show. 






WASHINGTON, D.C. 

D.C. ARMORY/STARPLEX 

THURSDAY-SUNDAY 

SEPTEMBER 18-21 

HAM TO 9 PM THURS-SAT 
11AM T05PM SUN 






CHICAGO 

Mccormick PLACE 

THURSDAY-SUNDAY 
OCTOBER 16-19 

11 A, M T09PM THURS-SAT. 
11 A.M. TO 5 PM. SUN 









Produced by National Computer Shows, 

824 Boyiston Slreel, Chestnut Hill, MA 02167. 

Telephone (61 7) 739-2000- 

Please send me; 



BOSTON 

HYNES AUDITORIUM 

PRUDENTIAL CENTER 

THURSDAY-SUNDAY 

NOVEMBER 20-23 

HAM TO 9 PM THURS-SAT 
11 A.M. TO 5 PM SUN 



adult tickets at $5 each I have enclosed the proper amount of $ 

D Information on Ihe show's conference program 
D Hotel registfalJon information D Exhibitor rental information 



Please pnni Name. 



Address . 
Oty 



. Slate . 



.ap. 




DB-9S00 Une Printer 
Anadex, Inc. 
Chalsworth.CA 91311 
S1650 Model I CompaUMe 



by Uward E. Umlor 



The DB-9500 is one of [he betier designs 
among dot matrix primers on ihe market. 
Some of its features include: 

• I/O Parallel, serial and current loop inter* 
faces, all built in; 

• Type: two fonts available (norma! size 9x9 
and condensed size 7x9) for 10, 12 and 13.3 
characters per inch, and six or eight lines per 
inch (double width format is also available in 
both fonts); 

• Speed: from 1 50 CPS lo 200 CPS, depending 
on type selected; 

• Paper: 1.75 to 16.87! inch, edge punched, 
single weight from 15 to 100, or multipart 
thickness of 0.018 inches maximum; 

• Ribbon: enclosed cartridge; 

• Graphics: individual dot addressable in 7 x 1 
format (each character is one dot wide and 0-7 
dots high. 

All parameters (except I/O format) are soft- 
ware selectable as well as switch selectable. The 
DB-9500, selected for parallel (Centronics for- 
mat) operation, was hooked up to our TRS-80 
word-processing system and fired up. The 
printer performed correctly on the first run. 
The printer ready line prevents data from going 
to the printer prematurely so that all characters 
are printed. We had the 2K optional RAM in- 
stalled for a total of 2.7K FIFO buffer. 

The print quality is very good in both fonts 
and is crisp and clear. The lever with detent 
stops at the left side of the carriage controls the 
distance of the prim head from the platen. Set 
the lever for m^imum separation to load Ihe 
paper more easily and then set it back for the 
correct impact pressure. This is a much better 
arrangement than the fixed gap method used by 
most printers. 

Its operation is almost flawless. We were 
running a mail list on our MSI computer, with 
the perforation skip set at one inch. On each 
new page, the top two lines did not have the 
correct separation. This might have been 
caused by paper drag as the paper came out of 
its box. When half an inch skip setting was 
used, there wasn't a problem with paging.! 



Microline-80 

Okidala 

Mount Laurel, NJ 

$800 

by Gary L. Osburn 



I was recently faced with the $64 question 
(or in this case, the $1000 question): Out of 
the dozens of printers available for use with the 
TRS-80. which one would be the best for me? 
1 was infected with the micro-bug aboui two 
years ago and found that the only treatment 
was massive doses of Z-80! When 1 decided to 
take the plunge, the lack of ready cash meant 
that the habit had to be self-supporiing. 1 
started a small consulting service for develop- 
ing custom software and needed a printer that 
emulated any of several printers that my clients 
were using. The primer had to look like it 
printed 40. 80 or 132 columns. 

The Okidala 

At the National Computer Conference in 
Anaheim I found an Okidata display. In one 
corner of the display was a sleek little box sit- 
ting on a pedestal spitting out fact sheets at 
SOcps . I thought it particularly effective lo have 
the printer printing its own specifications. 

The printer is impressively small. Its vital 
statistics are 13.4 inches wide x 9.4 inches deep 
X 4 inches high. Apparently the trick to pro- 
ducing such a small printer is the low mass print 
head. Energy is stored in tension members 
wailing to fire extremely hard print pins on de- 



mand. This translates into low heat and longer 
life. The company is so sure of the longer life 
that it guarantees the print head for 2,000.0(X} 
characters. 

The printer produces 162 lines per minute (80 
column format ) and can print either six or eight 
lines to the inch. This can be a real paper saver! 

Extremely clear characters are printed in a 
9x7 dot matrix. The character set is the ASCII 
standard % characters (upper and lowercase) 
and features block graphics! This capability 
allows for all sorts of clever printing possibili- 
ties. (See Table 1.) 

The printer comes standard with friction and 
pin feed (ten-inch pins). A tractor drive mecha- 
nism is available for $ 1 40 and simply snaps into 
place when it is needed . It can be removed when 
it is not. 

You can use the inexpensive roll paper for 
most of your work, and still have the tractor 
when needed. Incidentally, standard Teletype 
paper available at most office supply shops is a 
lot cheaper than what Radio Shack sells. 

Speaking of supplies, the Microline-80 uses a 
standard two-inch typewriter ribbon that you 
can pick up almost anywhere for less than two 
bucks! 

Using the Microline-80 is a real dream. There 
were no installation problems whatsoever, the 
ribbon connector sent with the unit fit perfect- 
ly, and the connection pins required no rewir- 
ing. The quality of the print really helps when 
looking for that hard to find bug. Though the 
lowercase letters do not have below the line de- 
scenders, the print is definitely of letter quality. 
Consider the Microline-80. ■ 



This is a sample of 80 column Pr 


i nt i 


ng: 


flBCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ12345&7S90 


abcdefshi J k 1 mnopqrstuvwxyz 




This is a suple of 132 coium printim: 






ABCDEFGHIJKL]fi]PQRSTUWXyZ123&5E789e!mft' {)*{) 


?.. ZIP- 




abcdeffhi jklMKipqrstuvmrz 






THIS PRINTING IS DONE PT 6 LINES 


PER 


INCH 


THIS PRINTING IS DONE AT B LINES 


PER 


INCH 


THIS PRINTING IS DONE ftT 6 LINES 


PER 


INCH 


THIS PRINTING IS DONE AT 8 LINES 
THIS PRINTING IS DONE ftT 8 LINES 
THIS PRINTING IS DONE fiT 8 LINES 
THIS PRINTING IS DONE AT 8 LINES 


PER 
PER 
PER 
PER 


INCH 
INCH 
INCH 
INCH 


GRfiPHICS AT 80 COLUMNS 






:.^ff!MM.\!ji^^ 


HV. 




r 




Microline-80 Output (Actual Size) 







80 Microcomputing, October 1980 • 39 



THE ASSENBIY IINE 



by William Barden, Jr. 



'*r/ic scheme for creating 

one large program with EDTASM/ 

Apparat is to keep adding 

source code lines as required. " 



This month we'll be discussing editor/ 
assemblers for the Model 1 and 11 and 
more about SET/RESET. 

Radio Shack's Disk Editor/ Assembler, a 
macro assembler that produces relocatable 
modules, differs from EDTASM, the cassette 
based Radio Shack Assembler and from the 
Apparat version of EDTASM, in the following 
areas: 

1. It produces relocatable object modules 
that must be "linked-loaded." 

2. It allows some limited macro capability. 

3. It has some format differences in the 
pseudo-op area. 

4. It allows some additional pseudo opera- 
tions relating to titling, page formatting, 
and so forth. 

The assembler does basically the same job as 
the Apparat assembler, taking a source assem- 
bly program in standard Z-80 mnemonics and 
translating it into object code, operating with 
disk flics for source and objea. A source pro- 
gram for the disk assembler will look virtually 
identical to one for EDTASM or the Apparat 
assembler. The difference lies mainly in how it 
goes about producing the source code. 

Relocatabk Modules vs. One Prognun 

The scheme for creating one large program 
with EDTASM/Apparat is to keep adding 
source code lines as required. Within the source 
code, you can structure separate program mod- 
ules. A large assembly language program 
would probably have many separate subrou- 
tines with defmed inputs and outputs, and sev- 
eral levels of routines, as shown in Fig. 1. 

All the code, however, would be within one 
source file. There would be no problem refer- 
encing a label in one part of the program from 
another part , as the assembler would have built 
up a symbol table of all labels used in the pro- 
gram. 

TTiis scheme of one huge program is fine ex- 
cept for two gremlins, memory size and divisi- 
bility. 

As RAM is being used to hold the source 
code and the symbol table, there is a limit to the 
size of the program that can be assembled. This 
limit is a function of the number of lines of 
source code, size of the lines, and number of 
labels used. I've reached the limit in about 1000 
source lines with a lot of comments and a lot of 
symbols (it's terrible programming practice to 
have "JP $ + 257"!). Memory size, therefore, 
may be a problem for large programs. 

The second gremlin, divisibility, requires 
some explanation. How do you divide a pro- 
gram when you run out of memory and you 
have a huge program that is crisscrossed with 
references? What about a large programming 



task that must be split up among several pro- 
grammers? How do they write code that can be 
merged together efficiently? 

Assemblers that produced relocatable object 
modules were developed in the early days of 
programming to get rid of the twin gremlins of 
hmited memory size and divisibility. The Disk 
Editor/Assembler allows a large program to be 
broken up into as many modules as desired. 

In this type of assembler, each source code 
module is assembled after the edit to produce a 
relocatable objea code module. Why relocat- 
able? Obviously, it would be difficult to assign 
absolute addresses for each object module, as 
the sizes are variable. Each module is relocated 
at toad time by automatically adding a reloca- 
tion bias to the addresses and other relocatable 
data types. 

Intermodule communication is handled by 
EXTernaland ENTRY pseudo-ops. Ifa label is 
declared as an ENTRY, other modules may ref- 
erence the label, provided they have declared a 
corresponding EXT for the name of the labd. 
These labels are referred to as global, because 
they are accessible to all modules, rather than 
just locally, inside of one module. 

To see how this process of assembling, 
loading and linking works, see Program Listing 
1 , which shows a huge program of three mod- 
ules. 

Module one is the main module, typically the 
driver program. In this case MAIN looks for a 
keypress of 0-7, prints the key and loops back 
for the next keypress. MAIN references two 
other modules. KEY and PRINT. KEY is a 
subroutine to detect a keypress and PRINT 
prints the value of the keypress at the screen 
center. 

Note the EXT for KEY and PRINT in 
MAIN and the corresponding ENTRY pseudo- 
ops in KEY and PRINT. Of course, all modules 



may have both ENTRYs and EXTs, depending 
on the references. 

The commands to the loader to load MAIN, 
KEY, and PRINT from disk as object modules 
and to write the subsequoii core image out as 
PROG is given in Program Listing 2. PROG 
can be loaded and executed as a single CMD 
type file from disk. 

Wholly Macro! Look ai This Fealurcl 

A second feature of the Disk Editor/ 
Assembler is its ability to define and use 
macros. A macro in its simplest form is nothing 
more than a specified set of instruaions thai is 
spewed out at assembly time when the macro 
name is invoked. Suppose, for example, that 
we used the sequence of instructions 



LO 


HL.BUtTR 


LD 


[}E.ix:b 


LD 


B,0 


CALL 


4424H 



several times in program to OPEN a TRSDOS 
disk file. Rather than writing the four instruc- 
tions for assembly each time we open a disk 
file, we can define the instructions as a macro 
called OPEN. The MACRO pseudo-op defines 
the label as a macro name, and the code be- 
tween the MACRO and ENDM defines the 
body of the macro. Having defined the macro 
at the beginning of the assembly language 
source code (Program Listing 3), we can now 
invoke the macro (OPEN), automatically gen- 
erating the four instructions, at any point in the 
source code. 

Not only does the assembler allow us to de- 
fine sets of instructions as macros, it allows us 
to use general arguments as parameters for 
macro calls. In Listing 3, we don't always want 
to use BUFFR as the buffer; we might want to 









'MAIN 
MODULES' 






UPPER- LEVEL 

ROUTINES 


1 t 


<t 


<t 


<t 






MIDDLE 
LEVEL 
ROUTINES 


ft 


.^ 




«» 
tT 


•■"it 


\ 






LOWEST- 
LEVEL 

SUBROUTINES 


*]> 


'!^ 


.^ 


'!^ 


'.^ 


'!^ 



Fig. 1. Typical Assembly Language Program Hierarchy 



40 • 80 Microcomputing, October 1980 









■ ll^i 


1 KAIN 


DRIVER CALLS KEY AND PRIKT 








■ ■ll^ 




EXT KEYiPRItTT 


■Ill' 


3E 


2* 


■ ■12^ 


BTARTi 


LD A, ' ■ (BLAMX 


■ 112' 


11 


FFFF 


■ 113^ 




LD DE,-1 1-1 FOR DECREMENT 


■ ■IS' 


21 


■ 3rF 


■ ■14> 




LD HL,1^13 iFOR 1^34 CHAR POS 


■■■a' 


DO 


31 3C^I 


■ ■IS^ 




LD IX,3C^iH 1 START OF SCREOI 


■ ■tC' 


DO 


77 ■• 


■■Its 


LOOPli 


LD IIX],A tCLBAR SCREEN 


■■■F- 


DO 


13 


■ ■17« 




INC II iBUHP POIVTEH 


•til- 


19 




■ ■IBI 




ADD BL.DE :DECItEKEirT COUNT 


■ ■12' 


3B 


FB 


■ ■191 




JR CLOOPl iCO IF MORE 


■■14 ' 


CD 


■ ■■■■ 


■■2^^ 


LOaF2: 


CALL KEY ILOOR FOR KEY 


■ ■17' 


CD 


■ ■■■■ 


■■21^ 




CALL PRIHT (DISPLAY 


■ ilK' 


IB 


Ft 


■ ■22^ 

■ ■23^ 




JR LOOFl fLOOP DA LOOP 
END 








■ ■!■■ 


1 KEY SUBROUTINE LOOKS FOR KEY PRESS OF 1-7 








■ ■lit 




ENTRY KEY 


■i»< 


u 


IBll 


•lll^ 


KEY: 


LD A, (ISISH) iGET RON 


■ ■■1' 


■7 




lUllb 




OR A ITCST 


■ ■■4' 


28 


FA 


■ ■13^ 




JR Z.KEY |G0 IF HONE 


■ ■■£' 


CS 




■ ■14^ 
■■ISI 




RET 1 RETURN 
END 








■ ll^i 


1 PRIin 


SUBROUTINE DISPLAYS KEY CM SCREEN 








■■ll^ 




EKTRl PRIHT 


■■■■■ 




rf 


liljl 


PRIITTi 


LD B,-l (COUNT 


■■■2' 






■■13^ 


LOOP I 


RRCA (SHIFT OUT A 


■ ■■]' 






■■14^ 




JHC B iBUNP COUNT 


■ ■■«' 




FC 


■ ■151 




JR NC.LOOP |GO IF NO CARRY 


■ ■■«' 






■ llfil 




LD A,B iCOUHT 


■ ■17' 


ce 


31 


■ ■17^ 




ADD A,3aH (CONVERT TO ABCII 


■■19' 


31 


lEai 


■■le^ 




LD (3E2BH),A |PUT CM SCREEN 


■■■C 


c» 




■ il9^ 

■ ■2^i 




RET 1 RETURN 
END 








Program Listing 


i. Typical Relocatabie Modules 








■■1^1 


1 SAMPLE or A BIHPLE HACRO 


■III 






■■lit 


BUPPR 


BOU ■■■■& 1 


■ l^l 






■■121 


^ 


BOO BKIB^aK 








^^ DEFINITION 








■•14^ 




LD HL.BUFFR 








■■li^ 




LD DE.OCB 










■■ICI 




LD t.t 










■flT^ 




CALL 4424H 




■ ■■■' 
■■■2' 


31 


■5 

■■■■ 


iiiai 
i^i»< 








TESTi 


LD A, 5 


tKEANIHGLESS 


(i^BM 


'^'^■MACBOCALL 


LD 


HL.&Upril 


■■■S' 


11 


■l^i 




LD 


DE.DCB 




■■■■' 
■•■A' 


■C 

CD 


■■ 

4424 




LD 
CALL 


B,^ 


"^^ MACRO EXPANSION 








■ ■31^ 

Program 


Lisling 


3. Simple Macro. 



use BUFFRI or BUFFR2. By defining dummy 
arguments in the macro defmiiion, a macro will 
utilize a given set of arguments everytime it's 
invoked. Program Listing 4 shows three argu- 
ments. BUFFER, DCB and LRL, as dummies 
in the macro definition. When the OPEN 
macro is invoked, the arguments specified arc 
then substituted for the dummy as shown. 

Macros can be used to simplify calls to 
subroutines or system functions — as they are 
on large computers — or to automatically gener- 
ate a set of in-line code, or even to define a 
special assembly-time interpretive language. 

Format Dtffercncca 

The Disk Editor/Assembler has some minor 
format differences from EDTASM. Labels on 
assemUy source lines must be suffixed by a co- 
lon. The pseudo-ops for defining bytes, words, 
storage and strings are dther DEFB, DEFW, 
DEFS and DEFM or an alternate (8080) set of 
DB, DW, DS and DC. One of the nicest dif- 
ferences in these pseudo-ops are that muhiple 
arguments can be used as in DB 2,5,43,6,77. 

The editor uses similar, but not identical, 
commands (o the BASIC/EDTASM editor; 



the commands are not quite as powerful as in 
EDTASM. An edit is performed on a disk file. 
At the completion of an edit, the modified file 
is written out to disk as a new file name. The old 
file name camiot be used, necessitating a KILL 
followed by a RENAME to complete the edit of 
a source file. 

Some additional pseudo-ops in the Disk Edi- 
tor/Assembler allow listing format control and 
conditional assembly. Those in the first group 
are such commands as TITLE, SUBTTL (sub- 
title), PAGE and .COMMENT. Listing can be 
selectively contrcriled for various pans of the 
program. Conditional assembly is controlled 
by pseudo-ops such as IFT (if true) and 
ENDIF. Other functions, such as repeat 
(REPT) code, are also permitted. All in all, the 
commands incorporated into the Disk Edi- 
tor/Assembler are similar to the commands 
one sees in assemblers on most minicomputer 
systems. 



Whkh AsscraMer b Best? 

Which assembler, EDTASM /Apparat or the 
Radio Shack Disk Editor/Assembler, is 
"best"? Unfortunately, an assembly language 



DOS BEADV 




1-80 


|Loid» Loader) 


• P: 8000 


[Sett load location to ROOOH) 


■MAIN, KbY, PRINT (Loads MAIN, KtV. PRINT | 


DATA 8000. 802F 


in that order J 


DATA 8000 8021- 


(Ptogrun boundarmi 


•TEST N.-E 


(File TEST/CMD. end load| 


(0000 802F) 




DOS READY 




Program Listing 


2. Typical Load Se- 


Quence 





programmer is almost forced to choose one or 
the other, because of minor format differences 
between the two. This is really a lamentable 
condition; it's a shame that colon in labels 
wasn't exorcised. 

The Disk Assembler got short shrift in an 
earlier column . After using it extensively 
however, I've formed the following opinions: 



"Which assembler, . . . 
is 'best'? Unfortunately, 

... a programmer is 

almost forced to choose 

one or the other, 

because of minor 

format differences. . . 



• If the TRS-80 is used in a programming 
department in a commercial company, the best 
choice of assemblers is probably the Disk. It 
provides all the features of EDTASM/ 
Apparat and with its Modular flexibility can 
maintain and devdop large program packages. 

• If you do a great deal of assembly 

language programming or want to use the best 
tools available, then the Disk Editor/ 
Assembler again is probably most useful. 

• If you are learning assembly language 
programming or do most of your assembly 
language programming in short code segments, 
then stick with EDTASM/Apparal or the new 
Microsoft version of EDTASM, EDTASM- 
PLUS (cassette based). 

These, are my personal opinions, but I'd be 
interested in hearing yours. (By the way, I'd 
also be interested in hearing your opinions 
about the content of this column: Shoidd it be 
at a lower level, higher level, oriented towards 
ROM calls, more tutorial, more product ori- 
ented? Please let me know.) 

Modd II AsacmMen 

Disregarding assemblers thai run in a CP/M 
(Control Program for Microcomputers) envir- 



80 Microcomputing, October 1980 • 41 



THE ASSCI1BIY IINE 



••■■■ 

•113' 
■116' 

1118' 


21 Mil 

11 am 
It II 

CD 4424 


laiiB 

■liii 

II12I 
IBIJI 
IB14B 

flBlJB 
flB16l 
11171 

«B18> 

Pr 


j SAMPLE OF A SIMPLE MACRO WITH AB 


CUMEKTS 

MACRO DEFINITION 
-^— WITH DUMMY 

ARGUMENTS 

^ MACRO CALL WITH 
"*~REAL ARGUMENTS 

^ MACRn EXPANSION 

WITH REAL ARGUMENTS 


flHif HMftS HjF?Er 6ce, lit 

LD HL, BUFFER 
LD DE,DC3 
LD B, LRL 
CALL 4 4 24H 


TEST, ^^ eiiiH,aiJiH+s;£,i 


L& RL.SIIIH 

LD DE,eillHt2Se 
LD B.I 


END 

ogram Listing 4. Macro with Argurr 


ents. 




onmcnl on the Model II, there arc at least three 
others which will run on that computer. 

The first is the Radio Shack Macro Assem- 
bler. This is a rewrite of Microsoft's Disk As- 
sembler for the Model I and has all of the same 
features that we discussed in the earlier pan of 
this article. The cost is S199. 

The second is from Galactic Software. Ltd. 
EDAS 4.0 has a text editor identical to the BA- 
SIC editor. Though I have not used the prod- 
uct, according to its specifications, all object 
output can go directly to a disk file or to memo- 
ry and it executes all TRSDOS commands. Its 
cost is S229. 

The third is MACASM from Racet Com- 
putes. This is an interesting product, as it is a 
EDTASM-PLUS modified for the Model II. 
EDTASM-PLUS is a another Microsoft As- 
sembler, and contains an editor, assembler and 
debug program all in one package. The editor is 
basically the same editor which is in EDTASM. 
but ha.s several new commands, such as Move 
Block and Copy Block. 

The assembler is a macro assembler that can 
be assembled directly to memory. The Z-BUG 
portion is a symbolic debugger that performs 
vinually any useful debug function you can 
imagine, including referencing of locations by 
symbolic assembly name. Switching between 
editing, assembling and debugging is instanta- 
neous, as all three arc resident at one time. 

MACASM is part of a Mod II Development 
package that includes SUPERZAP. 
MACASM and Disassembler and costs $125. 

The Continuing Saga of SET, RESET 

I received a long letter from Jerald J. 
Kovacic and William Sit, who collaborated on 
a fast multiply {sec previous column). The mul- 
tiply was fast, but the mail delivery was not. In 
Jcrald's letter he describes the ROM call for 
POINT. SET and RESET, which should be of 
interest to many readers. 



Basically, all three calls require that there is 
an ASCII character string in memory of the 
form (X,Y) where X and Y are legitimate col- 
umn and row numbers of 0-127 and 0-47. re- 
spectively. Caution! The ASCII string must not 
contain invalid X or Y values and must have 
correct syntax, otherwise the following routines 
will go to a BASIC error processing routine, 
and. . -goodbye assembly language! 

For POINT, the call is: 

illl ) pomicr [o ASCII mcsMce o{ (X,Y) minui one 

(Rnuin »iih l.naiion 4121 H Oif juiini .ift. (1FT>( jf fximi 

.111, 

((HI )l - pdinlL'f w Tirtr nor blank fnlk>wing Ihe \[[ing) 

For SET and RESET, the calls are: 



^age 



-f (X.\ 



IH I I = poinrci lo ASCII 

(A I I n5H for SET 

(All OnSM lor RFSFT 

|R«utn wllh ((ML)) = poinlcr lo flrsi min-blank following 

I he ^lringl 

How do these CALLs compare to the SET/ 
RESET routine given in an earlier column? If 
you recall, we set or reset about 2500 points per 
second. It appears that these ROM routines al- 
low us to operate on about 140 points per sec- 
ond, not to mention the overhead of setting up 
a string in ASCII of X and Y values. This 
checks with a tight BASIC SET/RESET loop 
figure of 122 pixels per second that has some- 
what more overhead. The test program used to 
time it is given in Program Listing 5, 

In past columns I've been reluctant to discuss 
ROM calls. There arc some good reasons for 
this. Firstly, 1 question how many modular, 
well defined routines there are in BASIC. Sec- 
ondly, problems, such as the one above, can 
branch out in to cloud-cuckooland. Finally, 1 
think one learns more by writing his own as- 
sembly language routines. Comments? ■ 









•nil 


1 TEST 


PROCRAM 


POR ROM CALL 


roR 


SCT/RBSET 


BBBI' 


DD 


21 illB 


Iflll 




LD 


IX, I 




fiERO couirrBfi 


IBI4 ' 


11 


1114 ' 


M12I 


t/OOPi 


LD 


KL,M8G 




ISTRIMG ADDRESS 


IIBT ' 


CD 


• 135 


II13I 




CALL 


IllSH 




/SET 


IBBA- 


21 


■ 114' 


II 141 




LD 


HL.MSG 




IME68AGE ADDRESS 


BBBD' 


CD 


■ 138 


II15I 




CALL 


I138H 




1 RESET 


BIIB ' 


DD 


23 


•IIBB 




INC 


IX 




l&UHP COUKT 


8112' 


18 


El 


II17B 




JR 


LOOP 




llOOP 


BB14' 


2B 


36 IB 2C 


IIIBI 


HSG: 


DB 


'(6I,»)' 




ll-<l, Y-31 


Blla' 


13 


31 29 


BI19B 




EMD 












Program 


Listings. Test Program for 


ROM SET/RESET 



impressed. I seriously considered — quietly — 
buying one myself. . . didn't want the boss to 
know . . . but the price/need ratio was still only 
mildly attractive. The deciding factor in my 
ca.sc might have been one of judgment. 

I'm not a digital or computer technician, but 
I am experienced enough in electronics to un- 
derstand Murphy's law and its effect on com- 
puter hardware compatibility. If you buy two 
Items from the same supplier, you at least have 
one company you look to for proper interfac- 
ing. If they come from different suppliers, 
about all you can reasonably expect is that each 
company assure proper operation of their par- 
ticular item. 

Radio Shack has a limited supply of techni- 
cal types, and we hope il is now obvious what 
they've been doing since we introduced Model 
II. From the 1977 introduction of Model 1, 
we've said many times, that we can't offer spe- 
cialized hardware help or custom program- 
ming. 

We see other folks' ads for some pretty im- 
pressive-looking TRS-80 add-ons and soft- 
ware. We haven't had hands on with much of it 
though, and so we really don't know how to 
make it play with TRS-80s. Selfishly (we all get 
that way sometimes), 1 have to suggest that it 
might be more reasonable to ask for help from 
the folks who asked you lo buy that product for 
your TRS-80, Of course, we will support our 
advertised applications on our equipment. 

99-cenl Catalog 

Contrary even to what my friend Wayne 
Green would have you beheve. we don't try to 
hide our comp)ctition from our customers— es- 
pecially software (his August Remarks). He 
overlooked our Software Sourcebook, a 
99'Cent catalog of over 1,000 "non-Radio 
Shack" TRS-80 programs. Remember. 
Wayne, you paid us SIO.OO each to list seven- 
teen of your own Instant Software programs, 

Wayne and 1 have known each other for 
close to 20 years now, and I know he won't take 
offense at a friendly jab. so I '11 also chide him a 
bit for mis-reading his Tandy Annual Report. 
Our total payroll (not ju.st for our administra- 
tive "burcauracy") for operating 7,353 stores 
worldwide, including six headquarters loca- 
tions in Fiscal 1979 was about 18 percent of our 
total expenses rather that the "almost 50 per- 
cent" he suggested. 

In fact, compared to the top ten computer 
companies, our sales per employee were second 
only to IBM. 

Be all of that as it may, wc members of the 
bureaucracy will continue to bring you new 
products, both hardware and software, lo the 
best of our ability. And again, I assure you that 
your comments and suggestions will be met 
with open arms. As soon as wc find the re- 
inainder of our management staff — those we're 
buying for the other 30 percent of our expenses, 
Wayne — maybe we can offer individual 
replies. ■ 



42 * 80 Microcomputing, October 1980 



SAFOR 



Sales Analyst and Forecaster 



with Graphic Display 



Here Js a new program from Software Etc, . , that is 
invaluable to any businessman. SAFOR is a time se- 
ries analysis and lorecastmg program that will pro- 
duce presentation quality graphs on your own 
printer. SAFOR will handle up io ten vears of monthly 
data, provide a comprehensive analysis of past pat- 
terns and make both long and short-range forecasts. 



SAK)R ubes a classical time series decomposition 
model to provide both tabular and graphic presenta- 
tions of Original Data, 12 Month Forecasts, Business 
Cycle, Growth Cycle, Seasonal Pattern and 12 Month 
Moving Average. 



SAFOR can handle any type of data series measured 
on a monthly basis wnere no value is zero or less. 
This data may be in any unit of measure, however 



SAFOR does not adjust dollar figures for inflation. 
The trend is calculated in the same units as actual 
sales, while other factors are treated as multipliers or 
indexes. Because the irregular component is unpre- 
dictable, SAFOR ignores it, 

SAFOR is designed for ease of use. data entry is par- 
ticularly straightforward, every user action is 
prompted. The program features extensive editing, 
updating, data storage and error detection routines. 



SAFOR allows for varying levels of expertise in the 
techniques of analysis, beginner to expert. For the 
beginner, SAFOR contains standard default opera- 
tions to help prepare routine analysis and forecasts. 
Fur the expert, key assumptions in the program are 
readily modified without any programming. 



SAFOR will run on your TRS-SO" Level II with an expansion interface, i2K of RAM memory, a disk drive, 
TRSDOS" and optionally a 1 J2 column printer. 

Each program comes complete with a two year set of demonstration data. Order yours now! A $200.00 value at 
this Introductory Price of only ^^Q Qc 

9' «'*«'^ C.ood through December 31, 1980 Only. 




K-42 



Software Etc. . . 

1839 Chambfrlain Drive, 
Carrollton. Texas 75007. 
Phone Orders: (214)492-0515 



Demand .i Demonstrattnn from vour local de^iler, or write for a broc hure oi our complete line of fine software. 
■ Reaae'Se/vi!;e-see page 226 80 Microcomputing, October 1980 • 43 



5^(9 NEWS 



edited by Nancy Robertson 



'^Machines. . . are defined by 

their function — and it is the 

software that determines the 

function of a general 

purpose computer, " 



Are Computer Programs Patentable? 




While the industry as a whole clamors for 
H.R. 6934 (a bill that orfers copyright 
protection for software), a patent granted July 
1, 1980 has been overlooked. Patent 4.210.%1 
for a sorting system was granted to Whitlow 
Computer Systems, Inc. of Englewood Cliffs, 
NJ. The grant was made for "a method. . .of 
sorting data . . . utilizing a digital computer and 
at lea.si one random access device, ..." 

Although the patent is specifically for "a 
method," the sort system is part of Whitlow's 
software product Syncsort for IBM OS com- 
puters. The decision is a coup for all advocates 
of software patenting. 

Currently the U.S. Patent Office is not 
accepting applications for software or Tinn- 
ware. The Whitlow application was filed prior 
to the present policy. Thomas Lynch, legal 
counselor for the Patent Office, explains that 
judicial decisions have indicated that patents do 
not apply to computer programs. 

StroRf Contingent 

However, advocates of software patenting 
counter that the Patent OfHce is shirlcing its 
duty. This small, but strong contingent is fight- 
ing for legal recognition of software programs 
as inventions, which would make software 
eligible for patent incentives. 

The legality of the Patent Office's stand will 
be considered by the US. Supreme Court when 
it reconvenes this month. Two programming 
patent cases will be heard: Diamond, Commis- 
sioner of Patents and Trademarks, v. Bradley 



and Franklin; and Diamond \ . DiehrandLut- 
ton. The first case is a patent appeal for a firm- 
ware ROM chip, Diehr and Lutton's appeal is 
for a software patent. 

While the legal debate is fanned in Congress 
and the courts, it's worth noting some distinc- 
tions between patents and copyrights. Accord- 
ing to Webster 's New Collegiate Dictionary, a 
copyright is "the exclusive right to reproduce, 
publish, and sell the matter and form of a 
literary, musical, or artistic work." A patent is 
"a writing securing to an inventor for a term of 
years the exclusive right to make, use, or sell his 
invention." Before slapping the dictionary 
shut, an invention is "a device, contrivance, or 
process originated after study and experi- 
ment." 

Michael Keplinger, chief counsel to the 
special government Commission on New Tech- 
nological Uses, points out that a copyright is 
not a government grant. "It exists in some- 
thing, if it is a work, from the moment it is 
created." 

Generally, a work is considered to be copy- 
righted from the moment the pen leaves the 
page, without any formality. To be fully pro- 
tected by copyright benefits, Keplinger suggests 
the copyright be registered with the Library of 
Congress. Two thousand copyrights were regis- 
tered for software in 1978 and 1979. 

Keplinger also talks al>out "the critical dif- 
ference" between a patent and copyright. "A 
copyright is anti-rip-off protection. Copyright- 
ed software can't be copied with only trivial 
changes — but you could take a close look at 
somebody else's software and take the main 
ideas to make your own program. Anyone else 
could CTcate a program based on the same algo- 
rithm and copyright. But a patent is given for a 
process implemented in a program. After one is 
granted, writing another program with the 
same algorithm would be a patent infringe- 
ment . ' ' 

Major Objections 

This is exactly the objection the patent office 
has to programming patents. According to 
Thomas Lynch, "The basic rule of thumb is 
that anything can be patented if it is new and an 
improvement of what has been done before. 
But with programming (both firmware and 
software), you're talking about an old or ex- 
isting machine programmed to do something 
different. A patent of a program is a patent for 



an idea rather than for the development of a 
new structure." 

However, businessmen such as Whitlow's 
president Aso Tavitian have "never considered 
copyright as worthwhile protection." 
Whitlow's Syncsort was jointly developed by 
several people in the small software company 
early in the '70s. A patent application was filed 
at that time. "The feeling was— and it was 
shared by all of us — that we had an inven- 
tion .... My feeling is that to think about copy- 
right as equivalent is 'way out' .... The pur- 
pose of a patent is to encourage innovation. It's 
like a reward: For 15 years we have a legal 
monopoly on this sort." 



'*The purpose of a 

patent is to encourage 

innovation. It's like a 

reward: For 15 years we 

have a legal monopoly 

on this sort, " 



Whitlow's attorney Morton C. Jacobs ex- 
plains that the Syncsort patent is "not a pro- 
gram listing patent, as such, but a patent on a 
sorting system built with software." Jacobs has 
filed one of the several "friend of the court" 
briefs that the Supreme Coun will consider in 
respect to the patent cases it is hearing this fall. 
His argument is particularly germane to micro- 
computers and other general purpose comput- 
ers. 

"Machines," Jacobs says, "are defined by 
their function — and it is the software that 
determines the function of a general purpose 
computer." He argues that "a new machine is 
created every time a new piece of software is 
entered." 

In the brief submitted to the Supreme Court, 
Jacob states that "To remove the sorted pro- 
gram from the general -purpose computer is to 
remove its unique rule of action as a machine. 
This would be the same as untying the wires in- 
terconnecting the circuits of a hardware- 

conlinues to page 45 



44 » 80 Microcomputing, October 1980 



Computer Merchandisers Hurt by Mail Fraud 



No arrests have yet been made in Chicago 
area towns following a rash of thefts 
which has left several computer supply houses 
around the country holding bad checks tota- 
ling nearly $140,000. The scheme of theft by 
deception first came to light earlier this sum- 
mer when complaints of bum checks began 
trickling into the Riverside Police Department 
from a number of out-of-state computer 
houses who had shipped merchandise C.O.D. 
to a Riverside address. 

Outwardly, the customer appeared legiti- 
mate enough, bearing all the trappings of a 
bona fide business. According to Lt. Dokupil, 
chief of detectives with the Riverside PD, the 
goods were ordered by CMI, Inc., a phony 
company which maintained an office at 3340 
S. Harlem Ave. An individual using the name 
of Thomas Janson (or "Jansen") used the 
premises as a base of OF>erations from which 
he placed orders around the country for a 
variety of merchandise. 

The same general procedure was used in all 
of the thefts. An order would be phoned in by 
CMI to a computer firm for a sizeable amount 
of software or hardware. At the time of 
delivery, the driver would accept the CMI 
check as payment for the goods, per standard 
procedure. Because the company had carefully 
created the illusion that it was in fact an estab- 
lished firm with a permanent business address, 
nothing out of the ordinary was noticed — until 
checks started bouncing. 

By the time the complaints reached the local 
police, the suspects had already fled and an in- 
vestigation of the Harlem Ave. address re- 
vealed only a hurriedly vacated office. After 
Riverside, Janson and his accomplice appar- 
rently set up shop in nearby towns, crow-hop- 
ping to a new location whenever things got hot . 

One of the dealers who got stung was a Texas 
supplier who received a phone order from CMI 
for two hundred eight-inch and five-inch disk- 
ettes which the caller wanted shipped out as a 



rush order. The order was sent out C.O.D. the 
next day, and when the UPS driver delivered, 
payment of S600 was effected by personal 
check. When the dealer received the check his 
suspicions were aroused by the absence of a 
company name and number on the face of the 
check; the scrawled signature of "Thomas Jan- 
son" was just barely discernible at the bottom 
of the check. 

The dealer had little choice but to go ahead 
and deposit the check, and hope for the best. 
His suspicions were confirmed several days 
later when the check was in fact returned: The 
Illinois bank account upon which it had been 
written was no longer in existence. Neither CMI 
nor Janson were listed in the phone book. It 
was at that point that the dealer contacted the 
police in Riverside. At about the same time, 
similar reports began to reach the police from 
other dealers around the nation such as one in 
California who had been bilked out of S3000 
worth of hardware (color boards) in exactly the 
same manner. 

The same scam was repeated numerous times 
from many different locations in the area sur- 
rounding Riverside. In each case CMI would 
abscond just before the police could close in for 
an arrest. 

Most recently, the operation was headquar- 
tered in Morton Grove, IL. It is in this town 
that police feel they have compiled the most 
concrete evidence to date with felony warrants 
being issued for the arrest of Janson and his ac- 
complice. 

According to Det. Redman of the Morton 
Grove Police Department, a picture of the 
prime suspect has been distributed to law en- 
forcement officials involved in the case in other 
locals. 

Assistance has also been sought from the FBI 
due to the interstate nature of the crimes and 
federal charges will be leveled if and when any 
i^)prehensions are made. Among these is a 
"theft by wire" charge which is brought in in- 



Are Computer Programs Patentable? 



continued from page 44 

program computer, or disassembling the 
wheels, gears and levers of a mechanically pro- 
grammed machine ..." 

In reference to the possibility of copyrighting 
programs, Jacobs' brief states, "Copyright 
protects particular expression, not machine 
structure." Jacobs feels definitions of the 
words machine and mechanical are at the crux 
of the patent question. While the Patent Office 
argues that programs are not mechanical and 
are not machine structures, Jacobs points to a 
finding of fact in the recent Data Cash Systems, 
Inc., V. JSAA Group. Inc., et al case; "The 
computer program (stored in a computer) is a 
mechanical device which is engaged in the com- 



puter to become an essential part of the me- 
chanical process." 

Whether programming is artistic creation or 
aeative engineering will be open to aesthetic 
and intellectual debate as long as computing 
continues to advance. But the Supreme Court 
will rule either for or against programming 
patents this fall. If the court rules in favor of 
patents, programmers will still not have uni- 
versal protection. Patents are not easy to come 
by in any field. As Thomas Lynch exptaiiKd, to 
be patented an invention must be "new and an 
improvement of what has been done." To be 
copyrighted, a work needs only to be com- 
pleted—and artistic.! 

By Nancy Robertson 
80 Staff 



stances where a telephone is used as an instru- 
ment of larceny. 

Lt. Dokupil advises all dealers who are 
defaulted to go directly to their local police with 
as much information as they can pull together. 
Dealers are urged to be doubly cautious when 
doing business with new clients, specifically, on 
C.O.D. orders. They arc being admonished to 
accept only cash, money orders (cashiers* 
checks), or established charge cards. 

One dealer, still smarting from his recent rip- 
off at the hands of CMI said. "We hate to do it, 
but now have to be much stricter with payment 
procedures; this Ooss) is cash right out of our 
pockets."! 

By Paul Quinn 
80 Staff 



Future Home Computing 



"The Home of the Future." the sec- 
ond annual Yankee Croup symposium 
on home information utility, will be 
held Oct. 14-15 in Palo Alto, CA, and 
Oct. 21-22 in New York City. It will out 
line and discuss how access to comput- 
ing power will be provided, who the 
suppliers will be, and how this trend will 
affea all users of electronic information 
processing. 

According to the Yankee Group, the 
Home of the Future will be part of an 
information bus. Data bases such as 
The Source, CompuServe, and Knight- 
Ridder will be easily accessible. 

But information of and by itself can- 
not exist in the marketplace. It must be 
carried by either telephone lines, coaxial 
cable, or the cost must be partially cov- 
ered by other vendors. The Yankee 
Group believes that broadband commu- 
nications must come to the Home of the 
Future. 

The seminar will demonstrate how in- 
formation access could be provided by 
either the telephone industry or the 
cable systems, and what the implica- 
tions of either's actions will be. 

Speakers at the symposium itKlude: 
Ted Turner, Cable News Network; Gus 
Hauser. Chairman of Wamer/Amex 
(owners of Qube, Columbus, Ohio); 
George Minot, CompuServe; Tom Har- 
nish, OCLC (which is putting infor- 
mation data bases on line in 4,(XX) 
libraries); Irving Kahn, Broadband 
Communications; Jack Taub, The 
Source; and Howard Anderson, The 
Yankee Group. 

For further information and registra- 
tion, ointact Marjorie Sugarman, The 
Yankee Group, P.O. Box 43, Harvard 
Square, Cambridge, MA 02138. ■ 



^ Microcomputing, October 1980 • 45 



^'(^NEWS 



A Slow Road to Bubble Memories 




The mere mention of bubble memory de- 
vices gets a rise out of most Jaded floppy 
disk jockeys. Unfortunately, bubbles may not 
prove to be the memory panacea most expect 
them to be for some time. 

The name of the game is mass storage and, 
for the microcomputerist, the options arc few. 
Mass storage refers to the ability to save rela- 
tively large amounts of data in a nonvolatile 
medium. The three most popular mass storage 
methods currently in use are cassettes, disks 
(floppy and otherwise) and Winchester sys- 
tems. 



"It is no wonder that 

hobbyists are always 

looking for a better 

method of mass storage: 

one that is reliable, 
fast. . . and. . . cheap. " 



Each method has drawbacks, Cassettes are 
notoriously unreliable and are extremely slow. 
Also, individual cassette storage capacity is 
limited. 

E>isks are more reliable, have much fastn* ac- 
cess time, but are expensive. They also require 
an operating system which usually resides in 
RAM and uses up about 12K of memory in a 
TRS-80. 

Winchester systems are expensive, and often 



a pain in the neck in terms of software support 
and compatibility. 

It is no wonder that hobbyists are always 
looking for a better method of mass storage: 
one that is reliable, fast, easily maintained and, 
last but certainly not least, cheap. Enter 
rumours of the bubble. 

Bubble memories are the latest development 
in the technology of mass storage. They are 
made of neither solid core material nor semi- 
conductor material. Instead, they are com- 
posed of a microscopic film of magnetic mate- 
rial that is deposited on a nonmagnetic sub- 
strate or base. The magic of bubble memories is 
their ability to create zones of magnetization at 
discrete points throughout the magnetic film. 
These tiny magnetic points are opposite in 
polarity from the rest of the magnetic film, and 
each of these magnetic bubble zones represents 
one bit of information. 

Bubbles are nonvolatile, that is they retain 
their magnetic polarity indefinitely without re- 
quiring external power, and are so small that 
millions can reside in the space of one IC. Space 
requirements are so minimal in fact, that a stan- 
dard DIP (dual in-line package) bubble chip 
has IM bit of storage capacity (lOOK bytes). 
That's roughly the equivalent of a single den- 
sity, 40 track, SVt-mzh floppy disk. 

Bubble memory systems do have some disad- 
vantages. The control and support circuitry 
necessary to access the bubbles is considerable, 
often requiring an individual control chip for 
each bubble chip. In addition, since bubble ad- 
dressing is loop configured and semi-serial, 
data transfer rates are not particularly fast. A 
Texas Instruments' bubble system has an 
average transfer rate of 85K bits per second 
compared with a TRSEXDS formatted disk 
transfer rate of lOOK bits per second. Manufac- 



turers are working on these problems now, and 
advances on both fronts should be forthcom- 
ing. 

The three major bubble memory manufac- 
turers today are Texas Instruments, Intel 
Corp., and Rockwell Int. Each offers bubble 
devices on both component and board levels, 
but none arc seriously considering entering the 
personal computer market with their systems at 
this time. 

George Riggs, a spokesman for Rockwell, 
explains that he does not see a small system 
market for bubble devices developing "for at 
least three or four years." He added that 
"when the cost is lowered to around 15 milli- 
cents per bit in bubble systems, the hobbyist 
will find them an alternative to other systems." 
This inevitable cost reduction will take time, 
however. Rockwell does have a bubble system 
available now. Their 256K bit board can be 
bought for $1800. 



"For the present, bubble 
memories do not seem 

to be a practical 
alternative for the vast 

majority of small 
system computerists. " 



Intel of Santa Clara, CA, markets a board- 
level bubble system in kit form. Their 7110-1 
Magnetic Memory board comes complete with 
all control and support circuitry, and sells for 
around $20(X). Judy Kochanowski of Technical 
Marketing at Intel feels that although no plans 
are afoot to crash the hobbyist marketplace in 
the near future, their 7110-1 kit is "competi- 
tively priced" when compared with the current 
cost of a four-disk system for micros. 

For the present, bubble memories do not 
seem to be a practical alternative for the vast 
majority of small system computerists. The 
problems related to support and control in both 
hardware and software are beyond the range of 
all but fanatical uses to solve. In addition, the 
cost per Mbyte of storage in bubble devices has 
not yet fallen low enough to justify their use. 

Finally, none of the major manufacturers In 
the bubble industry take the small system user 
very seriously. When, and if, these manufac- 
turers sense the existence of a market for their 
bubble devices in the microcomputer field, 
rapid developments in small system bubble de- 
vices can be expected. Until that time, micro 
users will continue to CLOAD, disk dump, 
watch and wait.B 

By Chris Brown 
80 Stqff 



46 • 50 Microcomputing, October 1980 




I made the TRS-80' into a serious computer. 
Now I've made the Model n into a spectacular one. 



I'm Irwin Taranto, and I've helped almost a 
thousand businesses get their first computers up 
and running. 

I've done it primarily writh the TRS-80, because it's 
a really elegant piece of hardware. Given the right 
programs, it can do substantially the same work as 
the traditional minicomputers that cost four times 
as much, 

I proved it with four on-line, interactive programs 
adapted from the genuine Osborne & Associates 
systems, originally desicfned for the $30,000 Wang 
computer. Then I added two of my own and made 
them all work on a $4000 TRS-SO. 

Now I've done the same thing for the new TRS-80 
Model II. It's an $8000 computer that works twice as 
fast and has four times the memory — up to two 
million characters. 

My new systems are fully documented, and 
because I'm working with a much more powerful 
computer, they're a night-and-day advance over the 
Model I programs. They'll turn your Model II into a 
complete business computer, set up and ready to go. 



THE TRS-M MODEL II PROORAHS 

Ovnarml Ladgav/CaBfa JoanuU: handles up to 7000 transactions 
on 500 dilferent user-delined accounts It keeps track ol them by 
month, quartet and year, malces comparisons to the prior year, 
and does departmentalization 

Acoounta PfMa/PurrhMi Onlar: generates the purchase order 
and posts the item to payables when the goods are received 
Invoice-linked, it calculates and pnnts checks and aged ledger 
reports and links fully to the general ledger 

Aeeovnta Itocshrmbto/Iiivolctim: keeps track of billed and 
unbilled invoices, open and closed items, aging and service charge 
calculation. It prints statements, Unks to the general ledger, and 
can work within either an in voice- linked or balance- f or vi?ard 
accounting system. 

PaytoU/Job Coating: computes regular, overtime and piecework 
pay, keeps employee files, figures taxes and deductions, prints 
checks, lournal. 941-A and W-2 forms, and breaks out individual 
lOb costs 



When I say set up and ready to go, I mean just 
that. If you're not quite sure on that point, call the 
number below and we'll give you the names of some 
of the people who've already bought all over the 
world. Call them up and hear what they have to say. 

These Model II programs are completely custom* 
tailored, which explains their $249.95 price. Before 
w^e'll send you a disk, you have to fill out a detailed 
questionnaire that tells us your precise business 
requirements. Then we send you the disk, all the 
instructions you need, and my phone number. If you 
call, we answer all your questions. If your questions 
are tough enough, I'll talk to you personally. 

Because that way I'll make sure that Model II of 
yours turns into a spectacular computer, just like 
I promised. 
I 1 

Please send me the custom questionnaires for the following 
S249.9b Model II programs 

C General Ledger/Cash Journal 

! Accounts Payable /Purchase Order 

Accounts Receivable /Invoicing 

Payroll/Job Costing 

Please send me information on the TRSSO Model I programs at 
$99 95 each 

Please send me information on other Taranto business programs 



Ydui name 



Company name. 
Address 



Ciiy/Stale/Zip 



Taranto 

& ASSOCIATES, INC. 



PO Box 6073. 4136 Bedwood Hwy. San Rafael CA 94903 ■ (4151 472-2670 



'A iiBdainaTk of the Tandy Coipoiation 



•^Reaaer Service — i^ page 22S 



80 Microcomputing. October 1980 • 47 



NEW PRODUCTS 



The Micrographics Index 



The National Micrographics Assoc, (NMA) 
Resource Center has released the latest 1980 
computer-output microfiche edition of the 
Micrographics Index and Special InleresI 
Package »15 entitled. Service Bureau vs. In- 
House Systems, a collection of current articles 
thai are part of the Resource Center's inven- 
tory. 

Over 250 new entries have been added since 
the Index was last published in January 1980. 
The Micrographics Index is a catalog of the 
over 4,000 items contained in the NMA 
Resource Center. It provides direct, com- 
prehensive access to the largest collection of 
micrographics in the world. 

The Index includes information on micro- 
graphic applications, technical processes, case 
histories, standards, research reports, equip- 
ment evaluations, directories, "how to" 
guides, siate-of-the-art reports, market studies 
and industry surveys. Journal, author, key- 
word and subject indices provide access to en- 
tries listed in the Index. Reprints of most items 
may be ordered from NMA in hardcopy or mi- 
crofiche for a small fee. 

Service Bureau vs. In-House Systems is a col- 
lection of articles that overviews the considera- 
tions in deciding to use a service bureau or to 
implement an in-house micrographic opera- 
tion. Topics include evaluating and selecting a 
service bureau, justifying in-house COM and 
case histories of COM and source-document in- 
house operations. 

Service Bureau Versus In-House Systems is 
available in papercopy for $25 and in micro- 
fiche for $15. The Index can be purchased for 
$35, Both are available from NMA Publication 
Sales, 8719 Colesville Rd., Silver Spring, MD 
20910. 

Reader Service ^ 173 



Advanced Graphics Course 



Dalagraphics, P.O. Box 566, Dept. G, 
Union Station, Endicott, NY 13760, has a new 
program. Advanced Graphics Mini-instruction 
Course, Volume 1 , Curves. The program is the 
first in a series of projects on graphics applica- 
tions programming techniques. 

Volume 1 uses a new algorithm for the old 
problem of plotting curves: None of the 
displays that are generated use advanced math, 
such as sines and cosines; a simple arithmetic 
progression-regression technique is used in- 




Graphics Designed with Dalagraphics Mini- 
instruction course. 



stead. Graphics are executed on video within 
five to 20 seconds. 

The program begins with a simple explana- 
tion of FOR-NEXT loops and line numbers, 
continues with amplitude equations, regres- 
sions and progressions. There is also a program 
included for designing computer art. 

Supplied on tape for 16K Level II or 4K 
Level I, Advanced Graphics Mini-instruction 
course sells for $20.55. 

Reader Service y^ 160 



Macro Library Adds 
Nearly 80 New Mnemonics 



Stoneware Microcomputer Products, 1930 
Fourth St.. San Rafael, CA 94901 , is selling an 
extended instruction set macro library to work 
in conjunction with Microsoft's Macro-80, 
Digital Research's MAC and CDL/TDL 
Macro I and Macro 11. 

A macroassembler is defined in the Micro- 
computer Dictionary and Guide, Matrix Pub- 
lishers, Inc., as something that "simplifies 
coding when similar sections of code are used 
repeatedly, but variations preclude the use of 
conventional subroutine techniques." 



Stoneware's new library expands the Z-80/ 
8080 instruction set with nearly 80 new 
mnemonics. They enhance the hardware in- 
struction set by creating pseudo instructions 
which are reconstructions of the exsisting Z-80/ 
8080 instruction set. The assembler mixes the 
new instructions with the existing set. 

The library has been designed to be compati- 
ble with current software. II sells for $109.95 
for CP/M systems with eight-inch single densi- 
ty disks, and for $79.95 for Model 1 TRSDOS 
on 5 '/* inch disk systems. 

Reader Service ^ 169 



Do-it-yourself Interfacing 



A five-page booklet is available that provides 
instructions, schematics, a parts list and soft- 
ware driver listing for do-it-yourself interfacing 
between a TRS-80 and an RS-232 printer. Ac- 
cording to the booklet, which costs $4.95, the 
interface can be constructed for less than $2 in 
parts. 

The booklet, which was not named in the 
company announcement, is sold by Fobet 
Enterprises, 552 E. El Morado, Ontario, CA 
91764. 

Reader Service i^ 180 



Business Data Base 
Plus Statistical Package 



Charles Mann & Assoc, has a new program- 
mable Business Data Base System for the 
TRS-80 and a new Statistical Package. Business 
Data Base System allows the user to define and 
build data bases for such purposes as inventory 
control, general ledger accounting, accounts re- 
ceivable and accounts payable. The fields may 
be manipulated with a math formula accumu- 
lator to format reports and present status dis- 
plays. 

The system is compatible with TRSDOS, 
NEWDOS and 3.0 DOS. The programs are 
auto linked and called automatically as needed. 
Business Data Base System needs at least 32K 
RAM with 48K recommended, and a single 
disk drive. Multiple disk systems are supp>oried 
under user control. 

The Business Data Base System is available 
for $89.95 from Charles Mann & Assoc., 7594 
San Remo Trail, Yucca Valley, CA 92284. 

The Statistical Package includes Scientific 
Data Management System and a number of 



48 ' 80 Microcomputing. October 1980 



ADVENTURERS! 
RISE TO NEW 

At Last, 3 Dimensions! 

Deathmaze 5000 and Labyrinth are the first in a new 
breed of adventure. Instead of wandering through 
the English language, typing GO EAST or GO WEST, 
you move through a colossal maze represented on 
the screen three-dimensionally. Hallways recede 
into infinity or come to dead-ends. Doors open to 
right and left. Pits open in floor and ceiling. As you 
encounter objects, monsters, and mayhem, one or 
two word commands may be used. The command 
set is extensive and sophisticated. The proper com- 
mands allow the solution of problems and the 
manipulation of objects. The improper choice of 
words could spell theend. . . . 

MACHINE LANGUAGE SOPHISTICATION 

Deathmaze 5000 and Labyrinth are written in ma- 
chine language. They are both incredibly fast. All 
the features expected of great adventures are built 
in, including SAVE GAME and a blinking cursor. All 
versions include relocation modules for use with 
disk systems. 



Deathmaze 5000 places you on the top floor of a 
five story building. Each floor is a maze of twisting 
passageways. Floors are connected by elevators and 
open pits. You have but one goal. ESCAPE ALIVE! 
Where is the only door out of this nightmare? 
Monsters, bats, mad dogs, hunger, and many more 
horrors plague your every step as you struggle to 
escape the most complex adventure ever written. 

TRS-BO Level II 16K cassette $12.95 

APPLE II or APPLE II PLUS 32K cassette $12.95 

Labyrinth places you in a maze of gigantic propor- 
tions. But you are not alone! A minotaur searches 
for you, seeking a grisly meal. You must find 
weapons, spells, and treasures. You must deal with 
ghosts and cave gnomes. You must avoid the mino- 
taur until the moment is right for the final battle. 

TRS-BO Level II 16K cassette $12.95 

APPLE II or APPLE II PLUS 32K cassette $12.95 



• • • CONTEST * * • 



Med Systems Software 

P.O. Box 2574 Chapel Hill, NC 27514 
(919)933-1990 



^^u 




REWARDI 

This man escaped a fate worse than death. He was the 
first, but we hope not the last. From his condition, you 
would never realize that he designed Deathmaze 5000. 
Those few others who survive may send their correct 
solutions to us. On December 31, a drawing will be 
held. Six intrepid adventurers will win their choice of 
three Med Systems programs and a shirt silk-screened 
with the above logo and the words "I survived Death- 
maze 5000". Only the correct solutions are eligible. 
All judgements final. Please enclose a SASE for return 
of solutions or notification of correctness. All winners 
will be contacted directly. 



SATrSFACTION GUARANTEED! 

All Med Systems Software producis come with a 14 day 
moneyback guarantee. If for any reason you are not satis- 
fied, return your order within 14 days for a prompt and 
cheerful refund. 

ORDERING INFORMATION 

Orders are processed within two working days. Mastercard 
and Visa card holders please remember to include the expi- 
ration date. We pay all postage and handling within the U.S., 
Canada, and US, territories. European orders please include 
S2.00 for air post. 

Ask about our other adventures. These include Samu- 
rai. Reality Ends, Bureaucracy, and The Human Ad- 
venture. 



Please send the following 3-D adventures: 
n Deathmaze (S12.95) $_ 



n Labyrinth 



($12.95) $_ 
TOTAL $- 



n Please send your catalog of programs and produCTs. 
as well as details of the Deathmaze contest. 

Name 



Address 

City 



State. 



.Zip. 



Computer: 
nTRS-8016KLII 



n Mastercard 
MCorVISAt 



nvisA 



a APPLE II or APPLE II 

PLUS32K 

n check 



Expiration Date 



• Reader Se/vice— se» page 22e 



^ MIcrocorrjputing, October 1980 • 49 




FMG CORPORATION NOW CARRIES GRAHAM -DORIAN & PEACHTREE SOFTVWRE 



VISA' 



(T) 



P.O. Box 16020 

Fort Worth, Texas 

76133 

(817) 294-2510 



PEACHTREE SOFTWARI SViTtMS 

afcPKnAL LEDGER - n^cofiJi tfcliiti D> All nnmciii 
TrantacTiom Genofiiei ■ [uii'%ce t^iafi anfl m ">- 
com* siAiamtfir Fienbk nia idipifbte dea^n io> 
twin imiH tiu«inFE4«1 md TifrMJ EWrftHmirtg c4#ni 
■vriEeup services PiDdifcr? recc^rs ■& loiiowa TrnJ 
e«i«nce TranuctiDfi n«onieri B«i«nce Sheet PrKK 
Year CcnpafAiPHt BflU'icfr 5fv«i. incorr« SrAltment 
Priw Yea' CwrvuaTiw income STAEerri»M am) Do- 
parlnvnt tnc«Ti« St«ivm*nii lni*ractit« with oir«r 
PE*CHTHEE accounrmg pKMgn Sop^hed ki 



and «^i) 



NEW 

VERSATILITY 

For Your TRS-80 

1®' 




CONTftOL PROGRAM 
FOR MICROCOMPUTERS 
ENABLING YOU TO RUN 
SOFTWARE PUBLISHED 
FOR CP/M 1.4 ON THE 
TRS-80 
CP M IS considered tlie industry stand- 
ard disk operating system because it 
gives you the hardware-independent 
tntertace you need to make your com- 
puter work for you. CP.'M 2.0 is the 
latest in the evolution ot a proven relia- 
ble and etticient software system FMG 
CORPORATION NOW OFFERS THE 
CP M 2 OFOR THE TRS-80, 
II features an enhanced upward com- 
patible lile system and powerful new 
random access capabilities The CP M 
2.0 Irom FMG provides the ability to 
fun software published tor (he CP M 
system, on the TftS-80 Model II From 
minidisiis. floppy disks, all the way to 
high-capacity hard disks, the flexibility 
ol CP M 2 makes it a truly universal 
operating system The package in- 
cludes an S " system disk, editor, as- 
sembler and debugger for the TRS-BO 

AvsilsOle in Fo'inaT A. B, C.G only . (200/125 

/wy/m 

MWTI-nKXUUMMMO MONfKM 

NEW INDUSTRY 
STANDARD 

A deluxe operating system that 
provides big computer facilities at 
small computer prices. MP/M is a 
monitor program wfiich operates 
with your microcomputer to provide 
multi-terminal access with multi- 
programming at each terminal. 
Best of all. it's CP/M compatible 
which means you can run a wide 
variety or programming languages, 
applications packages, and devel- 
opment software. 

You can run simultaneous edi- 
tors, program translators, and 
background printer spoolers. Or 
you can use MP/M for data entry or 
data-base access from remote ter- 
minals. Or you can use MP/M real- 
time features to monitor an assem- 
bly line and automatically schedule 
programs for execution throughout 
the day. MP/M makes an excellent 
focal point for a cluster of con- 
nected microcomputers. The pos- 
sibilities ar^ limitless. 



*CP/M ana MP.M ira 1ril)gnuilis ol DigiUt nCHirch 
Z% 11 ft IriiMmajhDf Zilog tnc 
TRS.W ri ■ liadBnurk al Tindy Cor[> 
PiKftUM H ■ iiiiMmiili at So'ciFx 



All FMO Softwifi 
urv Minuftli 



Produeti Inclitd* AM Nk«. 



m 



MICROPRO INTERNATIONAL 

SUPEB.IOHT I - Sort mB'ge eitrai 
Diogr, 



ii;/r,*c 



Sorl' 



■ ed : 



able I 



■ bfto- 



I U,! 



m biniiy. BCD. Psckea Or. .. 

liMlind A U'tO potni e*Dnnen(ffli. TieFO |uiirli«d. SIC. 
Even vtfiilDIa number or lividi Der recDfdl fmtm 
lUPKII-IORT II - ACOvB avillible ll abuilul* pio 
9'lm onp, IITWM 

(UPEH-IOIIT III ~ AI II Minuiil SEltCT EUCLUDF 

IIIOIID-ITAd - M»r>u Ofmrr miMal woid tiiontiina 
i>ii«m for krt* ft'r^ (Uindird Tp-minaib Te«l iD'mfti. 
I."g pt(lii-"»o on KiMn Ficiliici (» li.t pagmiw 
plge numbtr jjjlitjf unler ana undeitcOf* 1Ji*r 
c*n pfinr or* dafu'nviii "hiW iimuHaneoijUv Bdil.rig 
• s»c«>a Edii iic.iiiiti include gioui ttfcn and 
'fpiici ntadW'rif IS »<«•' Kil liimi bUKk nUKt 
elc H*0(jrF« Cfir luminal *iih addiHUble co-ior 

pcwiiooing $4M/ft40 

WOMO-aTA* C luHwl l M ii ii HetB - Fgt lopKultuWd 
iiMr» •10 do nql F44 an« o* If* many llanda'd 
«(m:nii D- [KCiwr conligurmiio™ m Iho OnliiDuIiaii 
ot'liOfMII WORD- STAR HA/IM 

WMO-MAtttn T,„ Eaito. - hr om FwxM >«1 luM" 
Hl 01 CP W ■ ED coi-mandl InclwMig gMtui »»i'C«- 
ifg and 'tp(a,:,ng igiai'ds and siOwardi in fi» in 
'idn TnaM provtdoi lull >(ra«n odiloi Id uMri aiih 
HI car addraBi«bi«.cursoi Terininfti I1WVZS 



mACCOlMTI PATAU.! - Traclil 
parabifi and incO'PO'alei a chack iniling lea . . 
Uatniaini a tomoltla vtndo' lil* Willi infofmalion on 
purtnaH OfdVM and diicouni raimt aa wall H aclivo 
jccouni itaiui Producai rapoili aa roliDwa: Opan 
JDuc^e^ ReporT Accounla Payablo Agpno Rapon and 
Cain naiquiranmnij Pioodts lopul 10 PEACHIBee 
Genaial L&oga' SuppNed >n lourcc code lor UJcro- 
solt BASIC ttWVtM 

m ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLI - OanoiaM InvDicg resli- 
ler and compFelB manrli'y atalcm^nla Tracha curroni 
and aged Jeceivablea Maimama cuilomor Mo incluij- 
mg ciedil information and account $la1us The cui- 
■finl sTalua ot any cuttomer account la Inalantlv avail- 
able Produces reporla (H FolloHt Aged Accounts 
Hacflivable. Invoice Pvgltlar. Paymanl and Adpual- 
in«n1 nagtslsi and Cuatomer AccounT Status Report 
Piovldes inpul to PEACHIREE Grneial lea»i Sup- 
DiAd in aouice cod* lor Microaoit BASIC InofUo 

mPAVROU- - Pieparaa payroll tor hourly, aatarlvd ana 
cDrnmiasroncd errployoei Gtnfrialai montnty. guar- 
Itily and annual lolurnt Prap«rta employ** W-?'l 
IncluOei labial lor ladaial witbheiamg and FICA ■> 
iveli ai withholding loi all SO ilAlaa pija up 10 ?0 
ciliM Irom pre-compuTad o* uwi generated tabifls 
MTitl prmT cnecka. Pairroii ^pialei. MonlMf Summary 
and Onemploymenl Tai Repdfl PiDvidea mpul 10 
PEACHTREE Geneiil Ltdge Supplied m souicl 
cod* lor Micio»R BASIC tIMItM 

mMVEMTDflT - Mainiaini deuilwl m'oimilion on 
■>ch mvenloir iiem including paii numt*'. dev^ip- 
tion unil ol nvaaurc vendO' and reorOeF Oala ilem 
achvily and complaia inlormation on curreni item 
co«K. pflicing ar.d ubet Produce 1 rtQotit as loLIOWS 
PniFtical InwntO'y WOrUheel. Inventory Price liar 
DvfiannvnLiI Summary Raporl. IrmnTory Sialus Rv- 
PO". The RaorOer Rewl inO th* Per«ul-to-Date and 
V«ftr-Io-Oft<* reporli Supplied irr source code for 
UicroaoO BASIC I1,IM/»M 



(M) 

m 



(M) 



(M) 



\m 



' NUdtOtOFTfltODUCTS 

■AWC-M - Disk E-tanOcd BASIC ANSI conpatlbia 
wiin long variable nmes. WHILEiWEND chaining 
varLabla lenglh file rvconta S350.'t25 

BAtIC C0IIPII.CI1 - Lenguig* csmpilible with 
QASIC-SO and 3-10 Irmet laaTer execuTron Produce* 
slarvdard hTicrosori relocatabla binary oulpul In- 
cludes MACnO-aO Alio linkable to FORTHAN-aO or 
COBOL-«a code modules t3SS/t2S 

FOtrTNAH-M - ANSI «6 jeicwl "Of C0«PIE«I plus 
meny aiteni.ons Inciudea reiocatabte object com- 
piler lir^kin^ loader i.brary wilh menage! Alfa in- 
clude* MACnO-so IS** baio*l tSOO'tn 
CO*<M.-«« - Leier 1 ANSI 71 ilandard COBOI. plut 
i^iotT or Level 2 Full saouentiai relative, end In- 
d*-aa til* suppan with vernDI* Ilia naiTMa STRtHQ. 
UMSTRWQ COMPLITE VAPVINO'LINTIL EXTEND 
CALL. COPY SEARCH a-dimensional a'lMt. com- 
pound and abbreviarvd conditions, nailed IF Power- 
ful interactive screen- handling *■ tens ion 1 Includes 
compatibre assemble' linmng loader, tf^a reiocai- 
abla library manager at described under UACRO-eO 

MACHO-H - KBOrdeO Macro Aigembfer Intel ind 
ZHog mnamonics supported RelocHIHble linl<BbLe 
output Loader. Library Manager and dots naler- 
ence List uliiiTies included tIMIUS 

k XMACAO-(a - eOBG cross ess*mbl*r All Macro ana 
' utility laalurei ol MACRO K package Unemonici 
slightly modriiad Irom Intel ASMU Compatibility dela 
• heet avaiiaote t]Mr|H 



(T) 



FLOPPY tAVen - PrcP(ftc(ioi for center "OlM Ol V 
and 9" riopfjy diiht Only i na^fJejJ d«> disiiQiiv Ki| 
coriKina cenipnng qoit, p'esai>re tool and tDUQh 
7 ml mylar ttMoicvn^ lin^t loi ?^dilh«11«B 

5" KH |14,M 

5''i Ringi only iT.flf 

B", Kit t1tiM 

e", Rlngi only M.H 

HCAOCUEANlha DiaKETTC-Cl^ins iha drl^ nviQ/ 
Vv<ii« head In JD »cD^dB Difkeiie abioftrt loot* 
DiiJdt Pl'liClVt linB*rprinf«. and DChsr lO^Bign pirri- 
el«i fhii mighi hmdar Tha p*riO"Aartce of iha dr^vfl 
hAAQ Lk»li 11 Ivftti 3 monihi nvilh duly uH 
B' S3Z00 

^•/a no 00 



HAILIUG AOOniU - Khpi iracb al n 
drflu rnrofiniT4on and lUowi IPv uJ4cli 
rniB jnitxmadon [n ih* Tcm of milling 

laKi) A'jowt ihB iizet la imi'qi r'te uiiar 



Ad- 



w-nic" ifliia pfog 
add real Jabais Srar 

rtiin syslem Auloma 
Ilia rranagement rou' 
■ ddreas informalian I 
pnrtted wiri^out U\e ^ 
lor M<crojo1[ BASIC 



(ri*nT« USflf-defined Tor- 
ny^iem uses m ipeciaJ loffnar File 
na ^ow \o prml FIlq rnaiiing U^i or 
ud ro'Tifli riles ure m^iudgd 

sarima of daia uses mrleiied 
es whicri iJic« the name and 
bo aequeniiiii/ rnfrieved and 
It no SupL>>io(t in iou'ce cade 



(M) 



(Ml 



(M) 



(M) 



(T) 



(M) 



(W) 



(Ml 



(M) 



DESPOOL— Allows flexibility and et^'cency 
(Disk Me piirtTing can be «:comphaheiJ while 
simjtlanffoutlv jsing ihe compui«i fo' oihef 
raak:}) SlOMrer printers do hde Tie up ihe com 
p^t«' neQUirfit3?K rnmiintim t7«/|T0 

' SCKEN BMT^ Tex\ fid-ro' fo' pvngivn en 
iry — aiio^n utar The ab-liiy lo ue eninfti a? 
^hsy ar« Mr'ng m«dfl Hai corTLrnand wrtich en 
■blvi ui«r to movft lh« y«w«d pdidion of the 
fil« ■nywKara within Thfl cu'rtnt datd file OH 
Add imO'milion inyvvtiflfe m tha 1il« ft4i]uir«H 
tfiK mmimum tl2b»2S 

jAlto JvaiJabIa in Tns DOS fonhdi 
SpBCiryjtwMlorTnS-aO) 

> IflAC — Diik-bflifld, powerfui macro a^aam- 
b\Bf uTilues Starda'd Intel Mr^amonica tn 
cJudes macro processor 

The CP M BOSO Macro Assembrer reade bb- 
sainblv languagfl statement Uom a diakBtie 
Me and prodircBs an Intel' HEX fofrnal object 
(lie on Ihe disk suitable for proceasina m The 
TRS CP M environment flequi^ei 32k mini 
mum flndCP M SlOO't^S 

■ ZSID — EffiCiflni and reliable prografn Eealing 
sy»Eem for ZBO microcomputers CfpaDi lilies 
include Eracebac* anfT hitit>grBin taciliTioK Al 
fowB real time break pornts 
ZSIO ifl ■ symbolic debugaer ^hich ttvpftnitt 
upon the ^eaturei of the TRS-CP M itendard tJa- 
Duggar, providing greatly enhani:e(1 IftciliUai 
lor a&iembhr Itr^juaga program check-pui He- 
^u•'n 27K mmimum and CP M >*«'*» 



MAIL UST — Mailing list mainienance package 
Mo sortirig required to pnm normal dddiess la 
bels in f ip code sequer^ce Supports new large- 
up code Sorii and selects on muHiple fields 
Labeli may t>e printed in uaer selectable fo' 
mala IrKludea tofi Ar>dulBC1 uTilri'esSMOi'tSfi 



FMG's LIBRARY: 



t - QRAHAM-DOftlAN tOFTVHARE 8VSTEMS 

, OENEHAL LEOOEd - An on line ivilam. no baich 
tquirad Liirpes lo etficr ORAHAM-DoniAN 
'RQ pAcugei t'v t^iof^thcf't fioiicd UKr 
ttTabrnnei cmiomied CO 4 Providei iiar^tactioo 
register recoid of fOu'iei entries tnal baia^ce^ antr 
montniy cLosiriga Kmmm M monih niiftjij and p'o 
'idea cornpan^on of curreni j^ear m\t\ previous year 
tiequi'H CBASiC 7 Si>p^>ed m sovrce •••«.'»» 
ver>dor \as and 
anfl'T^a Fie-fble 
- kvrrte^ cnec*4 10 soeci'ic wendCH lo* cctam m- 
tfoiccK Q' cv< tmak« {>a']ia pafrnerii) AirToeiotHialiy 
poais to <jRAHAM Don>A»4 General Ledger » rum ax 
^rai-kd a'D'^e SfsTem FtgqLurai CBASIC ? S-jppited m 



PABCAUU* - Con^piier generaiet P coda Irorr ei- 
Tendvo language iirip'emenia'icin of ilandard PAS- 
CAL SuppBts overlay bt'wciure ihrough add'iipnai 
procedurs cam and the 5£aM£NT prcKsdura lypt 
Pro-'Hdei corivernieril iTnng handling capaDint, *ilh 
ihc aaoed ^ariaOW lype STRJNO Untvpad iiWt arJo* 
memory image i O ReouirH MK CP/M fHOtM 

PA8CA4JT - 2B0 naliVB coda PASCAL compjler Pro- 
di>ces opsmircd HOUdDie rc-crirrinT cod« An mrer- 
'acmg lo C* m h inroug" tw supoori iitt^ari Tr»» 
package includes coTipi'cr Microtoft Ccriparipie rt- 
locaipig atsember ana innker tna AOvrca 'w aif 
JitfBFy modbiea Variant reccdt- ttr^igi arid dired 
I'D art SuppOfttET Requ^ai itK CP'U arff ttO CPU 

PAtCAL/WT - Subiel o' randard PASCAL Oaner- 
nOWabie SOSO machine coda SyrnDoiit dadug- 
gar included Suppofti rnre^rupi proceduraii CPW 
Ilia I O and aatambiy language iniarfaca Real wa'i- 
abies can » BCD sotiware noatmg pomt, of AMD 
QSi1 hafdwire Mealing pomt versioe ? inciudoi 
feumaration and Record daia ryoei Manual enplams 
BASIC 10 PASCAL converaioni Source lor ma run- 
lima package reauires Digilai Ratearcha MAC Rb- 
quiraa 3?K |»0/tM 

CMIIC-2 DiaM Extended BASIC - No^inrencMve 
BASIC *ilri pseudocode compner and rur>-iima in- 
terpreter Supports tuiJ tile coniroi, cliamlng Inleoer 
andeitanded precision variables, tic UtO^ltfi 



(Ml 



{M) 
(T) 



ares i 



rtiai4 



nil agfrs accounts and rec- 
Of dl 'rrvOkCvs P-o-ndei comDlete inFormalion describ- 
ing cuitoine' pavi^"^t adiviiy RacaipTi can b* 
OOSivd '.0 diriargni ladgar accounia E nines auto- 
maiicaiiv update GftAHAM-DOfiiAn OenvraJ Ladpar 
or runs ai aland a'OAa sv^'erri Requitas CBASiC-2 
Supplied in source »H/«)« 

- Mamiaim employee masler tiib 
I parrQi' Withholding lor FiCA. federal and 
Siaie ttfSS Prints payroll regiBier, crmcks, qu 
reporis and W-J fornii CB" gerta'tie ad hoc report! 
and ernpioyee lorrr lexers wiii^ mail labels, f^ecru"' 



;;: (M) 



CSOSIC-! Suppll 
, IMVEMTOnV SrtTCM - Capluri 



(T)'; 



«ls. costs, 
fnafkup. elc Tians- 
acrion inlopmatior. may tia entered tor F^poiline by 
laietman type ol 9 a Iff. dalv of Bale ate Reportl 
avaita&le bot^ 'of accounimg anO ^cisior: making 
Rfqmid CeASIC-t S^Ppiiad in loii'ca (IM/ll! 
J09 COBTtKO - C>«»iB'^«^ lor g*n«rj 



■IT*M - uiiiiti to iinii or* com outer 10 anoliai alio 
eguippva »ilti BSTaij iiioivi hit iranilara at <iili 
data >e«a ina coniexipn to nai] «itn cnc ciscii 
conlFOJ 1:1101:11 loi ttry ivIialiW orroi Oatoclisn and 
aulomaTi: ttur Wo uio it' it t great' fuit wildcard 
oipanaioo to Kr>d ■ COM ate MOO tuwd *ilh Aire 
SOO Baud witn orio™ qornocliw. BMTi ondi need 
OAa StmriQard ar'd^veriiDoi can talk toon* anothflf 

MLCCTOn tU^Cl - Data Basa Piocauo' 10 c'oaW 
and mairiliin tt>ulti ttey Oala trisn Punn torrnaned 
loftod repDita witn ni^rtwncai avoimarm c mailing 
Latwtt CorrvK *<rn sample appiicationi including 
Salat Activity iikvnrory. Payabtoi Race-raDiei 
Cl>ei:« Register ana Client Patient AppomtmeoTa etc 
Hequi'ti CBASIC-? Eucpiied in lov'C* tMatZO 
GLICTOM - aerval Ledger option 10 SCIECOFI 
ttl-C2 Inleraci'V* ifilem provider lor cuttomued 
COA unique criB" o' transaction typel iniu'a ^Qper 
double entfy iToahlieepi'^ Generalai balanta aneatl 
P4L ataiementi antj journeii Two year record allowt 
lr>r alatemeni ot cnanges in tintnciai poailion tepoft 
Suppiiea in lource Heoutret SEIECTOB 111-CJ. 
CBASIC ! and SIK system tlMtlS 

TCXTttfRtTEft tit -- Ten farmaltar to lustily «nd oagt- 
nafe letters fliiri otner documents Sperial Features 
inctudB inaertjon ot te-t during eieculion trom Dther 
cfisk titet or console. Deimilting recipe documetits 
ttl I>p izriated Irotr. linked t'aaments on ortter litea 
Haa tacilities iDr sorted indei. table or contents and 
footnote insertions tdeal lor contracfl manuals etc 
Nov CDmpetiDle vrltti Elsctdc Pencil* prepertd litet 
. . IIU'MO 



nd anaiyeing ei- 
penaea uect cstabiitnei customifeo cost categories 
and job phases Permits compariton ol actual versus 
estrmaTed costs AkJiomtlicatI* updates GRAHAM - 
DOniAN Ganaiit Ledger or luni as liana alone sys- 
tem Requires CBASIC-J Si.pp1.ed m source tfH'IU 



Sarcte Program Disk For Eeeh Gran, 
Business Package Soecify PKkBge 



ti-Dori 



FOWHAT* AVAMAIU: 

(Al TRS eo Model t IW) KavB Only 

OHD EKE MUST (Bt TRSBOUoMlit 

SPECIFY DISK ICt TRS-BaM«MIIIHMIK*v>Onlv 

SYSTEMS AND lOI HEAThKtT HBs iMl Xeyi Only 

FOBMATS: (E) NI3RTH STAft 

IFl SUPER BRAIN QD 

(Gl STANDARD UN IMPLEMENTED 



f Ml Modiliad varaKHi avail! bie for 
Z >'"'imptem 



Tlis sale of each 
proprifliary software 
package convayl a 
licanse for uas on 
ans system only 



Prices F OB 
Fort Wonh. Tat 
ShippinQ, hand- 
ling andC O D. 
charges extra 



(T| 



ithCPMH 
Heati! and TflS iO Model 1 
compulen 

For alt {T} Hems fiated ebova . the rec- 
ornrner^ddd tyvfenrt conhguraiton cor»iiii of 
4SK CPM 7 full dm a\tk dnve* M ■ BO CRT and 
13! i;olumn printer 



PASCAL USER MANUAL & HEPOHT 

I2n<>' Ediuan (jv »; Jensen and N W'rin 
■ blortil Minuit and Conclia Fltlanaca Rifefl lor IM fn- 

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report Ine manual 'i d.'screr] to tltosG *ho ha^ iome limilijFity 
*iin comoulei progrjmni'ng and who wi^n to get acquainted witn 
til! PASCAl tjnguige Tlif iBonrt Oetines stjnOird PASCAL 
which consCifutes i common base Detweeh vanou$ imptsmerU' 
tion^ ot ttw tinguags 



PASCAL PRIMER Problem Solving 

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(MeMt tncan CilIiI h »>Mlm >*Kit>cittM larfernet- 






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BEGINNERS MANUAL FOR UCSD PASCAL 
SYSTEM 
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SO • ^ Microcomputing. October 1980 



other programs for curve filling, probability, 
general uatistics, distribution malhematics and 
test statistics. The programs allow tor curve fit- 
ting of data using hnear. exponential, logarith- 
mic, or power relationships. A built-in dala 
base is included to produce a set of working ex- 
amples to help users learn statistical principles. 

The system requires 32K of RAM and at least 
one disk drive, li can handle up to five 100-by- 1 
matrices containing raw data, grouped dala or 
frequency arrays. The package sells for $89. V5. 

Reader Service t^ 171 



Single-key Entries for DOS 



Mediamix has a program for TRS-SO disk 
users called Super Directory. While in the DOS 
command mode, the user enters D; the com- 
puter (hen asks for Ihe drive number and an in- 
dexed directory of that drive's disk is displayed 
along with a menu of command modes. A 
single keystroke will put the user in RUN, 
KILL. FREEorPRlNT- 

Super Directory is a machine language pro- 
gram for TRSDOS or NEWDOS users. It is 
sold for $9.95 by Mediamix. P.O. Box 8775. 
Universal City. CA 91608. 

Reader Service v' 172 



Faster Drives Are for Sale 



Aerocomp. Inc., P.O. Box 24829. Dallas, 
TX 75224, has a new line of disk drives with the 
MPI drive acting as the center of the system. 
With an access time of five milliseconds, Ihe 
company claims that MPI drives are the fastest 
in the field, and offer the most accurate disk 
positioning in the industry. Centering is ac- 
curate wilhin 0.0008 inches. 




Aerocomp's New Disk Drive 



The Aerocomp drives' power consumption is 
low al six Walls standby, 12 Watts operatmg. 
All write-prolccl and index sensing is accom- 
plished optically. They also allow users to Hip 
disks to utilize both sides. 

No pricing information was included with 
Ihe company's product announcement. 

Reader Service »* 167 



Double-density Storage Boost 



Percom Data Co., Inc.. 211 N. Kirby, 
Garland, TX 75042, has begun production of a 
double-densiiy disk-controller adapter for ihe 
TRS-80 Model I. The adapter is called Doubler. 
According to Percom's calculations, using 
Doubler an 80 can store and format up to 354K 
on a five-inch disk, compared to the 256K of a 
standard eight-inch fioppy. 

Doubler is sold with DBLDOS, which is a 
I RSDOS-compaiibIc double-density operating 
system, and with a utility to convert smgle- 
densily files and programs to double-densit> 
format. The complete system sells for $219,95 
from Percom. 

Reader Service t^ 170 



T/Maker Report Generator 



A software tool, combining a tabular report 
generator with word processing, is available 
from Lifeboat As,soc. The T/Makcr system 
provides easy analysis and presentation of 
numerical data and text copy used in financial 
modeling and report preparation. Typical 
T/Makcr applications include sales projec- 
tions, profitability studies, balance sheets, esti- 
mates, price sheets, etc. 

The system includes a full screen editor. A 
macro command allows any series of key- 
strokes to be saved and executed with one key- 
stroke. Text insert, delete, global search and re- 
place, and block move arc all supported by the 
editor. Compulation for rows and columns in- 
cludes: standard arithmetic; percenls; expo- 
nents; common Iranscendenlal functions; aver- 
ages; maxima; minima; projections, etc. 

The T/Maker requires a 48K CP/M system 
and C-BASlC-2. It costs $275 from Lifeboat 
Assoc., 1651 Third Ave., New York, NY 
10028. 

Reader Service t^ 177 



Eight-inch Floppy Drives 



Parasitic Engineering's Maxi-disk eight-inch 
fioppy disk drives arc now compatible with the 
TRS-80 Model 11. Used with the Model II, 
Maxi-disk drives are functionally identical to 
Radio Shack expansion drives. No software or 
hardware changes are needed. 

Each drive is contained in its own cabinet. 
Additional drives are simply plugged in, so that 
a drive can be removed for service without dis- 




Maxi-disk Drives 

turbing any other drives on the system. 

The drives cost $845, plus $60 for the three 
drive cable which is needed for conncclion. 
They are sold by Parasitic Engineering, Inc., 
1 101 Ninth Ave, Oakland. CA 'M606. 

Reader Service t^ 163 



Video-oriented Text Editor 



Soulheaslern's Texian is a machine- language 
texl editor designed lo operate on 16K ma- 
chines. It is a video-oricnicd editor designed lor 
BASIC programmers. TcMan reads program 
tapes written in Level II BASIC and reUirns lo 
BASIC with Ihe program fully loaded when 
editing is completed. 

This lext editor has 32 command functions 
and 26 reserved-word keys. The command 
functions provided include: previous screen, 
next screen; auto line numbering; block delete; 
display free memory, etc. The reserved word 
keys will automatically enter many standard 
BASIC commands. 

The package costs S40. plus $7.50 for ihe 
manual, from Southeastern Software, 5 1 2 
Conway Lane, Birmingham, AL 35210. 

Reader Service ►^ 179 



Model II General Ledger 



GL IS a general ledger system for ihe TRS-80 
Model II. It requires TRSDOS 1.2, a 132 
column printer, a dual disk system, and 64K 
memory. It is part of a larger accounting system 
which includes A/R, A/P, and Payroll. Sum- 
mary transactions from these packages arc ac- 
cepted automatically by GL. 

The GL package produces depart menial and 
summary income staicmenls showing current 
and year-io-dalc amounts, percentages by 
category, and comparative dala with the 
general ledger one year ago. The chart of ac- 
counts contains a five-digit account number; 
account description; and current, year-io-dale, 
and budget balances. Users specify account 



80 Microcomputing, October 1980 • 51 
Scanned by Ira Goldklang - vvvvw.trs-80.com 



NEW PRODUCTS 



lypc, maslcr/suh account cixie and balance 
sheet culiirnn i^'ixle. 

The major oulpuls are Iriai balance, balance 
sheet, income stalemcnl and deparimenl in- 
come statemenls. Tlie major programs art 
Master file Mainienance/Lisi, Transactions/ 
hnler/ Register,' l.isl. Account Status/ 1. ist, 
Cieneraie Mnancial Reports, Accounting 
Transactions Transfer, End-ol-period Pro- 
cessor and System Initialisation. ISAM is used 
lor last random key and sequential access. 

GL sells lor S129 from Micro Architect Inc.. 
% Dolhan St., Arlington, MA 02174. 

Reader Sersice ^ 165 



per/lower case character set, 100 characters per 
second in a bi-directional print-out and ribbon 
cartridge loading. It uses ordinary bond paper 
in sheets, roll or I'anfold form. 

With full9ficharactcr ASCI lscl.it is capable 
of both upper and lowercase printing at both 40 
and 80 characters per line. Operator control m- 
cludes power, seleci/deselecl, line feed, top of 
form and self lest. A Centronics compatible 
parallel inierface is standard. Serial RS-232C or 
20mA current Iwip is optional. 

Contact DIP. Inc., 121 Beach St., Boston, 
MA 021 1 1 for more information. 

Reader Service ►^ 18? 



Horse Handicapping Program BASIC to FORTRAN 



A horse race handicapping package tor ihe 
TRS-80 and Apple home computers is being 
sold by the 3Ci Co. Ihe company has gathered 
and stored data from a vast number of races, 
and analysed which attributes contribute to a 
horse's performance in a race, either positively 
or negatively. 

The package consists of a guide on how to 
use the "Daily Racing f-orni" lo obtain the ten 
factors needed for each horse, a sample form to 
simplify Ihe data gathering, a cassette that com- 
putes the odds for the current race, a program 
listing for use with other types of computers, 
and lips on how lo use odds when wagering. 

Ihe package costs Siy.95 from 3G Co., Rl. 
3. Bo\ 28A. (iasion. OR 971 19. 
Reader Service ..' 164 



Low Cost Dot-matrix Printer 



DIP. Inc.. IS selling a low cost Data Impact 
Printer, the model DlP-81. It is priced at S499. 
The model UlP-81 is a dot-mairi\ impact 
printer, designed for conlinous duly cycle. 

The model DlP-81 features 7-by-7 or ex- 
panded 14-by-7 mairix printing, an up- 



DIP Doi-marrix Printer 



The Management. Box 111, Aledo. TX 
76008, has a programmer utility called 
iORTRANslator. It is designed lo aid in the 
translation of TRS-80 Disk BASIC Model 1 
programs to TRS-80 FORTRAN. 

FORTRANslaior converts BASIC into the 
structured READ, WRITE. FORMAT con 
structs. It also translates BASIC kcy-wordsand 
procedures such as IF-THEN-ELSIi inio cor- 
rect style. FORTRAN indenialion and spacing. 
C~ lines. DO loops and other conventions are 
produced. A program can be created and 
debugged in BASIC, then translated to com- 
piled FORTRAN- 

This machine-language program will run on 
a ilK machine with ai least one disk drive. A 
printer is recommended. FORTRANslaior is 
priced ai S29.95 and is supplied on a Model 1 
data disk. 

Reader Service i^ 178 



Land Surveying Applications 



Four land surseymg programs for TRS-80 
have been developed by Disco-tech. They arc 
Field Note Data Reduction, Coordinate 
Cieomctry, Stadia Reduction and Hohzonial 



Curve Staking. They are included m Disco- 
tcch's Survey 80 package. 

The Survey 80 package has been developed 
and field-tested by a team of practicing land 
surveyors. The four programs allow users to 
choose various methods of solving technical 
problems. Fifteen-digii accuracy is built in 
where appropriate, and ouput can be displayed 
on the screen and/or printed out. 

No computer knowledge is presupposed. 
Steps arc presented logically and lucidly on the 
screen. Programs are supported by manuals 
which guide the user step-by-step through hard- 
ware installation, data entry, computation, and 
output. The manuals are reinforced by prac- 
tical examples and appendices which treat com- 
mon problems and care of magnetic media. 

Survey 80 is available in a TRS-80 Model I 
version, and by November will be offered in a 
CP/M version. 

Field Note Data Reduction costs $250, Coor- 
dinate Geometry costs $350, Stadia Reduction 
costs $175 and Horizontal Curve Slaking costs 
$95. The programs are sold by Disco-iech, a di- 
vision of Morton Technologies, Inc., P.O. Box 
1 1 1 29. Santa Rosa, C A 95406. 

Reader Service t^ 162 



Video Football with Strategy 



Acorn Software Products, Inc. has another 
nev* game — Pigskin, a football strategy game 
for the Model I Level 11. 

Two players can compete against each other, 
or one player may challenge the program in one 
of five levels of difficulty. Any game in pro- 
gress can be saved. 

Pigskin's graphic display of the field shows 
ball movement and statistics as players employ 
their skills. Strategy involves the use of ten of- 
fensive ptays and six defensive positions. 

The game is priced at $9,95 on cassette, or 
$15.95 on disk from Acorn Software, Inc., 634 
North Carolina Ave., S.E., Washington. D.C 
20003. 

Reader Service t^ 168 



Pigskirt 's Graphic Display 




52 • 80 Micfocomputing, October 1980 



If you 
just bought 

anotner 

printer, 

boy are 

you gonna 

be sorry. 




Epson. 



The Epson MX-80. It's not just another worked- 
over rehash of last year's model. It's our top-of- 
the-line 80-column printer. It's new. From the 
ground up. And it's the most revolutionary 
printer to hit the market since Epson invented 
small printers for the 1964 Olympics in Tokyo. 
Don't take our word for it, though. Compare. 
There simply isn't a better value in an 80-column 
printer. Period. 

But here's the fact that's going to stand the 
printer world on its ear. The MX-80 sports the 
world's first disposable print head. After it's 
printed about 50 million characters, you can 
throw it away. Because a new one costs less than 
$30, and the only tool you need to change it is at- 
tached to the end of your arm. 

Now that's revolutionary, 
but that's only the beginning. 
The MX-80 also prints bidirec- 
tionally at 80 CPS with a logi- 
cal seeking function to mini- 
mize print head travel time 



The world's first disposable print 
head. It has a life expectancy of over 50 
million characters, yet it's so simple, 
you can change it with one hand. And it 
costs less than -repeat less than -$30. 




and maximize throughput. It prints 96 ASCII, 
64 graphic and eight international characters in 
a tack-sharp 9x9 matrix. And it provides a user- 
defined choice of 40, 80, 66 or 132 columns and 
multiple type fonts. 

We spent three long years developing the 
MX-80 as the first of a revolutionary series of 
Epson MX Printers, We employed the most ad- 
vanced automatic assembly and machining 
techniques in existence to produce a printer that 
is incredibly versatile, remarkably reliable and 
extraordinarily inexpensive. It's a printer that 
could only come from the world's largest man- 
ufacturer of print mechanisms: Epson. 
If it sounds like we're proud of the MX-80, we 
are. Not only does it do things 
some of the world's most ex- 
pensive printers can't do, it'll 
do them for you for less than 
$650. That's right. Under $650. 
And if that isn't revolution- 
ary, we don't know what is. 

EPSON 

EPSON AMERICA. INC. 



.>' R««tvr Smvic*— 5C« p40e ?2e 



23844 Hawthorn*; BtHjlevard, Torrance, California W505, Tek-phone (2L1) 378-2220 

50 Microcomputing, October 1980 • 53 



Have 

The Courts 
Smashed 



-^ 



An Illinois DistrictTourt msa 
iged byte-for-byte repro 



an- •' 



in«0 



Dennis Bathory KItsz 
Roxbury, VT 056G9 



Back in the days of huge, marvelous and 
mystical mainframes, computer pro- 
grammers spent years creating massive 
utilities and procedures for their custom- 
ers. You've seen the pictures. Tled-and- 
jaciteted men huddled over computer print- 
outs with the kind of serious demeanor nor- 
mally reserved for beleagured generals. But 
at the end of their work, they found security: 
the comfort of a Job well done, the respect 
shown by appreciative and Intimidated 
clientele, and, of course, substantial finan- 
cial reward— all in good time, to be sure— 
but Inevitable. 

The year Is 1980, and a change in the pub- 
lic's awareness now threatens that security 
and professional calm. The microcomputer 
has fallen from mystique to appliance, 
merely another conterxler for customer 
dollars In a clamoring marketplace. 

What has programmers, software com- 
panies and software distributors so worried 
Is an epidemic of program copying and trad- 
ing that is very difficult to discourage under 
the current law. Stated very simply, the 
copyright laws, the most general form of 
protection for authors and artists, may not 
apply to the final versions of programs as 
prepared and sold on magnetic media- 
disks, tapes, wafers— or in read-only-mem- 
ories (ROMs). 



Dennis Bathory Kitsz is a composer, pro- 
grammer and columnist for 80 Microcom- 
puting. He is an active defender of contem- 
porary arts. His music has been performed 
in the United States and Europe. As an ar- 
tist and a programmer, Dennis has been di- 
rectly involved with the technical, aesthetic 
and legal aspects of the copyright Issue for 
over a decade. 



The Copyright Law 

The copyright law has a strong and im- 
pressive history of protection for authors 
and their works dating back to the eigh- 
teenth century, and rooted in common law. 
The Copyright Act of 1909 was framed 
around laws intended to protect published 
works, which quite plainly meant the 
printed word. The need to protect visual 
plastic arts (painting, sculpture) or tech- 
nical arts (film, photography, sound record* 
Ing) had hardly arisen. Oddities such as 
player piano rolls tiegan to force the law to 
consider material that was not readily 
translated by the naked eye, but until re- 
cently the law depended mostly on Judicial 
precedent. 

The original copyright law was enacted in 
1790, close on the heels of the Constitution 
Itself, In order to protect "any map, chart 
book or books now printed." Step by step its 
coverage was extended to Include designs, 
engravings and etchings, printed music, 
drama, photographs and negatives, sculp- 
ture ("statuary and models"), writings of an 
author, and motion pictures. 

The 1909 copyright law came under fire In 
the 19608, when piracy of records and tapes 
in the music Industry becanw a serious is- 
sue. The law protected published sheet mu- 
sic, but how many people were flocking to 
stores to buy sheet music? The recording, 
the million-selling gold record, was king. 

Executives of the recording industry 
called for copyright protection. But since 
the music performed by their artists was 
created during the performance or in the re- 
cording session itself, It wasn't written 
music. For the copyright office to require it 
to be translated into sheet music seemed 
Inconsistent with the changes in the art 
form itself. Besides the composers, per- 
formers, arrangers end distributors were 
getting ripped off. Was the creative sweat 
of the music Industry's artists any less 
valid, they asked, than that of typewrlter- 
plunkers? 

After more than sixty years, changes to 
the 1909 law were made to reflect changes 
in creative software. "Phonograms" be- 
came admissible for copyright, and ail man- 



80 h4icrocomputing, October 1980 • SS 



ner of arllsttc, sculptural and film materials 
were legitimized. 

The piano roll still didn't make It. . .nor 
dtd the computer program. The 1976 law 
did, however, Introduce the term "works of 
authorship" as a term of general coverage. 

At that time, the law provided that a com- 
mission on technological uses be set up to 
investigate two major problems with the 
act: The right of computer programs to 
copyright protection In their magnetic or 
ROM formats was unclear; ar>d photocopy- 
ing presented possible vtolatlons of copy- 
right conventions. 

The commission's final report called for 
copyright of computer programs. The report 
is nearly a year old, and, as this article Is be- 
ing written, the House Judiciary Committee 
has completed brief hearings on H.R. 6934, 
designed to Implement some of those rec- 
ommendations. 

Within the industry an unspoken agree- 
ment for the most part has held back a flood 
of Illicit copying, and authors and vernlors 
have placed copyright notices on their 
works In the hope that some sort of grand- 
father clause might retroactively protect 
their works. 

Then came Data Cash v. JS&A. . 

The unspoken agreement fell to pieces In 
1979, when Data Cash Systems, Inc. 
brought suit against JS&A Group, Inc., In Il- 
linois Federal District Court. Data Cash 
claimed that JS&A took its Compu-Chess 
program and marketed It, byte-for-byte, as 
their own JS&A Chess Computer. The feder- 
al judge In the case held that the copyright 
law did not apply to the alleged ROM dupli- 
cation, and denied Data Cash Its motion for 
judgement against JS&A. 

The question of laws governing unfair 
competition was deemed to be another 
matter, and presiding Judge Joel M. Flaum 
Issued no summary opinion on that aspect 
of the case. 

The judge's ruling was straightforward: 
'The parties have assumed that the ROM Is 
a 'copy' of the computer program within the 
meaning of both the common law and the 
1909 Act. The court does not agree. . . .A 
'copy' must be In a form which others can 
see and read." 

Bill Gates didn't like the ruling. He Is one 
of the creators of Level II BASIC, and the 
president of Microsoft, generally acknowl- 
edged the Industry's software leader. 

"It has a lot of people very upset. But as 
far as I'm aware, there's nothing (In the law) 
that eliminates that (copyright protection). 



Every manufacturer puts copyright notices 
on; Digital Equipment puts copyright no- 
tices on, we put copyright notices on . . . 

According to Gates, copyright laws are 
necessary to protect software from com- 
puter clubs or wherever people are likely to 
exchange It. 

Said Gates, "If the law wasn't going to 
protect it, there wouldn't be any software 
written." 

Just how extensive is the rip-off of pro- 
grams in the home computer marketplace? 

Large users' groups on tx)th coasts main- 
tain extensive libraries of programs for the 
purpose of sharing a cost burden; some 
such groups, but not ail, discourage users 
from making their own copies from the 
library. New commercial libraries are begin- 
ning to advertise, with a "use fee" and an 
almost tongue-in-cheek "discouragement" 
of copying. Since a program Is cheaper to 
copy than to buy, unlike a book, the pro- 
gram library becomes a tough problem tor 
authors and vendors. 

The End User 

But the user/trader presents a unique 
threat to program writers. Software is ex- 
pensive to produce and its market is severe- 
ly limited by the number of home computers 
In use. How many programs does an author 
sell? Is It a "goldmine"? And how many 
sales are lost through gratuitous copying? 

Bryan Mumford of Mumford Micro Sys- 
tems doesn't care anymore. "I just decided 
It didn't matter." 

"I sometimes wonder how much money i 
would make If i got paid tor every copy of my 
programs that Is being used. A lot more 
than i am now, you can be sure," says Mum- 
ford. "i do what i do, because I enjoy It, and 
if i start to get uptight about something like 
this. It stops being fun. Everyone Isn't In this 
position, though. For most people, software 
sales are a strict and serious business. And 
bootleg copies are a big threat. Most com- 
puter people I know are upright moral peo- 



"The object phase of a 
computer program was 
not a copy within the 
meaning of the Copy- 
right Act. . .since the 
object phase is not in a 
form which one can see 
and read with the nailed 
eye, but a mechanical 
tool or machine part." 



Judge Joel M. Flaum 
Illinois District Court 



pie, but they can be bought pretty cheaply." 

Mumford says that he sells just about 
one copy of a program per town, and, short- 
ly thereafter, that town has a plethora of 
programs from Mumford Micro Systems. 

Mumford's organization Is small and per- 
sonal, much like the bulk of the cottage In- 
dustry that has supplied the home com- 
puter field. But Intersystems is a large, 
growing company with lots of capital In- 
vestment. Its president, James H. (Hank) 
Watson, believes clubs are responsible for 
much of his dollar losses. 

"Let's face It," he says, "You sell (a pro- 
gram) to a quasi -computer club which has 
250 memtwrs. To John Jones. And Bill 
Smith happens to buy Microsoft BASIC. 
And somebody else buys FORTRAN. I bet 
you dollars to donuts that everybody In the 
club has them within a week. What are you 
going to do?" 

Hank continues, "It's going to be much 
more of an opportunity lost than a direct 
loss on my books; i could easily justify a 
million dollars. I'm sure we've only sold 50 
percent of the copies that are in the field. 
That's a direct opportunity loss to me of 
$100,000 In the first six months. It's In that 
range, and It's a lot of goddamn money. And 
when you figure what your software time 
costs by the tlnre you come up with the final 
product, that's five man-years. It comes to a 
cost of middle five figures! It takes a while 
to recover." 

But for the average user, those figures 
seem vague. Neither Watson nor Mumford 



S6 • 80 Microcomputing, October 1980 



can pinpoint specific losses, cash repre- 
sented by actual copies they have seen In 
the hands of others. Are their tears perhaps 
imagined? 

An ad appearing In the now-detunct ON- 
LINE reads, "TRS-80: Swap quality disk 
software w/ doc? Send have/want lists 
to. . .." Or how about this one: "TRS-80 pro- 
gram lending library. SASE. Exchange; Dept 

LI " Another claims, "TRS-80 'goodies. ' 

Unique mix." 

There seems to be an innocence about it, 
but what do these lists look like? One 
shocker comes in the form of (what else?) a 
computer printout, and contains more than 
160 entries including RSM2D, REMODEU 
PROLOAD, NEWDOS-t-, G2 LEVEL ill BA- 
SIC, PtMS, FORTRAN, Misosys Disassem- 
bler, DESPOOL, TRCopy, Electric Pencil, 
Electric Secretary, General Ledger, Mali- 
room Plus— 58 programs in this expensive 
commercial category alone— plus 109 
games! This collection represents the ma- 
jority of the finest software available to the 
personal computerist, developed over the 
course of years and totalling several thou- 
sand dollars in retail sales. All of it Is 
exchangeable for items on the same trad- 
er's "want list," The wanted items also in- 
clude some of the best: SARGON, COBOL, 
SCRIPSIT ("priority request!!!!" the trader 
notes), infinite BASIC, System Doctor, 
Taranto's inventory programs. Electric 
Paintbrush, and 26 more. 

The Quality Software Trader 

With whom does this trader correspond? 
Where was he able to obtain dozens of pro- 
grams? Who will fill his requests? The 
above-mentioned "quality disk software" 
trader, headquartered in the Northeast, 
contends that he and other traders are not 
only a positive force, but vital to the growth 
of the industry. He challenges the very 
premise of copyright protection. 

"I re)ect, totally, the moral high horse that 
so many software vendors climb on . . . peo- 
ple are being ripped oft in extraordinary 



amounts. No one cares about this or writes 
about it because the effect is so distributed 
and the media is controlled by the vendors, 
or at least by people who have a vested in- 
terest in software sales," 

"It Is oh-so-easy to preach about how bad 
it is to trade software," he continues, "The 
traders are an easy target, for sure. It's easy 
for an author to point to them as the 'reason 
he left the market.' And people will t>elieve 
that. They (authors) don't suggest that their 
poor sales might be due to poor or over- 
priced software. No, the tacit assumption is 
that all software is worth its assigned price. 
Once that's accepted you can "prove' al- 
most anything." 

The gentleman does concede that there 
are times when software trading is destruc- 
tive: "When the person receiving the copy 
would certainly have txjught it anyway, and 
would have gotten his money's worth, and 



"If software trading 
was for some reasori 
technically impossi- 
ble. . . there would not 
be one-fifth as many 
authors." 



A program trader 



doesn't take the money he saved and put it 
in another package, in all other cases (the 
vast majority), software trading. . .makes 
the participants better equipped and more 
likely to enjoy their machine and be produc- 
tive authors themselves; draws someone in- 
to the hobby because of the software he 
can get; creates a sale that would not have 
occurred had the participants not been able 
to share the cost." 

He continues, "Why do you think that 
300,000 or so of these machines have been 
sold? Who do you really think buys ail the 
software that is sold? If software trading 
was tor some reason technically impossi- 
ble, this system would not be one-fifth as 
popular as it Is. There would not be one-fifth 
as many authors, . ., The fact Is that soft- 
ware trading serves a real purpose in a hob- 
by that is distribution-cost bound." 



How will authors and vendors deal with 
this, indeed. Beyond the disagreement 
over the validity of program pirating, there 
are legal and philosophical entanglements 
as well. Over the years, industries as a 
whole have attempted to protect their devel- 
opments in a number of ways: 

• Patents. The embodiment of an original 
application or process is protected by this 
legislation, although obtaining a patent is 
time-consuming and costly. Computer pro- 
grams have been generally excluded from 
this area of protection. 

• Trade Secrets, A process or device whose 
workings are not released to the public is 
considered a trade secret. Any party obtain- 
ing the information is bound by the provi- 
sions of these laws, A non-disclosure agree- 
ment secures this secrecy for computer 
program vendors. 

• Unfair Competition, Making a profit from 
the work of others is viewed as unfair com- 
petition. State laws vary widely on this is- 
sue; program authors with the economic 
wherewithal can pursue this route, 

• Copyright. The expression of ideas in a 
human language is protected by this law. 
Registration with the copyright office se- 
cures universal copyright as well, which 
provides international protection In most 
non-Soviet countries, 

it has become all too obvious to members 
of the "cottage" software industry that two 
of those protections, trade secrecy and un- 
fair competition, provide little help. They are 
simply too costly for the small corporation, 
partnership, or individual author to employ 
to safeguard computerized works. 

A large company like Microsoft, on the 
other hand, depends heavily on the idea of 
unfair competition. Bill Gates says, "We 
spend millions of dollars a year creating 
software programs, and we are protecting 
those in several ways. There's the trade 
secret laws where we get non-disclosure— 



80 Microcomputing, October 1980 • 57 



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that's how we handle our source codes and 
our so-called commercial packages that are 
high-priced. But for our low-cost software, 
we simply can't do that. . .. But, If a trade 
secret is released, ar>d people are taking ad- 
vantage of (It), they are subject to a 
penalty." 

"Our code is the trade secret," says 
Gates. "We're not giving It away, we're sell- 
ing It, just like Coca-Cola; they license it. Or 
Dow Chemical. . .making ethylene. It's a 
trade secret, so those that have the process 
pay. They sign the non-disclosure, Just like 
the people who receive our software sign 
our non-disclosure." 

Gates differentiates twtween questions 
of fact and law. Legal remedies are only 
useful after it has t}een proven that the pro- 
gram has been stolen. 

"You're talking about a thing that Is 5/x- 
teen thousand instructions with 256 possi- 
bilities for each one. I can certainly prove, // 
It's derived from my work, that it's derived 
from my work! ... In the case of software, 
they (the court) would rely on expert 
testimony. If sometxxjy's carT>ouflaged the 
thing pretty well, that's a question of fact, 
not of law. The question Is, did they borrow 
from my work. Okay, assume that I can 
prove that and convince the court that they 
borrowed from my work, then you have the 
question of law, what am I go(r>g to do 
about that?" 

Intersystems' Hank Wataon ia tooking for 
a solution. "If you even do find somebody, 
you publicly crucify them ar>d hope that 
that Is some deterrent. That's the only tack 
you can take, but no one has been success- 
ful in general. What we'd like to do is protect 
the concept." 

But is the copyright law applicable to 
computer programs? la It enforceable? 
Moreover, Is It a desirable means of protect- 
ing program authors? Judg* Flaum's deci- 
sion against Data Cash Systems opens a 
wide gap tietween the law's explicit cover- 
age and the recommendatk>ns of the Na- 
tional Commission on New Technological 
Uses of Copyrighted Works (CONTU), set up 
in 1975 and whose work was completed In 
July, 1978. 

In question Is Section 11 7 of the 1976 law, 
which states in part, "... this Title does not 
afford to the owner of copyright in a work 
any greater or lesser rights with respect to 
the use of the work in conjunction with au- 
tomatic systems capable of storing, pro- 
cessing, retrieving, or tranelerrtng informa- 



tion, . . . than those afforded to works under 
the law. . .." 

"The purpose of Section 117," in the 
words of Judge Flaum, "Is to preserve the 
status quo. It Is not intended to cut oft any 
rights that existed on December 31 , 1 977, or 
to create new rights that might be denied 
under the predecessor to the 1976 Act, the 
Copyright Act of 1909 . . . or under common 
law principles." 

One part of Judge Flaum's opinion In 
Data Cash vs. JS&A echoed the dissent of 
CONTU Commissioner John Hersey, novel- 
ist and chairman of the Author's League of 
America. Said Hersey, "Every program 
comes to fruition in Its mechanical phase." 

Judge Flaum in his decision nearly a year 
later, concurred, "Normally, a computer 
program consists of several phases," 
writes Judge Flaum, in an opinion which 
derives from Mersey's dissenting one. "The 
first phase is the development of a flow 
chart which is a schematic representation 
of the program's logic. The second phase is 
the development of a 'source program,' 
which Is the translation of the flow chart In- 
to computer programming language.... 
The third phase Is... an 'assembly pro- 
gram' which is a translation of the program- 
ming language Into machine language. I.e., 
mechanically readable language." 

The crux of the Judge's decision is sum- 
marized In his next few sentences: "... As- 
sembly programs are virtually unintelligible 
except by the computer Itself. Finally, the 
fourth phase Is the ... 'object program' 
which Is a conversion of the machine lan- 
guage into a device commanding a series of 
electrical impulses. Object programs... 
cannot be read without the aid of special 
equipment and cannot be understood by 
even the meet highly trained program- 
mers." 

With that In mind. Judge Flaum con- 
cludes, "TTHiS, at some point in its develop- 
ment, a computer program is embodied In 
material form and becomes a mechanical 
device which Is engaged in the computer to 
be an essential part of the mechanical pro- 
cess." 

CONTU, on the other hand, coHectlvety 
felt tttat computer programs should be af- 
forded the protection of the law, but con- 
versely should not overly burden end-users. 
Thus, the Commission stated that copy- 
right should forbid unauthorized copying of 
computer programs, should not inhibit their 
rightful use, should not prevent develop- 
ment or distribution, but should, in Its 
words, "rwt grant anyone more economic 



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power than is necessary to achieve the in- 
centive to create." tt proposes to eliminate 
the present ambiguous Section 117, and re- 
place it with a new section specifically de- 
tailing those protections and limitations. 

H.R. 6934, the bill now pending in the 
House of Representatives, will in part do 
that, defining a computer program as "a set 
of statements or Instructions to be used di- 
rectly or indirectly in a computer In order to 
bring about a certain result." The bill drops 
the o(d Section 117, and Includes new word- 
ing authorizing the user to produce copies 
only if "such new copy or adaptation is for 
archival purposes only and that all archival 
copies are destroyed in the event that con- 
tinued possession of the computer program 
should cease to be rightful." 

Nevertheless, H.R. 6934 does not define 
what constitutes a "copy." CONTU recom- 
mended protections that should clearly in- 
clude magnetic tape, disics, and other relat- 
ed forms, as well as ROM chips themselves. 
The proposed law still leaves that decision 
to the courts. 

Failure ol Secrecy 

Or>e of the Incentives that even CONTU 
found it had to address was the question of 
the small-scale programmer. It pointed out 
failings In the trade secrecy laws: "Because 
secrecy Is paramount, It is Inappropriate for 
protecting works that contain the secret 
and are designed to be widely distributed. 
...It substantially precludes the use of 
trade secrecy with respect to programs sold 
in multiple copies over the counter. . . 

Finally, CONTU reported that unfair com- 
petition laws were neither nationally uni- 
form nor applicable to situations in which 
unauthorized copying was being done with- 
out a profit motive— certainly the case In 
the "share it with a friend" cycle. 

The Commission, however, was not 
unanimous. Its most comprehensive critic 
was John Hersey, one of CONTU's three 
dissenters on the matter of computer copy- 
right. Hersey argues that a computer pro- 
gram in Its final form la much more Mica the 
cam In a machine than the work of an au- 
thor. His argument is straight to the point: 
"Printed Instructions explain how to do 
something; programs are ab/e to do It." 

Hersey dismisses any analogy between 
computer programs and recorded music as 
well, claimirtg that true works of authorship 
may be "fixed" in many fonns, yet their 
main purpose Is communication among hu- 



man beings. "But a program," he empha- 
sizes, "does not communicate information 
of its own, intelliglbie to a human being, tt 
utters work. Work is its only utterance ar>d 
Its only purpose, . . The mature program Is 
purely and simply a mechanical substitute 
for human labor." Not a very pleasant 
thought for the many programmers wlw 
consider their works to tM gems of creativi- 
ty, efficiency and inspiration. 

Commissioner Mersey's dissent urges 
separate legislative protection for comput- 
er programs, but Insists that they are "the 
embodiment of a system or process," and 
not a description of it. arKl from that point of 
view are legally ineligible in light of the 
underlying principles of copyright law. 

The majority of programs are written In 
so-called "high-level" languages which are 
not compiled, where the ob)ect code so 
crucial to the arguments of John Hersey 
and Joel Flaum never appears. 

A program on the TRS-80 home computer 
Is created In that ugty but servlceably 
"human" language, BASIC. Admittedly, 
there Is some translation and condensation 
that goes on white the program resides in 
the microcomputer, but when viewed intact 
on the video screen, the program looks like, 
reads like, and Is constructed like the pro- 
gram created by the program, not a "me- 
chanical part." 

Things have been further clouded by the 
introduction and development of digital re- 
cordings and computer music. What part of 
the music or recording is "data base" (copy- 
rightable) and what part is "program" (not 
eligible for copyright)? The distinction be- 
tween data bases and programs Is nebu- 
lous as well; every computer operates from 
a data base, as most computer Instructions 
have operands and no useful program can 
function without them. Whether these 
operands are already embedded In the pro- 
gram or are accessed externally, they re- 
main integral parts of any computer action. 

The processor, the microcomputer's con- 
trolling chip, does not know the difference, 
and cannot know the difference. Only a hu- 
man can define the distinction between 
data base and program by reading the code 
or examining some manifestation of the 
bits and bytes. Every machine language 
programmer knows the feeling of having a 
program crash because it misguided the 
computer. 

Perhaps It Is the human distinction alone 
that ia the crucial one, not the machine dis- 
tinction. 



to • 80 Microcomputing, October 1980 



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80 Microcomputing. October 1980 • 61 



What, then are the options? The law, of 
course, could be more defined to in- 
clude software, more specifically than M.R. 
6934, but the legal problems would linger 
for years as courts find and set precedents. 

Another proposition is to provide conve- 
nient licensing companies that would han- 
dle royalties for program authors. It Is a 
method which has worked with great suc- 
cess in the music industry, where such 
giants as the American Society of Compos- 
ers, Authors and Publishers (ASCAP) and 
Broadcast Music, inc. (BMI), follow the trail 
of recorded music through radio transmis- 
sions, in Jukeboxes, and on retailers' 
shelves. IHow do program vendors view this 
possibility? 

Hank Watson of Intersystems says, 
"That's a little bit different. They're talking 
about millions of copies of stuff. . .1 think 
It's going to take a while to evolve. Going 
back to the fifties, there were lots and lots 
of pirates and there were fewer in the seven- 
ties. It's a process we'll all have to go 
through." 

Watson's distinct lack of enthusiasm 
was echoed by others in the industry, who 
believed that copying would likely continue 
on the amateur level, and the volume of pro- 
gram sales would never be high enough to 
merit a network of licensing organizations. 

Certainly, major publications In the field 
have been lax about discouraging software 
piracy. Almost alone in this crusade is 
Wayne Green, publisher of 80 Microcomput- 
ing, Kilobaud Microcomputing. 73 Maga- 
zine and owner of Instant Software. Green's 
weapon Is cash— ten thousand dollars of it, 
up front— to reward the first person to turn 
in a major ISI software pirate for successful 
prosecution. 

Has anyone tried to take him up on It? 
Green replies, "No, but to some degree the 
intent is working— It Is having an Impact 
with dealers, but I don't know how much it's 
Impacting clubs." 

Other publications have for the most part 
held their editorial tongues, offering an oc- 
casional fingerwagging, but sticking to saf- 
er, professional subjects such as the im- 
pact of computer technology on cartogra- 
phy, or why Pascal Is the next standard 
computer language. 

Whether a forced Infusion of morality to 
counter illicit duplication would have any 
effect is not discernible; those out to turn a 
profit by exploiting the work of others will 
hardly heed cries from editors, If the copy- 
right law remains ineffective. 

cont. to pg. 64 
92 • 80 Microcomputing, October 1980 



"Yes, surely, some 
computer programming 
is wonderfully creative. 
But copyright was not 
designed to protect the 
products of creativity 
as such; it was de- 
signed to protect 
literary works. . . " 



John Hersey 
Author and CONTU Commissioner 



In recent correspondence, John Hersey 
expanded his dissent. "Yes, surely, some 
computer programming is wonderfully cre- 
ative. But copyright was nol designed to 
protect the products of creativity as such; it 
was designed to protect 'literary works." 
The designer of the cam was immensely 
creative, too; the inventor of the wheel was 
a genius — would that we knew his name to 
thank him! But we don't copyright those 
things." 

The question of musical performances, 
especially with the advent of electronic 
music, was again posed to him in light of a 
program being analogous to a cam. 

The musical "instruction set" consists of 
representations of specific actions to be 
taken, very much like those of a cam, and 
the untrained Individual cannot "read" 
these instructions into the mind's ear. A 
very, very few highly trained specialists can. 

The fingers must push "up-down" and 
the tongue and lungs go "in-out. 'orthereis 
silence from the winds; the arms must go 
"back-forth" while the fingers go "up- 
down" or the strings are quiet; and so forth. 



After much harangue about objectivity and 
a sizable long distance bill, the editors have 
succumbed to Kilsz' right to a philosophi- 
cal digression. 



Very little music is strictly theoretical; it is a 
set of printed instructions to produce the 
final sound, no matter whether that reading 
is done by a violinist or by an optoelectronic 
score reading device. The score itself is not 
the music, but a very digital-looking analog 
of the music, directly accessitjle only a few 
highly skilled 'readers." 

Hersey disagrees, believing "a musical 
score is not analogous to a program. The 
score tells the human performer what fin- 
gers to push 'up-down' on wind instru- 
ments, and when the lungs should go 'in- 
out,' and what the fingers should do on the 
strings. In the case of the computer pro- 
gram, the instructions become part of the 
machinery and make the 'up-down' and "in- 
out" take place." 

As for the composer of computer music, 
Hersey again takes the opportunity to dis- 
tinguish between the human and the ma- 
chine, "I would certainly think that the elec- 
tronic composer's music, or score if that is 
the product — whatever issues from the 
computer and can be perceived by the 
human ear can— should be copyrightable. 
It manifestly is. It is the product of the com- 
poser's creativity. He may also have been 
creative in manipulating the machine to 
produce the music, or the printout, but it is 
my view that thai sort of creativity can be 
and should be protected under other laws 
than copyright." 

Melville B, Nimmer teaches copyright 

and constitutional law at UCLA, and was 
Vice-chairman of CONTU. While sharing 
some of Hersey's reservations, he is pre- 
pared to distinguish between two general 
types of computer programs. The first 
would be eligible for copyright, and would 
include "works which themselves qualify 
for copyright protection. ... On the other 
hand, programs which control the heating 
and air-conditioning in a building, or which 
determine the flow of fuel in an engine, or. 
which control traffic signals, would not be 
eligible for copyright because their opera- 
tions do not result in copyrightable works.'" 
He then departs considerably from 
Hersey's point, claiming that the distinction 
is "consistent with the recognized copy- 
rightability of sound recordings, it some- 
times has been argued that while printed in- 
structions tell how to do work, computer 
programs actually do the work. But this is 
also true of sound recordings, which in a 



sense constitute a machine (the phonorec- 
ord) communicating with another machine 
(the record player)." 

As a whole, CONTU defended the con- 
cept of programs as works of authorship. In 
fact, the defense included some remarkably 
colorful, if dubious, considerations about 
those items presently eligible for protec- 
tion. 

"Traditional works have led to processes 
both more rigid and more flexible than 
those to which computer programs lead- 
When a phonorecord or motion picture is 
used in conjunction with a properly working 
machine, the same result will occur on the 
first, the second, or the thousandth run- 
ning. The chorus will remain silent until the 
fourth movement of Beethoven's Ninth 
Symphony, and Bogart will stay in Casa- 
blanca forever. . .. The process is virtually 
immutable. That is less true when a pro- 
gram is used, since it contains alternative 
branches selected only after use has be- 
gun. . ." 

Artists and philosophers would have a 
hard time with those claims, however at- 
tractive they may be in the defense of a pro- 
gram author's right to legal protection. Sub- 
tle or gross dilterences of acoustics, speed 
and fidelity dramatically alter that "im- 
mutable" recording of Beethoven — the re- 
cordings can be played in monaural, stereo, 
or synthetic quadraphonic, or on small 
players with styli suitable only for sewing, 
Bogart's trysts may be obscured by faded 
film, a geriatric projection bulb, variations 
in shutter speed and screen size. 

By contrast, a computer program is only 
reliable, only viable, in a trustworthy medi- 
um with an accurate CPU and stable memo- 
ry. Its speed may be transformed, perhaps 
by the system's clock, but the forgiving flex- 
ibility of even the "fixed" art forms is 
unwelcome in the precise world of comput- 
er activity. 

Philip K. Hooper is a programmer, author 
and authority on 6502-based systems. 
Hooper notes that at some point the inter- 
action is initiated on the human level. "If 
one is referring to the program and its pre- 
set data in the computer, then there is no 
case (for copyright), just as one assumes 
that the bands on a record are in a certain 
order. Only the breakpoints introduced by 
user interaction realty put the computer in- 
to a different realm. Human interaction pro- 



duces a greater variety of consequence 
streams." 

The philosophical questions are not pe- 
ripheral to the copyright issue; they are in 
fact at the heart of it. All parties seem to be 
agreed when the query is posed, "should 
computer programs be afforded protection 
under the law?" The legal and humanistic 
storms are born by asking, "which laws 
shall protect them?" 



Can the copyright law protect the com- 
puter program? Bill Gates believes he 
can recognize his program, "camouflaged" 
or not- But can copyright law distinguish 
the difference? 

There are many methods of camouflage; 
some can well be defined as translation in- 
to a foreign language, while others involve 
encoding in the manner of a secret mes- 
sage- Translation into a foreign language is 
not a difficult problem, and traditional 
works have long been protected in that 
realm. But take for example, the following 
16 bytes of Level 11 BASIC machine code. 
These are the opening Instructions copy- 
righted by Microsoft: 



F3 AF C3 74 06 03 00 40 C3 00 40 El E9 03 9F 06 

In the form presented here, and by means 
ot any 2-80 disassembler available, these 
instructions can be transformed into the 
mnemonics of; 



This code translates into the following in- 
teresting mnemonic instructions: 



a 




XOR 


A 


JP 


0674 


JP 


4000 


JP 


4000 


POP 


HL 


JP 


(HL) 



JP 



069F 



We have here visible, human-readable 
code. It is unremarkable and undistin- 
guished as a small excerpt, but a large 
block would be clearly identifiable as Level 
II BASIC. Below are another 16 bytes of hex 
code: 



79 07 El BA 03 60 80 20 61 80 20 70 E4 E1 OF 83 



LD 


A.C 


RST 


10 


POP 


HL 


CP 


D 


INC 


BC 


LD 


H,B 


ADD 


A,B 


JR 


NZ,$ + 63 


A.B 


JRNZ,I-f72 


CALL 


P0,CFE1 


ADD 


A,E 



This is useful code as well, and a careful 
first examination of this code might reveal 
no relalionship whatever between the Level 
II excerpt and the second block of bytes. 
However, one need only present the first 
four bytes of each and convert them to 
binary to discover the ploy: 



11110011101011111100001101110100 
oil 11001 1101011 11 1100001 1011 1010 



Each bit has been rotated to the right one 
position! It would take not more than a doz- 
en bytes at the entry point of the "camou- 
flaged" program to rotate an entire 12K 
copy of f^icrosoft's BASIC one bit back to 
the left, and there it would be, ready to use. 
The magnetic copy, moreover, would not 
match the original "stolen" program in for- 
mat, parity, checksum, nor byte pattern. 

It does not become a copy until it is under 
the user's control! Who. then, is the offend- 
ing party? No translation was effected; 
rather, in its magnetic, object and disas- 
sembled versions, it is a completely new 
program. 

Oure yesw ouldn oth avet oom ucht rou- 
bled iscerningi halt herei ss omes orto te 
ncodingb eingi mplementedl nt hiss 
entence. In fact, concerning literary works, 
this manner of poetic license is normally al- 
lowed under the concept of artistic freedom 
ot manipulation. The structure of the 
sentence has been so changed that a nor- 
mal reading is rendered virtually impossi- 
ble. An identical process was employed in 
rotating those 16 bytes, and direct, un- 
modified execution of the code would in no 
way lead in the same direction as does 
Level II BASIC.H 



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Microsoft's Bill Gates feels that the word- 
ing of the law should merely "make it clear 
that the copyright law covered [magnetic 
media]. It Is not an extension. Look at the 
thing that commissioned CONTU to start 
with, " says Gates. "'It doesn't say that the 
law doesn't cover these things; it says that 
they've been asked to come up with a clear 
position clarifying the exact procedure." 

House Judiciary Committee counsel 
Bruce Lehman reports that H.R. 6934 is like- 
ly to become law during this session of Con- 
gress. The btte of this law. if any. may not be 
felt for some time, based upon the bill's 
generalized wording. The entire document. 
the "Computer Software Copyright Act of 
1980," is a single slip of paper, and the legal 
entanglements are hardly unsnarled by its 
ambiguities. 

The Lock and Key Method 

So the problem waits for a legal solution 
while programmers and vendors continue 
to seek refuge in the lock-and-key method. 
Major programs are provided with special 
loaders which must gain control of the mi- 
crocomputer before the remainder of the 
program may be fed into the machine. The 
first and best known of these loaders Is pro- 
vided with Microchess. introduced for the 
TRS-BO two years ago. The loader is almost, 
but not quite, identical to the normal TRS-80 



SYSTEM command; it was therefore the 
easiest lock to open even for amateur ma- 
chine language enthusiasts. 

More sophisticated loaders began to ap- 
pear, including those from such vendors as 
The Bottom Shelf and ABS Suppliers. These 
loaders actually alter the baud rate at which 
data is input to the computer. Disk pro- 
grams, already protected to some extent by 
the difficulty of working directly with the 
disk's data transfer system, lend them- 
selves even more so to security— the loader 
effectively disappears once the program Is 
In place. At disk speed, this process is virtu- 
ally instantaneous and quite opaque. 

Others, like Electric Pencil, btock-move 
themselves all around memory in a game of 
electronic hopscotch. But, as one reader 
comments. "Aside from legal or ethical 
questions, how are you going to stop pirat- 
ing of software? ... If by some means a pro- 
gram is made 'uncopyable.' someone will 
figure out a way to copy it sooner or later." 

Even Wayne Green agrees: "We prefer to 
make everything as simple as possible— 
but on the other hand, there are other pro- 
grams that can decipher anything you can 
do." 

Bill Gates speaks defensively and excit- 
edly of his own company's reactions: 
■Looking at the amount of software we of- 
fer, we are the most ripped-off company 
around, because we offer a broad range, 
and we try to offer it for these low-cost com- 
puters. And we view the thing totally as an 
experiment. If there aren't enough honest 
people out there to buy the stuff, we'll end 
it. Most of our packages we won't put down 
at the low end." 

In its advertising, Microsoft bills itself as 
setting the industry standard. Gates claims 
that his "experiment" can be ended at any 
time. But CONTU addresses the Issue of 
corporate size, concluding that the social 
effects of the current copyright law's am- 
biguities are more acceptable to the individ- 
ual rather than the corporate author/pro- 
grammer. 

CONTU even questions whether the inde- 
pendent will really benefit from an exten- 
sion of copyright protection, asking rhetori- 
cally, "why do the large industrial corpora- 
tions press for copyright?" The Commis- 
sion answers itself with caution, suggest- 
ing that copyright protection might tend to 
reinforce the dominance of the large corpo- 
rations over the small, independent houses. 
This was borne out by the influences of 
lawyers and patent specialists representing 



64 • SO Microcomputing, October 1980 



"Let's face it. You sell 
one (a program) to a 
quasi-computer club 
which has 250 mem- 
bers. To John Jones 
. . .1 bet you dollars to 
donuts that everybody 
has it within a week." 



Hank Watson 
Intersystems 



large computing firms during the CONTU 
hearings. 

Here, the subtle debates over "works of 
authorship" fall victim to the harsher activi- 
ties of supply and demand. There comes 
the realization, finally, that Data Cash sued 
J5&A not to pursue a philosophical or 
moral crusade, but to prevent JS&A from 
earning a profit on Data Cash's work. 

The house of cards has begun to fail as a 
result of the JS4A decision. One other case 
that may be affected involves Nestar Sys- 
tems. Nestar Systems, based In Palo Alto, 
has asked for a restraining order against a 
European company which plans to market 
for the PET a package called The BASIC 
Programmer's Toolkit. Nestar alleges that 
the unnamed Netherlands-based organiza- 
tion plans the marketing of cassette or disk 
versions of its ROM product, and the JS&A 
decision has Nestar concerned about its 
rights. 

Harry Saal. president of Nestar, Is 
unclear about Judge Flaum's decision in 
the JS&A verdict, for Saal claims that "a 
human was very capable of understanding 
the 1's and O's." The differentiation Flaum 
had made, of course, was that the eligibility 
of machine-readable code was in question, 
not its translation Into ones and zeros. 

"It's simply our feeling, and I believe it 
will be shared by everyone else who reads 
80 Microcomputing." says Saal, "that the 
act of creating software is a development 
process that needs to be protected some- 
how. There must be a means by which peo- 
ple, having performed their work, can be 
free to market their efforts without some- 



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80 Microcomputing, October 1980 • 65 



one else coming along and copying their 
material and malting a profit based on the 
simple cost of reproduction. 

"We're looking here at a product; a seri- 
ous amount of analysis and thought and 
market planning and serious investment oi 
money goes into the development of it, and 
every timewe look at a product in the future, 
we have to go through that same procedure. 
It's going to be very difficult (in the future) to 
justify software development." 



In conclusion, It is the voice of Bill Gates 
that rings in the ear. He was asked to react 
to a recently published disassembler hand- 
t>ook from Richcraft Engineering. 

Interviewer: The author provides virtually 
all of your code in hex. out of which he's 
taken a few bytes. That's to make sure that 
the person bought the original product. 

Gates: He's got our code in hex? 

Interviewer: Your entire code less maybe 
two dozen bytes he took out specifically to 



say he didn't violate your rights by providing 
the whole code. 

Gales: He certainly violated our rights! 

Interviewer: He feels he has not . . . 

Gates: He certainly has. because that's 
my material! Whose does he think it is? 
Does he think that he has the right to go out 
and commercially profit by republishing 
something that we created? I mean, that's 
ludicrous! Why should he be making money 
from that? All he did was take our stuff I ■ 



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KflL£ir>ftscape 

FOOTBHLL 

NRZE ttlOG-S' 

COHC&tTftftTION 

ELIZR 

UFO 

BOULIHC (TSE) 

STRRUfiftS 

CRIB8AGE 



ftjT. 



11. MUSIC (Radio S»i»cK'eJ.« 
13. BRLLOON CROSSING 



15. EIOfTOLfT 

18. REVERSE 

21. SKETCH 

;micklusj. 

J9. CHIEF 

27. HTOn20 

3a. JIOSRU 

33. GOLWilWE 

36. SLOT 



16. ZRP90P 

19. FROGS, 
22. GRflPMIC 



26. ZOCiIfiC 

31. RROUO THE HORN 

34. H0R^:E RRCE 



LIFE <CMRIST0PHERSOH. .-itr. sour-a) 



TICTHC 39. 

SPILOT 42. 

NIh '.with etiund. 
OTHELXO 4?'. 

PILLBO>t 5a. 

flOUEHTLIPE 1 .2.3.4,5 '.d 
IMUflSIOK .^RadiD Sheci-.) 



5IMCN 
DRRTS 



SLOT 4 
RceOT 



(toirtl) 40. TREKIII ^Mic^.ltii J .■• 

43. PINBRLL 
5. SNRKE '.with loi^d.' 

48. SNOOFV Cic-Ure'' 

51. filRftlO. 

53. l-OyOPOLV. 
55. SRUCEft '.Radio ShJ»c*.> 



Program! Wantad: 

1- f^YV CPM bininvc«. 

2. I^OEXia 

3. COW>ftESS IT (Bli«t>iril> 

4. SIWT.IFV IT <eiuebird) 

5. l*iy St-ati»tic5 Fms-aate 

6. PKoa^fti ihOEx ';mumfor[> micro SVSTEMS> 

7. SRRGCN II. 

e. SUPERMHIL (OKLfirWQMR COWVTER CO.) 

9. TRRRHTO Irtjmtfrv 

10. X-UING FIGHTER II (TSEl. 

11. ft^wthina FTjt oirt bv tl-w CPt' Sho^ rKllobaiid. Run, TO r.l52> 

12. COBOL '.FMG,'. 

13. UHRLOROS 

14. MRQSRM 111 'Lhilobaud. fiuo.Tit F. 143> 

15. DR. CHIPS 

16. RRMO SHHCH. S NEW WORD PROCESSOP 'iPRIORITY REOLEST i'''>. 

17. BFrSIC ':dMPILEP ' M I C-ROSOFT :. . 
le. SYSTEM C-OCTOR (TBS3. 

19. SELECTOR mC2 '.Fr-om MICRO-RP; alio told Ov LIFEBCWT) 

20. K'JP232 '.niCKLUS:' 

21. Rtfw BIZ80 Bu«in»*» fr-'aflr-ania ■ifleldw from NRMe..'Hcldr«s« 
LiaL. GL . * In'-"»ntori< Control Si«.t*iiil, 

22. DISCIO '.Bardmn. Sold bv CMICRTRUGj. 

23. hCU tCUCOS -3.0' 

24. INIIRSIOM ORION 
23. 

26. INFINITE BftSIC .both rar-tsJ fro« RRCET CPRIOftlTV BEQUeST 

27. 

26. nOURHCai STHTISTIC5 PfiCK (Radio SK«*i> 

23. SPRCE BRTTLES 

38. hWHITOfi 4 -IHCS). 

31. PIE ';Prt'«raMi.«). 

52. BLOCKMie ';P»r6onal SoftiMirei. 

33. ELECTRIC PBINTBROSH >;PeT5or.al Softwar*). 

Programs with * come with documentation. 



W • 80 Microcomputing, October 1980 



TtmTtME 



■i^^mi'mii^^^^^ . ; , 





1^190 



JPC Products Announces a New High Speed Cassette System 

"The Poor Man's Floppy" for the TRS-80* 

$90 Kit - $120.00 fully assembled. 

The TRS-80* is a greal small computer, Bui its cassette recofding 
system can be very frustrating, particularly it you cant read an important cassette. JPC 
Products Company has developed an improved cassette system that uses your present 
cassette recorder but operates much faster with better reliability. The TC-8 plugs into the expan- 
sion connector on the back of the keyboard and saves and loads 5 limes faster! Less than 
ONE BAD LOAD in a MILLION BYTES' With the VOLUME CONTROL ANYWHERE BETWEEN 1 AND 8. The 
TC^ is available in an easy to assemble kit or fully assembled. JPC has an exclusive "can't fail" kit guarantee. 
If you build the TC-8 and for any reason it doesn't work, we will make it work at NO COST. All 
you have to pay is the shipping. We guarantee it The TC-8 magic is partly done in software. So you have to 
load a small program in upper memory. It is usually out of the way there. We provide the software on a 
cassette that comes with the TC-8. Just load it in. Here's how you order. Send 
$90.00 tor the kit ($120.00 fully assembled) plus $3.50 postage and handling 
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Phone: (505) 294-4623 12021 Paisanc Ct. Albuquerque, N.M. 87112 

80 Microcomputing. October 1980 • 67 



Part Two of a Series 



The essence of variables. 



Into the 80' s 



Ian Sinclair 

89 Alexandra Road 

Sible Hedingham 

Halstead. Essex C09 3NP 

England 



It doesn't take long for the novelty of printing 
your name on the video screen to wear off. 
There are more interesting ways of using the 
TRS-80, including the manipulation of variables. 
A variable is a code for something, which 
might be your name, your driver's license 
number, or any other piece of information you 
choose. The fact thai you can change this code 
any time makes it variable, but once you've 
deTmed it, the computer will make use of this 
code any lime you instruct ii to. 

String Vartibka 

Using the methods you learned last lime, lypc 
enter and run the program in Listing 1 . There are 
a few new points to make here. First is the use of 
the dollar sign after the letter N. The letter is be- 
ing used as a variable, but the dollar sign makes it 
a particular type of variable called a string vari- 
able. A string is simply a collection of the char- 
acters we would normally place between quotes 
for a PRINT command. 

In Listing 1. N$ (pronounced EN-STRING) is 
a string variable which we have declared as a code 
for the words, "THIS IS A STRING, 1.2,3, 
TESTING". Each lime we ask N$, that's what 
we get. 

You may not realize it yet, but this is a mighly 
powerful instruction. It means, for example, that 



you can print a phrase of up to 240 characters or 
so just by using the command PRINT N$. Even 
better, the Level II machine lets you use many 
string variables. 

You can use each letter of the alphabet, a letter 
and a number (AIS, B3i and so on) or two letters 
(AZS, BDS), as long as the string sign is used to 
instruct the computer that this is a string variable. 
If you leave out the string sign, the computer will 
normally reject any attempt to equate the vari- 
able code letter to a string of letters, because a let- 



* 'These statements are 

called variable assignments 

and the equality sign 

doesn 't mean equals 

when it's used this way, 

but rather 'takes 

the value of. "' 



ter with no string sign means that the variable is a 
number. 

The exception occurs at the very start of a pro- 
gram, when you have told the computer that all 
variables which start with a specified letter will be 
string variables. This is done by using the 
DEFSTR (define as string) command. A pro- 
gram starting with 10 DEFSTR A,K,T uses 
variables such as A, AM. AA, Kl, KZ, TZ, TT 
and so on without the string sign after them. 

Let's look a bit harder at this string thing. Can 



we really store a long string? Try Listing 1 again, 
but this time make the first line read: 

10 NJ - THIS IS A MUCH LONGER STRING WHICH 
WILL NEHD MORE MEMORY SPACE THAN THE 
PREVIOUS ONE ■ 

Don't change the remaining lines, but type in 
the new line 10, ENTER it and RUN. 

The Cleir Command 

So, you got an error message? Even if you 
typed everything correctly and didn't get the SN 
error message, you still get the words OS IN 10, 
OS means out of string space; was Sinclair 
wrong? Something else you have to learn about 
the TRS-80 is you have to let it know in advance 
how much memory it needs to reserve for strings. 

Normally, when you first switch on. the 80 
reserves 50 units (bytes) of memory for strings. 
Each character of a string, and that includes 
spaces, remember, takes up one byte of memory, 
so you don't need to have very long strings to 
total over 50 characters. To reserve more space, 
use the CLEAR command at the stan of a pro- 
gram. Try it by typing in the following line at the 
beginning of the program: 

S CLEAR 3O0 

Leave line 10 as it is; ENTER and RUN. This 
lime there should be no OS error message, 
because we've reserved enough string space for 
200 characters. Now this may seem confusing, 
because when you are inventing a program you 
may not know just how much string space you 
need. That's O.K., because you don't have to 
cnler the CLEAR inslruction until your program 
is complete and ready to RUN, and by that time 
you should be able to tell how many characters 
are going to be stored as strings. If you forget, it's 
no great hassle to type in a line 5 with a CLEAR 
instruction, followed by a number big enough to 



68 • 80 Microcomputlrjg, October 1980 



store all your characters. Lines are numbered in 
tens in order to leave room for second thoughts 
like this. 

Why should we have to do this? Well, it's all 
tied up with the way the computer controls the 
memory space. We said in the first article of this 
series that it is possible to reserve space at the top 
of memory for machine-code programs. 

This is not the only reserved space in the 
memory. The memory space just below the 
machine-code space is reserved for strings. If you 
haven't used a CLEAR (number) instruction, on- 
ly 50 bytes of this memory arc reserved. Use more 
than 50 bytes of siring, and you get the OS warn- 
ing, because you have run out of reserved space, 
and that part of memory is in danger of being 
used for something else. 

Why don't wc just start every program with 
CLEAR ^Xn, reserving plenty of space? Simple: 
It's wasteful. Reserve loo much space in mem- 
ory, and it's like roping off half a parking lot — 
you're wasting space. Memory is valuable to the 
computer, so wc don't rcser\c any more than we 
need, especially when we're entering a long pro- 
gram. 

The way computers use strings (called siring 
handling) is one of the points that sets apart the 
serious computer from the "jusl fun" machine. 
It's ihc big, big improvement of the Level II ma- 
chine over the Level 1, for example. 

The little program that we've been running 
gives you a tasle of this. In line 40, the PRINT 
command asks for a prim (on ihe video screen) of 
the message we've coded as NS, but also for the 
message ";ALL WELL." Notice the positions of 
the quotes and ihe semicolons? The semicolon 
immediately after NS is a command, nieaning put 
in a space and keep printing on the same line. The 
semicolon inside the quoles is part of the message 
and it gets primed. There's nothing to show, 
when you look at the whole message on ihe video 
screen, that one group of characters was stored as 
a string and ihe other as a PRINT command in- 
side quotes. 

Here we should mention the matter of num- 
bers (more in Part 5, incidentally). If a variable 
letter isn't specified as a string by ihe dollar sign 
or the DEFSTR command, ihcn it's a number. 
We'll find later on that we can define three types 
of numbers, bul for the moment we won't look 
for complications. We can write a hne, such as 20 
A = 15, and then throughout the program we 
can use A instead of having to type 15. If we want 
to change it, we use another statement, such as 
100 A = 16. These statements arc called variable 
assignments, and Ihe equality sign doesn't mean 
equals when it's used in this way, but rather 
"takes the value of." 

This is very important, as you'll see later, be- 
cause some statements look odd if you assume 
that = means "equals." Take a look at the short 
program in Listing 2. NS is a string variable 
which we set to be "GREEN BOTTLES" inline 
10. The number variable A is set lo 10 in line ffl. 
When wc get to line 30, wc get . well, try it for 
yourself! If we now add a new line: 

ji; A = A I GOTO w 

and RUN again, we see some wild printouts 

which won't slop until wc press the BREAK key. 

What happened? Wc did say thai = means 



"takes the value of." In line 20, A takes the value 
of 10, so in line 30 you get: 

10 GREEN BOTTLES, HANGING ON THE WALL 

(You did get the comma inside the quotes, 
didn'lyou?) Atthenew line 35, A takes the value 
of 10- 1. which is 9. The colon marks a new in- 
struction on the same line. This saves us from 
having lo make a new line number. The next in- 
struction is GOTO 30— go back and carry out the 
instruction in line 30 and go on from there. This 
is the PRINT instruction all over again, so you 
get: 

9 GRFFN BOm.ES, HANGING ON THE WAl 1 

The program then automatically steps to the 
next line, 35 again. This time A stans at 9; ihc in- 
struction A = A - 1 gives A the new value of 8 
and so on. This is called a loop — the program 
simply goes from instruction 30 to 35, then back 
to 30 again, and you can't get out of it except by 
pressing the BREAK key, by another program in- 
struction or by letting it run out of numbers. 

The INPUT Inatniction 

Wc need to look now at a more immediate way 
of entering information into the computer. So 
far, every string and number we've used has been 
planned ahead and put into Ihe program from the 
beginning. The only method wc have of changing 
things is by re-typing the program lines (I'll talk 
about editing them later). 

The instruction that saves us a lot of time is 
called INPUT, and an example of its usage is in 
Listing 3. Type in the program, remembering 
that the @ sign musf follow directly after the T of 
PRINT, no spaces allowed, and ihe number of 
ihe PRINT® position must be followed by a 
comma and then the first set of quotes. If you run 
the program, right away the screen clears, and the 
words: 

WHAT IS YOLR NAME 

appear. On the next line a question mark ap- 
pears, and the program slops, waiting. It's 
waiting for you to put in your name, or any other 



b RER FIC.2.1 INTO SI'S 

II HS-'TKIG IS A STRING , 

2* rtllHT NS 

II PRIHT 

«t PRIWT NSi"r ML WELL" 



i.l.i, TESTING' 



Listing I. 



S REM FIG 3.2 IKTO Bt 'S 
II KS-'CREEN BOTTLES" 
21 A-ll 

Ji PRINT mjkSi" .hangiw; on a wall" 

4t END 



Listing 2. 



b REM FIG. 3.) INTO SB'S 

II CLS 

Jl PRIHTI33,'WUAT IS ftXIR HAKE?' 

31 INPUT NS; CLS 

41 PBIHtll7 .N5i ' -THIS IS YtXtR I.IFEII' 

51 OB 



Listing 3. 



name. You can take your time about typing a 
name, because the computer waits until you hit 
ENTER. When you do hit ENTER, your name 
appears with that famous phrase after il. You can 
enier any name, or any gibberish at the INPUT 
step, ll will accept numbers, or mixed names and 
numbers like CONVICT 99, or anything else you 
put in. They will get printed just as if they had 
been placed between quotes in a PRINT com- 
mand. 

This is more useful, because it lets you write 
programs that look a bit more friendly, for a 
start. The TRS-80 goes further with its input 
command than some others, in fad, and lets you 
use INPUT like a PRINT statement, so you can 
write a line such as: 



Zl INPUT -WHAT IS YOUR NAME"; NJ : CLS 

to replace line 20 and 30 in Listing 3. Do I hear an 

objection? It's true that when you use INPUT to 
prim like this, you can't place ihe priming where 
you want it, because you can't have INPUT TAB 
or INPUT®. Try this for line 20: 

20 PRINTa22.::!NP\;T "WHAT IS YOUR NAME":NS:CLS 

Watch Ihe sequence of delimiter markings in 
ihis one — after the 22 wc have comma, semicolon 
and Ihcn colon marks. Notice we don't use a 
question mark after NAME, but you'll see one 
when the program runs, because it forms part of 
the reply to the INPUT command. 

Suppose you iry to use N instead of N$ after 
INPUT? You can'l do il, unlcs.s what you enter is 
simply a number. If you specify a string variable, 
you can INPUT what you like, up to 255 char- 
acters; bul if you specify a number, then you 
must enter a number, no letters permitted. 

Using INPUT statements lo make a son of 
conversation is illustrated in Listing 4. In line 20, 
your name is assigned lo NS by the INPUT slate- 
meni, and line 30 makes a friendly comment. 

At line 40, the INPUT asks for age, and al line 
50 for this year. The grand finale is in line 60, 
when the printout on the video screen gives the 
name and year of birth. How? Since il has the 
present year, represented by variable Y , and your 
age, variable A, it only has lo subtract A from Y 
to get your year of birth — unless you lied about 
your age! Simple — bul it looks like magic to any- 
one who hasn't seen your TRS-80 in action be- 
fore. 

CLOAD Rnd Friends 

CLOAD is one of the instructions wc use many 
limes on the TRS-80. It means Cassette Load, 
and it's the instruction thai Iet.s you use these pro- 
grams on ca.s.sette. 

The freedom that cassette loading and saving 
gives you is immense. Without cassettes, each 
program you use is lost whenever you type a new 
program or switch off. By saving your programs 
on cassette you can enter ihem al any time. 

In addition, cassettes give you a chance to run 
programs which might take many hours lo enter 
from the keyboard, or which mosi of us could 
never devise even if wc were locked in a padded 
cell for a year, 

O.K. let's go over cassette loading in detail. If 



80 Microcomputing, October 1980 • 69 



The Micromatic 80, a step 
aliead for your TIlS-80 



n-1- 



and other microprocessors. 



The Micromatic 80 is a TTL based interface unit designed to Inte 

grate the popular Radio Shack TRS-80', and many other processors 

with parallel Centronics™ compatible output, to the IBM manufactured 

Selectric'" terminal. 

• used IBM selectric terminals are cleaned and functionally checked before shlpping- 




■ 90 day warranty on interface only, 
I No software required 
>S795 plus $25- for packing and handling. 
' TRS-80 to Centronics cable S29 00 

Writ* fnr oall for Tree Broolmra 



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Certified Check. Money order. 



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you boughi a complete TRS-80 ouiru, you'll 
have the CTR-80 recorder; a used TRS-80 might 
come with a CTR-41. I use a fairly high-grade 
recorder which has a better- ihan-normal fre- 
quency response (which means ii records and 
plays high notes better). This is advantageous, 
because the recording and replaying of data and 
programs use high notes, and you can't load pro- 
perly unless these notes are loud and clear. For 
example, if the tone control of a cassette recorder 
is set to reduce high notes, it just won't load pro- 
grams. 

Whatever cassette recorder you use must have 
a microphone input socket, automatic recording 
level adjustment, an earpiece output socket and a 
motor control. The motor control takes a smalt 
(2.5mm) jack plug, the smallest plug on the 
TRS-80 cable, which comes from the cassette 
outlet on the TRS-80 keyboard. 

The signals out of the cassette recorder come 
from the earpiece socket, a 3.5mm one, which is 
linked by pushing in the black plug ai the end of 
the TRS-80 cassette cable. For loading cassettes, 
you don't need the microphone plug (the grey 
one), but it looks neater if you put it in place, so 
in it goes to the microphone input of the record- 
er. Check them all again. 

If you are not using the CTR-41 or CTR-80 
recorders, then whatever you use must have the 
same plug-in arrangements, particularly the 
motor control, because the recorder motor is 
controlled by the computer. If you bought only 
the TRS-80 keyboard and are using your own 
cassette recorder (or ree!-lo-reel recorder), then 
you will have to make or buy adaptor leads. 

If you are using the CTR-80 from Radio 
Shack, then the recorder will run fast forward or 
fast reverse even when the computer has stopped 
the motor from running in the play or record/ 
play settings, if you are using the CTR-41 or any 
other cassette recorder, you won't have this rath- 
er useful facility. For some program work, it 
won't matter, but if you would Uke to go from 
one place on the tape to another, then there are 
various Tixes. A few user-group magazines will 
show you how to cut tracks inside the recorder to 
do this. 

My own fix is illustrated in Fig. I . it consists of 
an adaptor box and a small switch which allows 
either normal or computer control of the record- 
er motor. With this addition, you can also use 
manual control with the cassette recorder 
switched to play, which is useful for finding a 
short gap between the programs on the tape. If 
you start a playback in the wrong place on the 
tape, it won't load correctly and the program 
won't run. If hardware doesn't interest you, the 
easy solution is to type: 

lOOGO OUT 25S.4: GOTO 10000 

ENTER this and RUN, and the motor will stay 
switched on by the computer until you press 
BREAK. 

Loading llie Program 

So we've sorted out our recorder, everything's 
plugged in, and we're ready to go. Next, we need 
a BASIC program on a cassette. My TRS-80 
came with Radio Shack's blackjack program, 
and it's likely thai yours did loo. If not, then 
you'll need sonte software. 



ro • 80 Microcomputing, October 1980 



i UN PIG. 1.4 IVIO ••'■ 

1* CLS 

!• IBVVT *WM II TODS MUB, n,CAK*ll* 

II *ai«rip«m iir* t LtBi m aoomo or t»*t* 

41 inoT *TtLL n rLBxn mat mi ttx hiu. it nti tem 

(IH MBOLI TIMD'iA 

Si tawr'ABD mm mat tuw tvis is'it 

•i mvTiMiHT'so. *rv(r* •tou <"» mm ik 'i1-a 

Tl no 



Listing 4. 



Pop the cassette into the recorder, with the 
profTun you want to load, so that the label of the 
wanted profram is uppermost. Rewind the tape 
completely— the CTR-W wall make a moaning 
noise when the rewind is complete. 

Set the volume control of the recorder to 
halfway between iu maximum and its minimum 
settings. Make sure that the tone control, if you 
have one, is set to give maximum treble. 

Now we're ready. Type CLOAD on the 
TRS-90 keyboard, press play on the recorder and 
press ENTER on the keyboard. You should hear 
the motor of the recorder start lo hum. If the 
motor starts when you press play there's a fault in 
the motor circuit somewhere. The mocor-conirol 
jack may not be plugged fully in. If the motor 
doesn't start at all, then perhaps there are no bat- 
teries or the power line isn't plugged in. These are 
what we call hardware problems. 

Another possible hang-up could be a software 
one. Are you sure that you typed CLOAD7 Key- 
bounce, which may have given you CCLOAD or 
CLLOAD won't be accepted by the computer, 
and it will snap back with an SN error when you 
hit ENTER. 

By tww, if all has gone well, the cassette should 
be running. Unless you have connected the loud- 
speaker of the cassette recorder so that you can 
listen to the tape as it plays, you won't know 
when the action actually starts, until you see 
things happening in the top right-hand comer of 
the monitor. 

Two asterisks appear ooce the program starts 
loading, one steady, the other flashing slowly. 
One asterisk flashes at the rate of loading pro- 
gram lines, on for one line, off for the next. If 
you're loading a short program with short pro- 
gram lines, the rate of flashing will be rapid, and 
it won't be long before a dick comes from inside 
the keyboard unit, the cassette recorder motor 
stops, and READY appean on the video screen. 

If all this happens, you have achieved a suc- 
cessful kwd first time, and you qtialify for the 
Fori Worth Perfboard Medal of Honor. 

It's much more likely, first time round, that 
things won't nm quite so smoothly. There are 
two extremes to the problem. One is that no 



TO HOTOII conthol 



asterisks appear at all. This could simply be due 
to a tape whkh starts only after a long leader, 
which is why it is so useful to have a loudspeakci 
tone; but if there is no trace of the asterisks after 
a minute, there is replay voltmK trouble. Despite 
what the manual may say, this indicates that the 
replay volume is either much too low or much too 
high. If, on the other hand, you get two asterisks, 
but the right-hand one isn't flashing, then it's a 
dollar to a cent that the replay volume is Just i lit- 
tle bit too high. 

CaMCttc Coatrol 

If you have cither of these problems, you'll 
soon firul that you have another one as weU,thc 
cassette recorder motor keeps humming away 
happily until it comes to the etKl of the cassette, 
or until you do something about it. It certainly 
wtxi't stop at the ertd of the program load, 
because the stop instruction was never loaded in- 
to the computer. You can waste a lot of time just 
waiting for a cassette to load, so keep a careful 
eye on these asterisks. If they aren't blinking pro- 
perly, then press the RESET button at the back 
of the computer, rewind the cassette, press 
CLEAR to remove the old instructions and 
asterisks and start again with a different volume 
control setting. 

Dtm't give up if you overshoot and go far too 
high or far too low. When I bought my Tirst 
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trying to achieve a good load. Since Hnding the 
correa settings, it has never at any time failed to 
load a good cassette. You don't need to use ex- 
pensive chrome-dioxide tape material, just 
reasonably good quality audio tape, like Agfa or 
TDK. It's definitely an advantage to use tape sold 
in short lengths for computer work, but the C60 
length is very useful when you're developing a 
program with several versions. 

You may find that you have a tape which sim- 
ply won't load under any conditions. The odds 
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Once again, if you have the sound wired on your 
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Level 1 tapes have a lower pitched note and 
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Once you have found the correct selling for the 
Radio Shack blackjack tape, or whatever you use 
for trials, try to find the limits of the volume con- 
trol settings. It takes a lot of patience, but it's 
worth your while on the older models (later 
models are more tolerant of volume control set- 
tings). Load the cassette at different settings 
checking only for a few seconds that the asterisks 
arc flashing correctly, then use RESET to stop 
the tape and rewind. You should end up with two 
marks on the volume control, one at the lowest 
position at which a tape will toad, one at the 
highest. 

Set the volume control for normal operation 
midway between your marks. If you then find a 
tape doesn't load correctly at this midway set- 
ting, try it at each of the extreme settings. If it 
won't load on any of your marked range, reject 
it. One final check: Make sure it is a BASIC tape 
and not a machine code (system) tape, which re- 
quires quite a different technique (coming up). 

When you have loaded your BASIC tape, type 
LIST and hit ENTER. The program will now list, 
unless it's one which has been specifically coded 
to prevent copying. As the program lists, it will 
scroll up the screen fairly rapidly. 

You can stop the scrolling any time by hitting 
SHIFT and @ at the same time, so I usually keep 
one finger on the shift key and another on thc@ 
key to stop and start the scrolling. Any other key 
can be pressed to restart scrolling. 

1 didn't say what scrolling means? When 
you've seen it, you'll know — it's the way the 
listed lines appear at the bottom of the screen, 
seeming to push previously listed lines off the top 
of the screen. 

What you should be looking for in the listed 
program is corruption — gibberish lines, 
sometimes with no numbers or numbers out of 
order. Trouble is. until you get to know a bit 
more about programming, you don't really know 
a strange line from a perfectly good one! The real 
test, of course, is to run the program. If it 
operates perfectly, then there is nothing wrong 
with your cas.sette recorder volume control set- 
ting, and you can look forward to a long, active 
computing life. 

Just keep your head clean. I mean, of course, 
the record/play head of the cassette recorder. Get 
a pack of cleaning fluid (isopropyl alcohol) and 
cleaning pads and use them as per the instructions 
every three months or so, depending on how 
much tape you use. Don't be loo generous with 
the fluid, as it can sometimes swell the plastic 
bearings inside cassette recorder motors. 

lAiding §ystem Tapes 

While we're on the subject of this cas.sette 
loading caper, we might as well took at how 
machine code tapes are loaded. A machine code, 
or system tape usually comes with a bit more in- 
formation than a BASIC program tape. 

For one thing, you'll need an answer to the 
MEMORY SIZE question which appears when 
you switch on. This is a number, such as 320CX), 
that reserves some memory. The system tape, or 
ihe instruction sheet which comes with it, should 
have the correct number printed on it . If the pro- 
gram is one which doesn't need reserved 
memory, or which reserves its own, the instruc- 
tions will say so. 

Hit ENTER and the usual Radio Shack 



72 • SO Microcomputing, October 1980 



message comes up, with READY. Next, type 
SYSTEM, and hil ENTER again. This time, 
you'll get an asterisk and a query at the left-hand 
side of the video display. That's 80 language Tor, 
"What's the code name few the tape?" 

The code name will have up to six letters and 
must be typed. For example, the Radio Shack Hx 
tape for keybounce has the code name KBFIX. 
When you've typed the name, prepare the 
cassette recorder to replay, press the play key and 
hit ENTER, The cassette recorder motor will 
start, and, if all is well, you should sec the usual 
asterisks to indicate that you are loading your 
First machine code program. The rate of flashing 
is usually a lot slower than it is for a BASIC pro- 
gram, so don't worry if the load stops after only a 
few slow flashes. 

Now what can go wrong? Wdl for one thing, 
the code name which you typed may not be the 
code for the first program on the tape. If it isn't, 
the left-hand asterisk will be replaced by a letter. 
If that letter is C, then you have trouble, and 
you'll have to try again with a different volume 
setting. Hit the RESET switch to stop the action, 
rewind the tape, clear the screen and start again 
by typing SYSTEM. You don't have to switch off 
and answer the MEMORY SIZE question again. 
Next question: Having loaded It, how do you 
run it? When the tape has Hnished loading, the 
recorder motor cuts out, the asterisk stops 
flashing, and another asterisk and query appear 
under the First one on the left-hand side of the 
monitor. Type a slash (/) and then the entry 
number of the machine code program. 

Machine code programs are not so simple as 
BASIC programs in this respect: You have to in- 
struct the computer where to start working- The 
entry number should, once again, be noted either 
on the cassette or on the instruction leaflet. It 
may be the same as the number you used to 
answer the MEMORY SIZE question. When 
you've typed the sluh and the number, hit 
ENTER and your machine code program will 
run. 

Suppose you quit using one machine code pro- 
gram and want to start using another one which 
needs more memory roped off? You don't have 
to switch off to do this. Just type SYSTEM, hit 
ENTER and when the asterisk and query appear, 
type slash and and hit ENTER again. The 
MEMORY SIZE question will appear again. 
You'll lose any BASIC programs you tuul in 
store, though, so if you have mixed BASIC and 
machine code, make sure that you have the 
BASIC program on tape. 

A few machine^xxle programs are "self- 
locating." Once you have loaded them in by typ- 
ing their code names and entering, the second 
step is Just to type the slash and hit ENTER. 
Whatever type of machine-code program you 
may be using, don't forget the slash. Otherwise, 
you'll Find that when you hit ENTER, the 
cassette motor starts running again, trying to 
enter another program, and you'll have to 
recover control by using the RESET button. 
You'll probably lose the program which was 
loaded, but you can start again. 

Recording Prognms 

We've left until the end the matter of recording 
BASIC programs of your own. You'll want to 
record your own programs, of course, to remind 



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^nnOtf Swict—sam pag» 2X 



80 Microcomputing. October 1980 • 73 



yourself how good you arc. You'll also want to 
make back-up copies of sotlware >ou\e boughi, 
jusi in i:asc anyihing should happen. 

How do you record a program? The llrsi siep 
is lo prepare a blanli cassette, Dan'i think you 
can re-recnrd an old tape m the vame cheerful 
way you may be used to with audio cas'.elte^. You 
might get away with it, but odds are sou won't, 
and your recording will be corrupted. II' you want 
10 re-record a tape, wipe ii completely with a bulk 
eraser. 11 the program you want to record has 
taken you a long time to run correctly, you won'i 
want 10 trust it to anything but a length of good 
quality fresh tape. 

Reel the cassette back to the siarl and take a 
look at it. If there's a leader, a piece of clear or 
colored plastic tapcal the beginning, adsancelhe 
tape a bit until the grey magnetic toaiing is sisi- 
blc. 1 usually run each tape tor a i:ouni of fi^e on 
the tape-tooiagc counter. Don't lou^-h the tape; ii 
will leave a greasy mark which can cause loading 
problems later. Place the tape in the machine 
again, note the counter setting and press the 
record and play keys. A few cassette recorders 
use one single record key. bul moM use the safer 
system of needing two keys for ri-cording. 

The volume control selling doesn't matter, 
because recording volume is automatically con- 
trolled, unlike replay. Now type CSAVE and a 
quote mark, then a letter and another quote. If 
you choose "A" as the letter, this will appear on 
the screen as CSAVE "A". 

If you don't use the code letter, the i;ompuler 
will reject your attempt to record, but only after 
it has already recorded a signal I'n some of the 
tape, whii:h you woti't be able 10 use again, unless 
you can erase u thoroughly. 

When you're satisfied that all is well, hit 
ENTER, and the program should start to record. 
There are no Hashing asterisks to remind you this 
time, just the quiet hum of the motor of the 
cas.sciie recorder until it clicks off at the end of 
ihe recording. The click, incidentally, comes 
from the relay inside the TRS-80. At the end of 
the CSAVE, READY appears on the screen. 

Al this point, don't start shouting eureka and 
running around. You don't know yet that you 



have a good recording. Rewind the tape, type 
tI.OA[5?",\" (or whatever letter you used) and 
press play on the recorder. Then check again that 
the query mark has been typed after CLO.'XD; hit 
EMLK and wait. The program will play back, 
with the usual flashing asterisks, but thi>i time the 
replayed program is being compared, byte by 
byte. With the program which is still in the 
memory of ihe computer. 

If they aren't identical, ihe mcsage "BAD" 
will be displayed. You have then to son out 
whether the iaf)e copy is faulty, or you need a dif- 
ferent volume control setting for this program. 
Only when you've CSAVEd and CLOADed with 
no error messages can you be sure that you have a 
go(Kl copy of your program. Cautious people 
always make two recordings, checking one with 
CLOAD'? People like me who shed bkxKl, sweat 
and tears to create a program always make three 
copies. 

Be very careful that when you use the 
ClOAI)'.' command, you don'l leave out the 
query mark. If you do. the program on tape will 
load, replacing the program thai was in the com- 
puter. If the recording was good, this won't mat- 
ter, bul if Ihe recording was bad. you have tost 
the good original and have a bad copy, and that 
just isn't fair trading. 

The CSAVK Inslniclion 

Very little ever seems to go wrong with a 
CSAVE instruction, but there are a few points 
you will need to remember. One is thai the com- 
puter can only control the motor of the cassette 
recorder; it has no control over the rest of the 
recorder. 

If, for example, you use CSAVT" bul forget to 
press the record and play keys ot ihe recorder, or 
press only one of them, ihcn the computer wilt 
push out Ihe recording just ihc same, with no 
warnings and no recording made. It might be 
useful 10 arrange it so that you goi an error 
mes.sage. but this would need more connections 
between the computer and the recorder and 
would make the recorder a non-standard item. 

You should always use CLOAD? after a 
CSAVE, so you can chctk that you really did 



record ihat program A much worse fault is to 
lype CI ().\D and run wiih ihc record and play 
keys down. This way >ou load no program, and 
you wipe oui anything which was on the tape! 

V^ hen you CSAVE a program, you have louse 
a letter or a couple of letters of tel- 
ler- number— it's like chtH>stng a name for a 
variable. If you don'l, as we've said, [heCS.'WT 
Witt noi run, an SN error will hi- Jispla\ed. and 
ihe tape will be corrupted. 

The label is called a Tilenamc, and it's imp<it- 
tani lo the recording. It's used when you 
CLOAD the program, and il's particularly useful 
when you have several short programs packed 
together on a piece of lape. Suppose you have 
three programs on the start of aCIScasseiic, and 
ihe^ have been labelled "A", "B" and "C" at 
Ihe lime ihey were CSAVI d 

When you CLOAD, you can type 
C LOAD7--B" and hit ENTER, and start run- 
ning ihe casseiie from the start. When the first 
program starts lo replay, ihe lefi-hand asterisk 
will be replaced by the letter A to show you ihal 
this is the filename (ihe fir si leiier if there's more 
than one) of ihe program which is being read. 
The other asterisk will flash normally. When the 
program which you have rt-quested comes on 
line, it will load in ihc usual way, wiih one steady 
asterisk and one flashing one, then the recorder 
will switch off. 

Normally, when I keep several programs on 
one cassette, I leave plenty of space belwcen and 
use ihe tape counter m find each one, but I find 
this "label-search" very uselut for my backup 
cassette, w hich is a CWl w iih alt my most v aluable 
programs stored lighih together. Since 1 use ihis 
onlv when a valuable program has been wipc-d or 
corrupted (and I'm resiuig ihe ixher backup 
cassette), it doesn't mailer if li takes twenty 
minutes lo find the program. 

One last poini — always stari a replay either al 
Ihe start of a ca.ssetie or at a point ^^'he^e you 
know there's no program recorded, if you start 
running where there's a program recorded, the 
load wilt be faulty, and the computer can lose 
control of the motor. You'll end up having louse 
Ihe RESi'.T button and rewinding the lape.H 



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TUTORIAL 



Let's look at the management 

instructions involved and how to use them effectively. 



Pulling Strings Together 



John D. Adams 
13126 Tripoli Ave. 
Sylniar. CA 91342 



My first article on strings outlined their 
concept. The following examines string 

managemeni instructions. 

The TRS-80 hdiidles siring and non-^tnng 
data in different wayi. These two types of data 
are not interchangeable on Level I sysicms. 

Level II, howe\er, gives us a way lo get 
around the problem with two instructions: 
VAL(nS) and STR$(n). 

VAUnS) ind STRS(n> 

These t*o instructions permit us to use data 
stored as wrings in non-siring operation and 
vice veria. The instructions are quite easy to 
understand. Let us assume thai wc have 
"12345" stored in location AS and "54321" 
stored in location BS, and that during the ex- 
ecution of a program we need the sum of the 
two numbers, ("ntcr and RUN the following: 

10 READ AS.BS 

2onAT^ i;.u5,?4)2i 

» PRINT M ■ KS 



Note what line ?0 produces. Since the 
numbers arc in memory as symbols rather than 
values, the computer did not return their sum, 
but their concaicnaiion, Is there a way to get a 
sum from these numbers? Change line 30 to 
read: 



W PRINT VAliASt.VAt.lBJI 



This produces ihc needed sum. The VAL 
statement has instructed the computer to use 
the values of Ihc strings. By including the line 
C = VAL(AS):D = VA[.(B$). we store the 
numbers in memory as values C and D and as 
Strings in AS and B$. 

STR$(n) accomplishes the reverse. Should 
there be a number in memory as a value and it is 
needed for use as a siring or as part of a siring, 
this instruction convene ii. Numbers ;;an be 
convened either way. that is, from symbol to 
value or from value to symbol, but we cannot 
do the same thing wilh letters. RUN the follow- 
ing lines: 



1(1 AS = ■ABt'BI - ■ABCIU" O = ■■i:iABC ■" 
20 PRINT VALIAS) 
30 PRINT VAI.lWl 
40 PRINT VAUOl 



The first two lines of the printout return 
zeros, since they start with letters l.me 4<), 
however, prints the numerical portion of the 
string. Lciicrs do not have value, so they arc 
ignored by the instruction. (Letters do have 
ASCII code numbers, but they are for iden- 
tification onl\ and ha%e nothing to do with 
numerical value.) This feature distinguishes 
between strings starting with numbers and 
those staning with letters, as in the following 
lines: 

10 INPUT-bNTF-R ANY STRING. FIIHF.R NUMBFRS 

OR I.ETTtRS''-Al:B = VAI.(AS» 
2i)rFB = 0THENWEI.St PRINT B:GOTO 10 
W PRINT-STRING STARTS WITH 

LETTER ■ CANNOT RETURN VAl Ut '^GOTO 10 

STR$(n) works the opposite way. Try these 



10A=1VTO:B- I9II0:A$- "lOTAt S FOR";Bl - ■' TO" 
»C"J AJ.STRiiA)* BI'STRKB) 
JO PRINT « 

The numbers 1970 and 1980 are stored as 
values, but line 20 allows them lo be in- 
corporated into CS, usinji the STRS instruc- 
tion. 

The 1 I:N(nS) instruction counts the number 
of characters in a specified string, including 
spaces, punctuation marks, symbols, etc. It 
counts leading or trailing spaces «n/>'if they are 
included as pan of the siring. We have to watch 
out for this when numbers have been converted 
to string data by ihe STRJ instruction. These 
lines illustrate the problem: 

H)A = liMiHJ = -l2Mr' 
20AJ-STRVAI 
30 PRINT LENlAil 
40 PRINT I EMBSl 

W'hy do we get a different count for Ihe iwo 
strings'' Remember thai when the TRS-gO 
prints a number, il always leaves one leading 
space for the sign, whether it is needed ot not. 
This space explains the greater count, as it was 
transferred to the string. We will put this in- 
struction to use afier we have looked at the 
three statements which follow. 

I.WT$<nS,n), RIGHTS^nS.n), MIDS(nS.n,n) 

These functions can be used to "e.xccrpt" a 
string. Using them, we can pick up any portion 
of an existing string to use elsewhere. Fach of 
them has information, called the "argument," 
enclosed in parentheses. In the LEFTS instruc- 
tion, the firsi term of the argument states the 
nameof the siring we want tocxcerpi, folliiwed 
by a comma. The second term indicates the 
number of characters we want picked up. start- 



76 • 80 Microcomputing, October 1980 



ing with ihe leflmosl character. An example 
follow;,: 

10 AS- ■■I2M.V 
20 PRINT LEfTKAJ,!) 
W PRINT LthTHAl,2) 
40 PRINT LEFTKAS,)] 
S) PRINT LEPrS{AI,4> 
ftO PRINT l.E?T$(AI.'i) 

The printout illustrates what LEFTS does. 
RIGHTS docs the same thing, but starts count- 
ing backwards from the rightmosi character. 
Add the following lines: 

■■0 PRINT R]CHTi(AS,l) 

80 PRINT RIGHTi(AJ.2l 

90 PRINT RIGHTi(A$ Jl 
100 PRINT RIGHTKAV) 
1 10 PRINT RIClHT5(Ai,.M 

The pnniout shows that we can use these two 
statements to "pick ofP" any desired number 
of characters from either the beginning or the 
end of a string. In both of the insiruclions, the 
second term of the argument (number of char- 
acters) may be a number or a variable. If, for 
example, the number four is stored in memory 
location X the statement LEFn(B$.X) will ex- 
cerpt the first four characters of the string in 
location B$. Should the second term of the 
argument be larger than the number of 
characters in the string, the entire string will be 
returned. 

The third statement, MlD$(nS.n,n), excerpts 
portions from the middle of an existing string. 
There are three terms in this argument. The 
first indicates the string to be used, the second 
represents the position at which the lift is to 
Stan, and the third indicates the number of 
characters lo be lifted from thai starting point, 

MID$(A$,12,7) returns seven characters 
from string AS, starting at position 12. The sec- 
ond and third terms may be variables such as 
MID$(L$,X,Y) in which numbers stored in X 
and Y determine the starting point and the 
number of characters to be returned. A simple 
routine is given in Listing 1 to illustrate the use 
of these three instructions. It also uses the 
LEN(n$) instruaion. 

Line 10 clears the screen, defines variables 
and deposits a comma in siring location A. 
Lines 20-40 request your name and, using con- 
catenation, build Che string in location B 
(shown in line 45). 

The number of characters in the string is now 
counted by the LEN(B$), and thai number is 
stored in location X. Lines 50 and 60 set up a 
FOR-NEXT loop which, using Ihe MIDS in- 
struction, examines each character in the string 
starting at position one. character one. and 
continues until it finds the period after the 
middle initial. 

At this point, execution proceeds to line 70. 
Here the RIGHTS instruction stores the last 
name in El and then line 80 uses the LEFTS in- 



struction lo store ihe first name and middle ini- 
tial in E2. Line 90 prints out the results. These 
statements allow almost unlimited flexibility in 
the construction and use of strings. Experiment 
with them a little. 

The FRE(nS) instruction may be used cither 
in the command or the execute mode and re- 
lurns the amount of string storage space avail- 
able at that point. It requires an argument in 
parentheses, but the argument is what is called 
a "dummy" argument. To get an idea of how 
this works, load and run the routine in Listing 
I. After the printout, type FRE(A). hit 
ENTER, and the computer will return the num- 
ber of string space bytes left after entering your 
name. 

The argument A is a dummy; you get the 
same return if you enter B. C or any other string 
variable name, even if it is not in use in the pro- 
gram. Try using different variables, Ifyouusea 
non-string variable in the argument, the com- 
puter returns the number of bytes left in RAM. 
Enter FRE(X) as an example. 

This instruction is very useful in building 
programs where there are a lot of strings, and 
you want to keep track of how much space is 
left. This routine is an example: 

lOCLSCLEAR IIDDEFSTR A.B 
20 FOR 1 = I TO 30 
M) INPUT ■ENTER SAME":A(1) 
40 PR I NT" YOU NO* 

HAVE';FRE(AI;"BVTtS 

OF STRING SPACE LEFT" 
50 NEXT 

STRINGS (n, character) 

Useful in graphics applications, we can in- 
stantly create strings of up to 255 repeated 
characters with this statement. Any letter, digit 
or symbol on Che keyboard may be used, al- 
though the ASCII code numbers must be used 
for the quote mark, comma and colon. The 
first term of the argument sets the number of 
characters wanted in the string, and the second 
term indicates the charaaer itself, or the string 
location in which that character is stored. 

• To print a specific charaaer, use the form 
PRINT STR1NGS(50."*"). Here the desired 
character must be enclosed in quotation marks, 

• To print a character stored in a string loca- 
tion, use the form PRINT STRINGS(50.A$). 
The variable location name (AS) is not enclosed 
in quotes. That charaaer must, of course, have 
been previously stored in AS. 

• To print a character using its ASCII code 
number, use the form PRINT STRINGS 
(50,58). As 58 is the ASCII number for the col- 
on, this command will print a string of 50 col- 
ons. The ASCII code number is not enclosed in 
quotes. Using these codes, any charaaer may 
be printed, including the graphics patterns 
which are ASCII numbers 129 through 191 . All 
of the code numbers are listed on pages C/1 
and C/2 of your user's manual. 

One of the advantages of using this instruc- 



tion is its speed of operation and printout. To 
see the difference, enter and RUN the following 



10 CLEAR 500:INPUT"EIsrTER CHARACTER 

TO BE USED ":Ai. CIS 
2H FOR X-OTO 

:M:PRINTTAB(\)Ai;.NEXr 
.V) PRINT ■■ ■■ PRINT 
40 PRINT STRINGi<2^VA$):(}OTO 10 

For formatting output, strings may be 
prepared to make borders, single lines for 
column totals using the minus sign, double lines 
for columns using the equal lo sign, etc., and 
then quickly called as subroutines. 

ASC(n$) and CHRS(n) 

In Che first pare of this article, string com- 
parisons were discussed. At ihac lime, we took 
a brief look at Ihe ASCII codes. Level II offers 
two instructions which allow us to operate with 
these code numbers, if necessary. The ASC(n$) 
statement gives you the ASCII code number of 
the first character of the string that you have 
specified as the argument. As with other in- 
structions in this group, the argument is en- 
closed in parentheses. If you wani to have the 
ASCII code of a character returned, and you 
enter the charaaer manually from the key- 
board, ii must be in quotes. Entering PRINT 
ASC("A") returns 65. which is the code num- 
ber for A. When the character is stored in a 
string location, Che quotes are not used. An ex- 
ample would be: 

IOAi = "i" 

20 PRINT ASC(AS) 

Running these two lines returns the number 
53 which is the code for the digit 5. All code 
numbers are returned in decimal notation. 
CHRS(n) performs the reverse operation. In 
this case, the argument is the ASCII code, and 
the charaaer itself is returned. Entering the 
command PRINT CHR$(9I) causes an up ar- 
row to be printed on the video monitor. This is 
a powerful function, as it permits us to print 
characters not normally accessible from the 
keyboard. 

We know that we cannot use quotation 
marks inside a staiemeni to be printed, because 
Ihe computer interprets the second mark as the 
end of the line Co be printed. Such signs are 
called delimiters. If Ihe use of quotes is 
necessary in a printed statement, it may be ac- 
cessed by using the CHRS statement. Type the 
following command. 

PRINT-THIS WILL ALLOW ■■;CHRJ(34);- QUOTE 
S1ARKS";CHRK34K' TO BE USED" 

No spaces are included with this command, 
and they must be provided as in the above after 
Ihe word "allow" and before the word "to". 



80 Microcomputing, October 1980 • 77 



Since the down arrow is used for line feed. 
Ihe left arrow for backspace and the right arrow 
for tabbing, we cannol print ihcm in the nor- 
mal manner. Using their codes, however, which 
are 92, 93 and 94, respectively, we may print 
them by using a line such as: 

PRINT CHRS(«);CHRi<9J);CHRV*»l 

All of the graphics characters may be primed 
using their ASCII codes. Be careful when using 
these codes, as numbers through 31 are 
assigned to various control operations. RUN 
the following lines. 

Ill I'RINI"! IKSI 1 ilSif 
:tl I'KINI t HHSll'l 

30 PKINI"LiNL 2U HAS CAUSED A LINK 
HiED TO BE EXtCUTED" 

These codes are quite useful, especially when 
working with printers. 

INKEYS 

The last of the instructions we will look at is 
INKEYS. As the TRS-80 does not come with 



joystick-type input devices, this instruction is 
very useful with real lime games, allowing the 
operator to enter information while the pro- 
gram is running without using the hNTHR key. 
INKFYS cau.ses the computer to scan the 
keyboard many times per second to see if any 
information has been entered. If data is found, 
program execution continues; if not, the search 
continues. When a character is enlered, it is 
scooped up and stored in a string location, and 
the scanning procedure- continues. The follow- 
ing lines illustrate ihis tunction: 



10 CLEAR 20IJ.DEFSTR A.B 
20CLS:PRINT"ENTER A MESSAGE. WHEN 
F[MSHEO ENTER A SLASH HAR" 

.10A=INKEYS IF A- niEN JO 

401FA--V1HEN SO 
50CI.S:PRIM A 
60 B= Bt A 
TO GOTO 30 
80tLS:PRINT a 



line 10 clears string space and defines A and 

B as siring variables. Line 21) requests a message 
and defines ihe slash bar as the "ending" 
character. Line 30 sets up the INKEYS scan. It 



is a closed loop which continues cycling until 

something is entered from the keyboard. The 
empty quote marks ("") in line 30 are used to 
designate a null siring, or one which has no 
characters in ii. 

When a key is pressed, line 30 also deposits 
that character in string location A, and pro- 
gram execution continues. Line 40 tests for the 
ending character, and if ihe test fails, line 50 
prints the character entered at position Oon the 
monitor screen. Lines 60 and 70 then build the 
string using concatenation. 

Execution now returns to line 30 for further 
entry. When a slash bar is entered, it is detected 
by line 40, which causes a branch to line 80 for 
printout and termination. As mentioned, this 
function bears much investigation to fully 
reali/c its potential. 

Chapter 5 of the Level II manual starts with 
the words, "Without string handling capabili- 
ties, a computer is just a super-powered 
calculator." Though this is an exaggeration, 
using strings makes possible operations which 
simply cannot be done on a programmable cal- 
culator. And the further we dig into these in- 
structions, the more obvious this becomes. ■ 



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60 Microcomputing, October 1980 • 79 




Small Business Inventory System 

Accounting information Order entry Inventory control Invoicing 



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cedures are all organized with the aid of the system. 

SBIS will handle credit card and layaway sales, order 
cancellations and discounted sales. Complete lists of all 
inventory detailing product type, quantities and item code 
numbers can be printed whenever required. Information 
available to the operator of the system includes part 
numbers, item descriptions, product codes, list prices, 
costs, average costs, quantities on hand, physical 
locations, when to re-order and who the vendors are. 

Items that are "lost" can be traced with the aid of a 
unique search routine. It will maintain data regarding lot 
quantities, quantity of sales year-to-date, sales for last 
year, item numbers and when an order is due to be 
delivered. SBIS stores and maintains accurate daily, 
monthly and yearly sales figures. 



Storage capacity? As many as 10.000 different line 
items may be stored on a TRS-80 Model One having four 
77 track drives, Capacity with four 40 track drives is 
5,000 line items and 2.200 on just two 40 track drives. 
The TRS-80 Model Two will handle about 25,000 line 
items. Sorting and looking for items is very fast, as 
Westech's SBIS utilizes machine language in-memory 
sort routines. The system requires 32K, two disk drives 
and a suitable printer (for permanent records). 

A complete Model One documentation manual and 
demonstration disk is available for $35 (which is deduc- 
tible from the purchase price of $545.00. 5*^/5 is also 
available for the Model Two for only $595.00 - a 
demonstration disk and Model Two documentation is 
S40.00 (also deductible from the purchase price of the 
system). 

See your nearest IJG Authorized Dealer for more 
information on this exciting SBIS time and money saving 
system. 



PARTIAL LISTING OF PARTICIPATING UO COMPUTER SERVICBS RETAIL DEALERS 

H ft E COMPUTRONICS THE DATA CONNECTION BIAS, INC. 

10 Drexel Couri 11818 WilsMire Blvd ^9A Cedar St 

Soring Valley NV 10977 Los Angeles. CA 90025 Manchester. CT 06040 

l9ldi 425-1535 (800)431 281B l2 13) 479-1980 M McCartney 1203(643-2544 



HEINZ WILGEN 

Tandy R S Ve'1'agshandler 

Im Handenhot 1 1 2900 Oldeitsu'g 

Germany (044 1i 3 68 22 

CUSTOM APPLICATION SOFTWARE 

PC Boi 1119 
Placenlia. CA 92670 
(714)996 7474 



DATA FLOW CORPORATION 

24312 V.a Vieio 
El To-o CA 92630 

1714) 768-7623 



HOUSTON MICROCOMPUTER 

5313 Bissonnel 
Beliaife TX 77566 
(7131 661-2005 



THE PROGRAM STORE 

4200 Wisconsin Ave N/W 
Washington DC 20016 
(202/ 337-4691 



DC COMPUTER PRODUCTS 

596 Tayloi Way 

Belmont. CA 94002 

(415)592 4222 (800)227 7362 



LINGO ENTERPRISES 

1052 Artesia Blvd 
Long Beach. CA 90805 
(213) 422-0289 

LEVEL IV PRODUCTS. INC. 

32238 SchoolCfall 

Livonia Ml 48154 

[3 i3i 525-6200 i800) 521 3305 



APPARAT. INC. 

3973 South Olive 
Denver CO 80237 
13031 758 7275 



WRITE, PHONE OR CALL FOR FURTHER DETAILS 

n 



D 



^37 



IJG COMPUTER SERVICES 

569 N. MOUNTAIN • SUITE B • UPLAND. CA 91786 • (714) 982-7829 

'TBS-80 IS a Irademark ol the Tandy 
Corporation 




80 • 80 Microcomputing. October 1980 




randofm access data ea^ecuHre 



The I.J.G. Random Access Data Executive [RADEX- 
10) is a sophisticated database management system. 
Written in disk BASIC, the program enables you to create 
and manipulate databases with up to 1 0, 1 99 records, any 
of which can be accessed within seconds. The minimum 
system required to use R.iDEX-10 is 32K of memory and 
2 disk drives. A printer is not needed to use the program. 

RADEX-10 enables you to create and manipulate 
databases easily and quickly, without any programming. 
You can use RADEX-10 to maintain any type of file or 
record requiring fast access and maximum use of disk 
space. As a self contained .system RADEX-W is almost 
self-explanatory. All operator prompts and messages are 
in plain english - not computerese. 

The standard system consists of six program modules, 
which load and execute automatically as required. You 
can create files, add data, remove data, change data, 
generate reports, produce mailing labels (if you have a 
printer) and generally manipulate your data - all without 
writing a single program line! 

All of the program modules are designed to handle 
specific tasks within the system. The modules are de- 
signed to be 'transparent" to the user, all file creation and 
manipulation being taken care of automatically. 

The Report module is one of the most fiexible and 
powerful available for a TRS-80 database system. It 
allows you to search all the records, or a selected range of 
records, and list only the records that meet the conditions 
specified. You can specify up to 30 separate conditions 
that a record must meet, and any of the conditions can be 
applied to any separate part of a record. Conditions that 
can be selected are; equal to. greater than, less than or 
alphanumeric match (on alphanumeric parts of records). 
Logical operators AND. OR. AND NOT and OR NOT 
can also be performed on the specified conditions. 

After the conditions for a report are specified they are 
stored on disk, so that you can have several different 
reports available on the same data. 



T.M."^ 
Reviewed in the July issue of 80 Microcomputing, 
RADEX-10 comes with a 40 page manual and will 
operate with TRSDOS or NEWDOS. Versions are 
available for 35. 40 or 77 track disk drives. This extremely 
versatile system is only $99. (X), the manual is available 
separately for S15.(X) (with full credit towards program 
purchase). 

C.A.S. Report Sort Module 

This new add-on module for RADEX-10, or the 
Universal Database Manager, allows you to sort your 
^D£'A'-yO database on any field and output the result to 
a printer or the screen. The report will also be sorted on 
any specified output field. A high speed in-memory 
machine language subroutine, especially developed by 
RACET computes, is used to perform the sorts. 

C.A.S. Database Sort Module 

Using this module you can sorxyonx tnixxt RADEX- 10 
database, or portion of the database, on any field. The 
sorted records can be output to a new file, or appended to 
the existing file. You can select the records to be sorted 
with both relational (greater than, less than, equal to or 
alphanumeic match) and logical comparisons. In this way 
you can create new RADEX-iO files containing subsets of 
the main database. A high speed machine language 
subroutine is also used in this module. 

C.A.S. Database Editor 

If you need to add, delete or change any fields in your 
RADEX-10 database, without re-entering all the existing 
data, then this program is the answer. With it you can 
completely restructure or edit your database with ease, 
make fields longer or shorter, change the sequence of 
information, or even insert completely new fields. 

All the modules work with either RADEX-10 or the 
Universal Database Manager, but require 48K and 
NEWDOS. 

Complete with extensive documentation, the modules 
are available to registered RADEX-W or Universal 
Database Manager owners for S99.0O each. 



ASK FOR A DEMONSTRATION AT YOUR LOCAL DEALER 



D 



D 



UG COMPUTER SERVICES 

569 N MCXJNTAIN • SUITt B • UPLAND. CA 91786 • (714) 982-7829 




-iMdvr S0ivicm—s«« page 226 



80 Microcomputing, October 1980 • 81 



HARDWARE 



A peripheral worth considering. 



The Light Pen 



Hugo T. Jackson 
*401'1873 Nelson St. 
Vancouver. B.C. 
V6G 1M9 



3G Light Pen 
3G Company 
Gaston, OR 
$34.S5 



Perhaps the following sce- 
nario sounds familiar? Ex- 
cited by the prospect of using 
your recently purchased com- 
puter tor a business application, 
you diligently apply yourself to 
the task of writing your first pro- 
gram. Although it's hard work, 
you stick with it, emerging 
months later with the completed 
program in hand. You're eager 
to show your business partner 
or employee how to use and ap- 
preciate the sum result of your 
newfound knowledge. 

You grow increasingly frus- 
trated, however, when his trial 
attempt at the keyboard results 
In input errors, causing the pro- 
gram to bomb unmercifully. You 
quickly realize that if he is going 
to have any success with the 
computer, he will have to know 
as much about the machine as 



you do. That's an expensive 
proposition, even if it's only your 
time that's spent training him. 

Your first home application 
isn't that successful either, if, 
like myself, you had intended to 
develop some educational pro- 
grams for a child of six. Have 
you ever tried to explain "SYN- 
TAX ERROR IN 140" to a Child 
who can't even read? 

The Light Pen 

Fortunately, there is an an- 
swer to the problem, and it is 
called a light pen. What this 
marvelous device does is spec- 
ify locations on the video moni- 
tor simply by placing the pen 
point directly over them. 

The pen is quite simple, and, 
although designers may employ 
different refinements, they are 
all built on the same basic prin- 
ciple. 

In the tip of the light pen is a 
photocell, phototransistor or 
similar electronic device. These 
components are all light sensi- 
tive. The pen's circuitry differen- 
tiates between two levets of 
light. 

In computer applications, this 
translates to the pen's deter- 
mination of whether or not a 
particular screen location is illu- 
minated (by a letter or graphics 
character) or blank. 

Aware of a light pen's poten- 
tial, I reacted quickly to an 



advertisement from the 3G Com- 
pany, After three and one-half 
weeks— interrogating the post- 



man dally— the light pen was fi- 
nally delivered. Opening the 
well-packaged container, I 




MN OM TtRBET 

SET riN STitTUS 

VllHltllE 
TO OHE 



• («> 

LlttHT 
'IN 



Fig. 1. Flowchart of main program requirements before branching to 
subroutine and logic of the verification subroutine. 



82 • 80 Microcomputing, October 1980 



Program Listing 1. Light Pen Detection Subroutine. 



loe 


t. t* t**«>4<*>.+ *4.»**4**«*.* 


49u 


lie 


FIGLRE 2: 


seo 


t2Cl 


LIGHT PEN CCTECTIOH 




izm 


SUEROUT 1 1« 




148 






130 


BV HUGO T, JfiCKSOU 




16Ct 


■•****«««*«******** **4*4**4 




170 




51W 


180 


flS;:Hil*tNT OF iJfiPIflBLES! 


SiO 


i9e 






2W> 


ft - F'EN 5THTUS iJHRIftBLE 




;io 


ft^l ! SUBROUTINE 


■i30 




DETEBMIMED PEH 


j4U 




tJRS IIOEEti ON 


550 




TfiRGET. 


iitoO 


220 


R=2 : SUBROUTINE 


j.'O 




DETERfllNED P£M 


^ise 




URS NOT 


^^6 




ON TBRGET 


6eo 


240 


e = FOR'tt^n' LOOP THRT 


blL> 




REPEftTS DETECTION 


620 




ROUTINE TWICE TO 






INSURE ftCCUWXV. 




2£« 


X » for-ne>:t loops used 


b30 




TO «U.OU THE DlSPLflV 


•1-40 




TO STfleiLIZE BEFORE 


c-se 




TESTING UHLUE HT 


M>KI 




Limi PEN'S PC»?T 


1.70 




flOC*£SS. 


t.ae 


leO 


■LD» - R TUO CHfWFlCIER 


e.'?0 




GftfiPHICS STRING USED 


rey 




US T* TflfGET. 




l^dO 


0F» -- TUO BFHlKSPftCES TO 

ERHSE THE TARGET TO 
CHECK IF TKRE IS 






HOW LOU LOGIC AT 


no 




THE FEM-^ PORl 


,'2U 




FC'[*£SS . 


"."30 


311.1 




.■40 


"j2ti 

2:je 


*n tm+t*-*+****+*»+***«** 


■,T0 


340 


M4IH F-F^OGRHM! 


31pO 


Lilt mjrt3EF;s iae-i0OO 





REFKiENT STHTEMENT TMHT 
MUST &E mCLUCED F«I0R 
TO TESTING THE PORT 
HW*ESS, The COt«'ITIONFL 
BRmCM IS Ft-SO ItCLUfED. 



360 




^lo 


-ibL. 


^••••••<>4t<4*l* **.«•+****« 


tf20 


irvi 


C-Ll. 




i«W 


IIUIIFILIZE THE TUO STRINGS 




S':)^ 


L0*-STRmG*t2. 143) 




4UW 


Cf*-STRIHGJ^2.6> 




41U 


SET FtN STATUS •.'WPIfieLE 
TO rERCI 




■iM 


M-O 




4J.U 


kESEI LIGHT FEN 




440 


0UT9':..0 


ij40 


4'jti 


F'RINT'I 0. L0»; 


ojO 


460 


PRIHT THRGET 


sto 


4,V 


FW C-1 TO ^INEXT C 




4S0 


If FEH IS TRIGGERED. GO 






TO CCTECTIOH SUBROUTINE 


.""JO 




ftrK. SEE IF IT UiflS OH THE 






THRGET. 


'I't'' i 



IF llf i,39j>128 GOSUe 630 
IF PEN URS GH T(«GET 
SUBROUTINE WILL RETURN 
WITH iJFLUE OF ft-1, THfiT 
BEING Tht CftSE. THE 
PFtJGRRM WILL THEN BRHNCH 
TO Lite •»**•. 

If R=I QOTO 540 
PEN UftS NOT OH TRRGET 30 
GO BACK Rl<> LOOF UNTIL 
IT IS. 

liJTU 420 

HilNT4 t4. "LIGHT PEN W TARGET' 

eo 

DETECTION SueROUTIf* 

< t *•* 4 ******* 4.*<.>44*«*44* 

FIRST SET UP FOR ttXT 
LOOP SO THHT WHOLE ROUTINE 
IS [Oie TUICE. 

FOR B»l TO 2 
TUFJ* OFF TARGET 

F-RINT OFIJ 
RESET LIGHT FtN 

OUT 99,0 
HLLOW DISPLPr.' TO STASILIZE 

FOR C-1 TO 5: NEXT C 
TEST F-OPT: 

IF PEN STILL Fit HIOH LOGIC 
THEN PEN M3T CN TARGET SO 
RETLRN - ELSE CONTINUE 
DETECTION ROUTINE. 

IF INP',99>>127 THEN RETLRN 
NOW TURN TRROET BHCr OH 

PRINT L0»; 
RESET LIGHT PEN RGOIN 

OUT 99.0 

■FlLLOl.! SCREEN TO STHB1LI2E 

FOP L-1 TO Tj:Ne>:T C 
CHLCl FORT i.'HLLt: 
IF PEN HOT ftT MIQH LEkCL 
LOGIC THEM FEN IS NOT C»-l 
IFfrGET SO RETLiR-N - ELSE 
CONTINUE. 

IF II*-i,99>-,'-12r THEN RETURN 
REF-EfiT DETECTIC»I RDUTII-C 

le^iT B 
[•EIECTION FOUTINE HRS 
BEEN PEF^^OPMEC' TWICE «<■ 
PP-OGPFBI lQHTRW. HRS HOT 
BEOI PETURtCD TO tlHIN 
F-F:Ou*oin. Thtk-EFuF-E PEN 
nUST BE ON T(»-ueT. SO 
FIRS.T SET PEN STATUS 
UhFIf)£4_£ TO H=I, 

t!-I 
THEN RESET LIGHT PEN. 

ciur 99. 

FINFLL',' RETURN CONTROL 
TO MRIN F'ROGRFlM, 
RETUFH 



n t »+***♦**»* 




Photo 1. The 3G light pen. The connector at the end plugs into the ex- 
pansion slot at the rear of the TRS-80. 



must be executed prior to poll- 
ing of the port address. 

An additional problem is that 
the light pen doesn't care what 
type of light falls on it. As a 
result, it goes to a high logic 
state whether it is pointed at the 
video monitor, a desk lamp or 
even out the window on a sunny 
day. We work around this by pro- 
viding "targets" on the monitor 
which indicate to the user where 
the pen must be placed, in order 
for his response to be recorded. 

If you look at the flowchart in 
Fig. 1 , you see that by turning on 
and off the "target" and com- 
paring the screen condition with 
the value received from the light 
pen port, we are able to ascer- 
tain whether or not the pen is 
pointed at a particular target. 



The flowchart leads to the de- 
velopment of subroutines such 
as the one in Program Listing 1 . 
Prior to branching to the subrou- 
tine, the pen is reset and the port 
polled. If the pen is at high logic 
(255), it may well be over the 
target, so we branch to the sub- 
routine to verify this. If the pen 
returns a value of less than 128, 
it obviously cannot be over a lit 
portion of the screen, so we loop 
back and continue polling the 
port until the pen is triggered 
again. 

If, however, the pen does re- 
turn with a value of 255, then we 
proceed with the subroutine's 
verification. To ensure that the 
pen Is over the target we turn the 
target on again, reset the pen 
and poll the port. If the pen is 



found a demonstration program 
on cassette, two sheets of in- 
structions and the light pen. 

Wonder of wonders, the pro- 
gram loaded the first time, and 
when I ran it, the familiar tic-tac- 
toe grid appeared on the screen. 

Although the pen's Instruc- 
tions indicated that my monitor 
might require adjustment of the 
contrast and brightness con- 
trols, I was happy to discover 
that the levels at which I usually 
have the monitor set were quite 
acceptable. 

While tic-tac-toe Is popular 
with my son, it is not the most in- 
triguing game that I have ever 
played, so it wasn't long before I 
began thinking of other applica- 
tions for the light pen. To ensure 
success. I first had to under- 
stand exactly how the pen 
worked. 



Polling the Port 

The light pen is assigned a 
port address of 99 and is con- 
trolled in BASIC programs with 
the INP and OUT commands. 
Using either equivalence (A = 
INP(99)) or conditional (IF 
INP(99)>128 GOTO 1310) state- 
ments, the program polls the 
port address of the pen and re- 
turns with either a value of 127 
or 255. This indicates whether 
the light pen is on an unlit or il- 
luminated portion of the screen. 

However, before the port is 
polled, it is necessary to reset 
the pen logic, as the circuitry 
latches and holds high state 
logic; i.e., once the pen has been 
triggered, it returns a value of 
255, whether or not it has been 
subsequently moved to an unlit 
portion of the screen. The state- 
ment OUT 99 resets the pen and 







Program Listing 2. Speedo 


looe 


REM •* 


*+*+**•« 


* 


***********4 + 4.**************************** 


leie 


REM 








1020 


REP1 






TME OflME CF SREEDO 


1030 


REN 








1040 


REIi 






Ev' HUGO jncKScn 


i0^>e 


REM 








1060 


REM **-*++*•+*♦**++**♦♦****-*******+*♦*♦**++»*+**♦-♦***+♦*♦♦* 1 


1Q70 


REti 








1030 


REn 


RSSIONTO-JT OF klFIRIFBLESI | 


10 ?0 


REM 








llOO 


REM 


Rl 


.> 


FOR htXT LOOP 


1110 


REM 


H2 


E 


FOR-'^CXT LOOP 


tl20 


REM 


H4 


^ 


ROW UPLUE OF CURRtHT TRRGET POSITION 


1138 


PEM 


H5 


= 


COLUm 'JPLUE OF CURRENT TRRdT POSITION 


1140 


REM 


Ft6 


i 


PIXEL UHLUe FOR DISPL8V RRRRV: 


11^0 


REM 
TOP 






fl6''0>-131 - TPRGET RT 


llc.0 


REM 

ni[:<x.E 






R6<i:i = I4e - TFiWST RT 


1170 


REN 
BOTTOM 






H6'^2'-17e. - TRRGET RT 


1180 


REM 


H7 


s 


OH POSITION IHDICRTOR 


1190 


REM 


»& 


- 


RRNDOfI DIRECTION INDICRTOP 


12&0 


REM 


«? 


= 


CURRENT TIMIKi UFLUE 


1210 


REM 


f*» 


i 


CURRENT MRTCH NUMBER 


1220 


REM 


fe 


- 


CUf3?ENT WTCH SCORE 


1230 


REM 


RC 


- 


CURRENT TOTHL SCORE 


1240 


REM 
SCORE 


RD 


- 


PRINT POSITION FOP CURR6MT MRTCH 


125e 


REM 








1260 


REM 


ei 


- 


CL^VtNT SCREEN LOCHTIDN CF TRRGET 


1270 


REM 


ez 


= 


NEU SCREEN LOCRTION OF TRRGET 


1288 


REM 








1290 


REM *• 


************************ ***•«.*.**** + •. t+t.*.!.*!.**** 1 










Program continues 



80 Microcomputing, October 1980 • 63 




Foster Rod More efficient Than: 

• TflSDOS 

• N€liJDOS + 

• VTOS 

DOSPIUS Uses less memofv ond still offere oti the com- 
mands of the other mojof opcfodng systems, AND some 
innovobve end useful feotures of our oujn desj^. 
DOSPLUS IS now ovoiloble for the TflS - 80*Model I. M. ond HI 

UMHMW Of COWMMOS: 



fiPKND 


flTTRlB 


fiUTO 


BOOT 


QUU) 


CL€AA 


CLOCM 


co*v 


C«HT€ 


DRT€ 


DiBUO 


0€VIC€ 


DM 


DO 


DUMP 


fOAMS 


m« 


KILL 


Lie 


LrST 


LOAD 


pfluse 


PflOT 


KNTMC 


RSB38 


TMe 


TflflC€ 


veflifv 






MHIT • M NIITUMS: 


imUTHS: 







nmoMflTic LOU)€fl<:ft« 

SCK€N PfWT€R 
WV&OflflO DCeOUNCt 
fltPfflTING Keveoflflo 



COPVI 

«STO« iWflD HLtS. 

DISH (XJMP/CMD 

fOfWflT 



TRmSHR 

PUflG€ 
CLCRflfllt 

BfKH-UP 



NCUJ FAOM 
MKRO-SVSTCMSIII 

fMoter DWMtte Diradorv Vw 1.0 - 

This program iiiM rsod Hi* diractoriu of up to 160 dtik- 
•ttss or SOOO Msf I InMrt your dtshstt* in the drive, press 
•nior. ond it urarto outomoticQiv to reod, store, ortd 
col«90dio your fites. No mor* looking through box ofter box 
ol dbMtMs kwMng tor those fovorite progroms thot ore 
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m« on oN the diriMttM. In oddMon, you con Ktf them bv We 
extension, dtakells number, or program cotegory. Ulith mos- 
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tion of not being ob(e to locote a portkukir program. Master 
directory uiM seorch tor o pcwtkulor Me name ond give you 
every occurence of thot fHe, its size, ond the diskette number 
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A totoHy self contoined, mochine longuoge progrom on o 
s«tf-boeting diskette; moster directory ujil work equoNy 
utel on single or multiple drive systems. 



DOSPLUS— $99.95 



MASTER DIRECTORY— $29.95 



Plensc Contoct: 
Micro Systems Softuuorc Inc. 
5846 funston Street 
HoHvojoocJ, Plondo 33023 
1 (305) 983 3390 



•^364 




Coming Soon: Dospkn 4.0 tor 1 - Megobyte TftS ■ SOi* 

* fflS dO IS o BaOewyh o* Tonov Coc 



1M« 
isie 

1330 
134« 

13«« 
1379 

isae 

1390 

t4ee 

i4ie 
i42e 

1430 

1440 
1430 
14&e 
1478 

i4ee 

1490 

i3ee 
isie 

t52« 

i53e 

1S40 

i3se 

i36e 

1579 

i3ee 

1390 

i6ee 

1618 
1628 
1638 

1640 

1634 

1668 
1678 
I6««8 
1698 
1788 
1718 
1720 
173fl 
1748 

1738 
I76« 
1778 
17S0 
1798 

leae 

leie 

1828 
1838 
1848 
IBSe 
1868 
ie,'8 
l£<:d0 
1898 
1988 
1918 
1920 
1938 
1948 

i9^a 

1968 

1908 

1998 



2018 

2820 

2838 
2048 

2830 



20 7B 
2000 
2990 
2100 
2118 
II 2t 
2130 
3148 
2138 
2160 
2178 
2188 
2I90 
2280 
2218 
2228 
2230 



2248 
2238 
2268 
2278 
22SS 
2290 
2300 
2318 
2320 



REM 

Ren lNlTtA.I2E AO OCFIIC umiACLES ETC. 
REn 

CLS 
DEFIKT ft-C 

om M<3> 
n6<8»131 
n6'l»l40 

»»6'2>-17» 

A9-e 

RB-e 

REM n»S. HQRIZONTW. BQRDEP IMIO DISPLfW rtnORY 
FOR Al-1336e TO 13407 
Pl>.E fll.131 
POKE ni«'96a, 131 

NEXT HI 

REM PWE i.tRTICHL BORCCR INTO C'lSPLRV r^NOKV 

FOR Rl-13360 TO 16236 STEP 64 

POKE PI. 191 

POKE «1*47. 191 

HXT Al 

REM WIMT TITl^ F»0 OTMOt F CW W UD fT PISPUfV HRTCTIBL 

PftlHTO S8.STPINC»<14.6I>( 

PRIHTO IIB.'9>eEDO-l 

P«?IKT« 17e.STRII«»<14.61>l 

PRINT* ■»34,"nHTCH SCC«£S-J 

PRINT* 49e.STRIt«if a4.43>J 

PRIhfl* 882.STRlNG»tl4.45>j 

REM EHTTC' POIMT FOP EflCH tCW MRTCH 

PRINT* 386 -Tift! "J 

PRIhfT* nO-9 ■■MRTCH" ;HftJ"--»RBj 

REM DISPLfi-/ TIME DCLRV Ft* T« BEGIM4IHG OF EHCH 

UOLLEV 

PRINT* ^r- 'COUKTTX&H TO EtCHT" J 

FCR m>ll TO 8 STEP -I 

F3» RZ-I TO lOOitCXT R2 

PRIHTO 471. Rli 

►o:t »! 

rem emsure hll. prior text eprset* from displrv 

print* i33.string«(2s.32'j 

PRIHTt 3»9.5TRING»' 18.32>I 

PRIKTt 478.5TPIHG«'4.32>: 

REM R»€>Crt-V OeTiPMI* INITIAL X-V CO-OHDIMHTES 

OF TFWGET 

A4-PK><14> 

f»-Pt<.<43*l> 

Bl - 133«»* ( 64*A4 > *n5 

B7i*»e<3>-1 

REM PRINT TBR^T 

PtKE ei.fl6..n7> 

POKE Bif-i.n&cRrj 

REM RESET LIGHT PEN 

OUT 99.0 

REM TIMING LOOP TO HAJM DISFUIV^-PEN TO STRBILIZE 

FOB Bl-1 TO BihCXT PI 

REM TEST FOR TRI&GESlltt - IF le THEN BP«CH 

IF IHF-<1>9J'-. 12S GOTO 22Za 

REM ROUTKt TO TEST IF PEU Ufi;. MPECTf.' OCR TWFGET 

FOR ni-1 TO 2 

REM LOM> CURRENT Tnp«T POSITIOM UlTH BLPM>:S 

PWE 81-32 

PCkE 81*1.32 

REM TiniNC LOOP TO RLLOU OISPLRT/ TO STRSLIS 

Fa? H2«l TO ISUtXT «2 

REM RESET LIOIT PEN 

OUT y^.O 

*fEM TmitC LOOP TO «XOU L'lSPLW^' PCH TO STABILIZE 

FOR «2-l TO 3!ttXT R2 

REM TEST FCR TRIGGERING - IF TRIGdRED TtCN PEN 

CFtHOJ 

OfXF TRQGET AS IT IS FCU OFF - SO BRflNCH TO 
~ TV SECTION 
IP I»'99> 127 GOTO 2248 
REM J\frn TflfKZT BACK 0< 
POCE ei.ft6-«7> 
POKE Bl*l.H6^fl7^ 

REM TIMING LOOP TO 5TPBIH2E I-lSPtflr.- PEN 
FOR ft2-l TO ie:HE;-;T flO 
REM TEST Ft* TRIGGERING - IF REM (OT TRIQURH) T»CN 

IT IS NOT OUER TfVOET K5 IT IS MOU W - BRfWCH 
TO 

PENPLTV SECTION 
IF INPC99K-127 GOTO 2248 

REM REPEAT TEST SECTION TO INSURE flCCURflCV 
NEXT ftl 

REM RESET LIGHT PEN 
OUT 99,0 

REM INCRErtHT MRTCH POINT UPLUE 
f»4tt*l 
REM PRINT CURRENT SCORE 

PRINT* fo.fes 

REM ERRSE THRGET BT CURRENT POSITION 
POKE B1.32 
POKE 81+1,32 

REM NOTIFY USER OF SUCCESSFUL POINT 

PRINT* 339.-rtXJR POINT"; 

REM BEGIN hCU iJOLLEV 

GOTO 1630 

REM THIS IS T>C PEHRLT'.' SECTION IMICH CIW5ISTS OF 

HDOING TEH Tlr« UNITS TO T« CURRENT IPLLE 

PK) KTUMINC TO TIC tVITCM LOOP 
18 

IF m>-10l GOTO 2600 
PWE 81,32 
POKE Bl*1.32 

PRINT* 333-PEWl,TV FOR II«CCUP«CV-I 
PRINT* 312. n9f 
FOR R2-1 TO leestCXT R2 
GOTO 1630 
REM PROGRftI SECTION TO ItCSERSE TIME U1LUE »€> 



Progrgm conliniMI 



233e 
2340 
23Se 
Z369 
2370 
2380 

2390 
2400 
M10 
2420 

2430 

2440 
2450 
2460 
2470 
2480 
2490 



IF Ae-4 

IF Re-5 

IF m-i, 

IF HS-r 



2910 

2S20 
2330 
2540 
ZS50 
2360 
2370 
2360 

»90 

2600 
2610 
2620 
2(30 
2640 
26S0 
2660 
2670 
2680 
2690 
2700 
2710 
2720 
2730 
2740 
2730 
2760 
2770 
2780 

2790 



2010 
2020 

2030 
2840 
2S30 

2S6a 

2870 
2B80 

2090 

2900 
2910 
2920 



29 30 
2940 
2930 



CALCULATE hCU POSITION FOP THRQET 
ft9-«9*I 

IF R9>»iei GOTO ihoa 

PRINT* 312. R9J 

REM RPHXM.V CftLCULHTE DIRECTION 

REM «€> CH-CtLHTE ItW POSITION RCCOROIMG TO RHMDOM 

CH01C£ 

IF ft8-9 TttN «4-2©ift3=50 

IF fle-1 TttN R7»fi7- 11 «■=*«- 1 

IF nB-2 T^tH «5-R5-I 

IF ne-3 THEN ft7»fl7*lift5«fl5-l 

Th«N ft7aOr*I 

THEN H7-fir*l;m=fl5*l 

THEN H5^fl5*l 

ThtK fl7-H7-liR5'H5*l 
IF HB-8 THEN R7=«7-l 
IF H7"-l TVCN ft7-l:IW"^ft4-l 
IF (17-3 TICH n7^>^in4-R4*l 

REM M»I SURE TflfttJET IS UITMIN BOnPD BOLKOflPIES 
IF n4>13 OR A4<t TKN A4-RtC><141 
IF RS>44 OR R5<2 THEN flO»Rt*r43>*l 
82- 13360+ C 64«'R4 > ♦(« 

REM DISPLHV TARGET AT h«W POSITION 
POKE B1.32 
POKE Bl*l,33 
01-02 
GOTO 1800 
REM EJO OF rWTCH SO IHCREMKT MBTCM i,«?:fleLE AND 

INITIALIZE MRTCH SCORE IJBPIFWLE ETC. 
«C-flC+** 

IF Hfi-fe GOTO 2750 

R9i4 

PRINT* 312. -B "1 

ne-a 

ft>-f>t>*64 

R£n NOTIFV USER OF tCU HniCH 

P*I1NT« 339. -NEW MfiTCH- ; 

P0« B1.32 

POtfE 01*1,32 

FOR H2"l TO lOOiNEXT «2 

REM RETURN TO r«TCH LOOP 

GOTO 1630 

REM END OF GftC ROJTIhC 

POKE 81 . 32 

POKE Bl + 1.32 

PRINT* 267.STRING«C26.6n; 

REM NOTIFV USER OF END f9€> PRINT TOTAL HtC> WCRRGE 

SCORE 

PRINT* 340. "OWE EW>- ; 

PRINT* 39S.STF-ItlG*<26.61>I 

PRINT* 524."WEFfld liBTCH SCORE i " J«C -"31 

PRINT* 59e."T0Tt^ G«« SCORE-lflC) 

PRINT* 7l3.5TRlHGf,26.61>l 

REM RESET LIGHT PEN 

OUT 99.8 

REM CHECli; FOR TRIGGEF IHG OF (*TV KIMC^ - IF NOtt RESET 

LIGHT PEN fl»0 0«CK RGRIN 
IF lr#H99><..127 GOTO 1858 
REM TIMING LOW TO flLLOU FOP USER TO Mff.C PEN flUflV 

FROM T« LIGHT SOURCE 

FOR ft2"i TO seo:rcxT ft2 

REM RESET LI01T PEl-l 

OUT 99-8 

REM IF LIGHT PEN IS NO LOHtIR TRIGGEPEO T>CN RETURN 

TO 

BEGINNING Of THIS LOOP - OTMEPUISE USEP DESIRES 
ANOTttR GHME SO FfTEP CLEiflft - GOTO PROOPflM 
BEGlr«4ING 

IF lr*>(99>< = 127 GOTO 2830 

CLEAR 

GOTO 1348 

Progttm conttniMs 



Still on target, the port returns a 
value of 255. If tt doesn't, we 
return to the main program, hav- 
ing been unsuccessful In verify- 
ing the "hit." 

To make absolutely certain 
the pen is on target, it is best to 
repeat this whole sequence 
once again, which is why the 
detection portion of the subrou- 
tine is nested in a "do twice" 
FOR/NEXT loop. If the pen falls 
through the FOR/NEXT loop 
without having been returned to 
the main program, we can safely 
assume that the pen is on tar- 
get. 

To record positive verifica- 
tion, the pen status variable is 
set to one, the light pen is reset, 
and program control is returned 
to the main program. How the 
program proceeds after verifica- 
tion of the pen being on target is 
up to the programmer. 

The final software considera- 
tion Is to provide for situations 
where more than one target is 
presented to the user. This is ac- 
complished in the main program 
with a FOR/NEXT loop which se- 
quentially turns on each target 
and then checlts the port ad- 
dress for triggering. 

If the pen has been triggered, 
the program brarKhes to the de- 
tection subroutine and deter- 
mines If the pen is over the 
target currently being printed. 
Even though the pen may be 
placed on a target other than the 
one presently being polled, the 
FOR/NEXT loop quickly cycles 



through all the target locations 
until the subroutine returns with 
positive verification of the pen 
at the current target position. 

Two Programs 

To date, my experimentation 
with the light pen has resulted in 
two programs. The first Is a 
short general history quiz which 
also instructs you in the use of 
the light pen. The second pro- 
gram is a challenging target 
game. None of the remarks are 
used for branching purposes In 
either program, so they may be 
deleted when you enter the pro- 
gram. If you leave them in the 
target game, they are a handi- 
cap as they slow down the pro- 
gram's execution substantially. 

Apparently, other manufac- 
turers besides 3G offer light 
pens that utilize the cassette 
port for polling and resetting. If 
you own one of these other 
pens, these two programs will 
run property. If you change all 
I/O commands to OUT (255) and 
INP(255). The values returned 
from the port address on polling 
are undoutitedly and 1. These 
values should be substituted for 
the 127 and 128 values used in 
my programs. 

For those of you without a 
light pen, Compututor History 
Quiz can easily be adapted for 
regular keyboard Input. The 
questions are multiple choice. 

The Game ol Speedo 

The target in Speedo moves 



I 
I 



UCSD** System for TRS-80 Model 11^ 

The most portable operating system now, supports FORTRAN. Pascal and/or FORTRAN modules are compiled in universal P-code, so they 
can run on most microprocfssors. often without recompiling. Programs execute up to 10 limes faster than comparable BASIC proarams and 
use much less memory. Ready- to run on IRS-80 Model II (WKl, 



FEATURES 

• Inlerai tive operating system -dynamic 
overlays, disk file handling, run-time sup- 
port and blotk I/O routines. 

■ Fast, one pass compilers. 

■ Two Editors-one screen oriented for pro- 
gramming and text editing, one character 
oriented for hard copy terminals. 

■ File handler to manipulate disk files. 
Macro-assembler that produces code for 
linking with Pasial or Fortran programs. 
Linker lor link-editing of object and as- 
sembly code mr>dules. 

Library of program modules and utilities. 



PLUS, from PCD Systems 

■ Disk formatting program to initialize dis- 
kettes rn single or double densit\ formats. 

• Configuration program for serial I/O. 

■ Disk-set program to permit separate as- 
signment of density and format charac- 
teristics for each disk drive. 

DOCUMENTATION 

■ LICSD System M.inual (4(X) pages). 

■ Beginner's Guide In UC SD Pascal. 

■ Pascal User Manual & Report. 

■ Fortran User's Manual with 
systems. 



PCD Systems, Inc. 



PO Box 143 Penn Van, NY 14527 

'Trademark o» Iho Rt^enis ot ihe UfMverMlv ot CaMonW ' Irade mMfcol 



315-536-3734 



PRICES 

• UCSD System with Pascal Compiler J3S0 
with Pascal and Fortran Compilers S500 

■ Fortran Compiler alone 
(requires Version II.O) $200 

■ P-Code Interpreter alone 
(either LSt-11 or Z-80) $ 85 

Opitonat Utility Programs 

■ CP/M' to Pascal file conversion J 50 

■ TRSDOS' to Past al file conversion $ SO 

■ Z-80 Disassembler/Dump program $ 50 

ALSO AVAILABLE 

■ UCSD System for MINO or PDT". 

■ Z-80 Adaptable System (you write BIOS). 

• UCSD System for CP/M environments. 

PCD Systems is a licensed distributor of the 
UCSD System for Pascal and Fortran. Dealer 
inquiries are invited. 

k ot Digital Rnevch 'IrMtemark ol Uigiul Equipment Cotpontlon 



Fortran 



'ReaOtf Stniice— s*e page 226 



^9B 



80 Microcomputing, October 1980 • 85 



randomly within the confines of 
a graphics box. The object of the 
game is to "hit" it as many times 
as possible within the time limit. 
The game Is comprised of five 
matches, each having a time 
limit of one hundred units. 
Watch out! You not only have to 
hit the target, but you have to re- 
main there until the subroutine 
ensures that you are on target. 
Any time the pen Is triggered 
and the subroutine finds that 
you are not on target, you will be 
penalized ten time units for your 
Inaccuracy. 

An Interesting departure from 
the standard detection method 



Is given In tines 2820 and higher. 
Here time Is used as the sole 
determining factor, since the 
pen need only be placed on a lit 
portion of the screen and held 
there for about five seconds. If 
the pen Is still triggered after the 
timing loop In 2870 has been ex- 
ecuted, the program clears all 
variables and restarts the game. 
Through my experience, I 
have come to the conclusion 
that a light pen is probably the 
most valuable peripheral that 
you can add to your current 
system. It Is possible to elim- 
inate all Keyboard input except 
forRUN.H 





Program Listing 3. Computer History Quiz 


lee REn 


'•*4'^4+4-'»'4l*i^4'«'-^+«-«*# **» *.******.4>*M * * ****if*'^^***>'¥'¥*4^*-**^ 


IIQ REM 






120 REM 




coMPUTLrrok 


130 REn 




HISTORV OUIZ 


140 REM 






tSe REM 




BV HUGO T. JRCKSON 


160 REM 






170 REM 


l•*>«*l*•.*«l•.ll«A*lt•^|.«+l^4>•*.W>«.:tl|.<.*4,4c44,**««tt'k**'«l'*4'•"•'>**#W | 


IBe REM 






190 REM 


RSSia*«NT OF URRIRBLES! I 


200 REM 




fll - CURRENT QUeSTIOH l-JUTieEP 


210 REM 




R2 - RBRRV TO TRRCK QUEST IDfJS HSKED AND 
flNSUERS LTSED 


220 REM 




R3 « OueSTIOM FQRrWT INDICHTORI 

B3-0 DATE TOLD - EUENT FOR HHSWEP 
fl3"l atNT TOLD - D«TE FOR flMSWER 


230 REM 




B4 - RHMOOM SELECTION OF QUESTION flSKED 



Our new program 
package for the 

TRS'80 
sounds terrific. 



So does die price* 

There are lots of programs with sound that 
are worth about a dollar. Trouble is, they cost a 
lot more. 

But at Basics &l Beyond we've just developed 
Microcosm IH, 20 programs with souixl — each 
just as good as our competition's $15 and $20 pro- 
grams — for $24.95. That's a 20-program package 
for $24,95, 

It includes "Pinball," replete with ringing 
bonuses, spinners, buzzers and flippers; torpedo- 
firing "Submarine" that explodes with underwater 
excitement; arvd the right/wrong buizer in "Long 
Division" teaches step by step. 

At Basics &l Beyond we urxlerscored our 
point that most other program packages are over- 
priced with Microcosm I and Microcosm C, $19.95 
each. Now a lot of people will start hearing about 
our third package arxi stop listenir^ to high prices. 

You see, it's rxx that our program packages 
for the 7TlS-80^^ microcomputer are so cheap. 
It's just that theirs are so expensive. 

BASICS & BEYOND, INC, 

Box 10 • Amawalk, N.y. 10501 ■Orcdl9I4-96Z-13S) t^49 
M«Hrch>fgc and Viw acccpud. 
No chmrtt for poMa^ or huvUlnt' N.Y. reaidmB mU S% mIci Bx. 
TRS-90 ttatTwlcnivk erf the RmUo Shack (UvMoncfllkiHhCofp. 



H7 
H8 
fl9 
RB 
PC 
PD 

61 
62 
B3 



FGR.^htXT LOOP 

FOR^NEXT LOOP 

PRINT POSITION 

CORRECT flNSUER 

NUMBER OF QUESTIONS CORRECTLY flNSyCRED 

FOR.'NEXT LOOP 

FOR^hCXT LOOP 

FOR^NEXT LOOP 

RNSUER FRRHV 
CORRECT F»4SUEP 
CORRECT QUESTION 



CI - TEST PERCEHTFlGE 



LO 

LF 



PI 



LIGHT PEN TfiRC£T 

STRING TO TURN OFF THRGET 



LIGHT PEN STATUS IHDICfiTOR 



IHITIHLIZE i DEFINE UflRIHBLES ETC. 



240 REM 

250 REM 

260 REM 

270 REM 

280 REM 

290 REM 

300 REM 

310 REM 

320 REM 

330 REM 

340 REM 

330 REM 

360 REM 

J70 REM 

lae REM 

390 REM 

400 REM 

410 REM 

420 REM 

430 REM 

440 REM 

1000 REM 

1010 CLS 

1020 CLERR 1000 

1030 DEFSTR B,L 

1040 DEFSNG C 

1050 DEFINT H 

1060 DIM B1C4) 

1070 DIM A2'.S8) 

1080 RHHDOM 

IB^e REM DEFINE LIGHT PEN TflRCCT 

1100 LN=STRIHG*(2, 143) 

1110 REM DEFINE BftCKSPHCE TO ERftSt LIQHT PEN TRRrjET 

1120 LF=5TRING»<2-S> 

1130 REM PR'INT FIRST rtSSflGE 

1140 PRINT* 21.STRlHG*':ri .45) 

1150 PRINT* 33. ■■WELCOME TO COMPUTUTOR" .* 

1160 PRINT* l-J^, STRING*' 21 ■4') 

1170 PRINT* 261. ■■THIS IS ft TEST OF 'VOUR GENER«- KNOWLEDGE 

OF HISTORICRL" 
llea PRINT* 338, "EiJErJTS. ■,'0U UILL BE HNSWERIh-tG MULTIPLE 

CHOICE ■'; 
1190 PRINT* 394. "QUEST lOG f^^i.< INDIUHTII-JG ■.'OUR CHOICE 

BV USING^'; 
1200 PRINT* 460. '■THE LIGHT PEN. TO USE ft LIGHT PEN SIMPLVJ 

1210 PRINT* 51S."PLHCE IT OH T^C UIOEO SCREEN OOER THE 

LIGHT SQUPRE. '■ i 
1220 PRINT* 648. ■■TRV IT HOW. SIMPLV PLHCE THE LIGHT PEN ' 

O^^R THE -I 
1230 PRINT* 712-"SOUftRE BELOU. yHEN WOU HHUE DONE THRT, 

I'LL KNOW J 
1240 PRINT* 776, ■'THRT ','OU F«E REHD^,' UlLLIMG ftlC> ABLE TO ' 

CONTINUE. -J 
1250 REM RESET LIGHT PE\i 
1260 OUT 99, B 

1270 REM PRIMT LIGHT PEN TRRGET 
12S0 PRINT* 927, LNj 

12'?0 REM IJftS PEN TRIGGERED-? - THEN BRRNCH 
1300 IF IMPC99)>)27 GOSUE 5020 

1310 REM P1=0 IF LIGHT PEN URS HOT O-JEP TRPGET 
1320 IF P1=0 GOTO 1260 

1330 REM PEN ON TRRGET SO PRIMT NEW TEXT 
1340 CLS 

1350 PRINT* 27. "IJERV GOOC ' ■' 
1360 PRINT* 137, '■LET'S TR'/ fl Sf»^ff'LE OUESTIC»^ TO r**'E SURE 

UE"1 
1370 PRINT* 19-?. "UHtiERSTHl-ffi EftCH OTHER. I'LL HSK "/OU-fl 

QUEST 1 CN '■ J 
1330 PRINT* 266.. ■■!*«■ SHOW '.'OU FIUE POSSIBLE ANSWERS OttV 

ONE "J 
1390 PRINT* 326, '■OF 1*^ICH IS CORRECT. AFTER VOJ HRUE DECIDED 

UHHT THE "J 
1400 PRINT* 391, "CORRECT HHSWER IS JUST POINT THE LIGHT ' 

PEN AT rHE" I 
1410 PRINT* 46B. "SCjUHRE OF LIGHT K:SIDe ThC RIGHT RNSUER."; 

1420 PRINT* 587. "LET ME KNOU UHEN VOU RRE RERDV TO CONTINUE"! 

1430 PRINT* 916."RERD^r' TO CONTINUE? ";CHR»<94'ii 

1440 REM RESET LIGHT PEN 

1450 □UT99,e 

1460 REM RESET LIGHT PEN STRTUS i.)flPIFCLE 

1470 P1=0 

1480 REM PRINT TRRGET 

1490 PRINT* 937. LN; 

1500 REM TEST TO SEE IF LIGHT PEN TRIGGERED 

1510 IF INP(99)>127 GOSUB 5020 

1520 REM Pl-1 IF LIGHT PEN WRS CUCR TRPGET 

1530 IF Pl=l GOTO 1360 

1540 REM flS IT WRS lOT, LOOP UIJTIL IT IS 

1530 GOTO 1490 

1560 CLS 

1570 PRINT* 320.^'IJHRT COLOUR IS THE SK^.-?- J 

1580 PRINT* 45S, ■■BROUN"; 

1390 PRINT* 322, "BLUf; 

1600 PRINT* 536, '■ORfltJGE WITH BLUE POLKR DOTS"; 

1610 PRINT* 650, ■'IT MRS HO COLOUR"; 

1620 PRINT* 714,'^IJHHT DOES IT MRTTER" i 

1630 REM RESET LIGHT PEN 

1640 OUT 99, a 

1650 REM RESET LIGHT PEN STRTIJS 'JHRIRBLE 

1660 Pl-e 

1670 REM PRINT 5 TRRGETS, CHE FOR EftCH POSSIBLE fWSUER 

lfeS0 FOR R5'448 TO 704 STEP 64 

1690 PRINT* ftS.LNJ 

17t)e REM TIMING LOOP TO ALLOW DISPLAY TO STHBLIZE 

1710 FOR R6='J TO 8:MEXT RB 

1720 REM TEST FOP TRIGGERII-C, BRRNCH IF SO 

1730 IF INF-'99)-'127 THEN GOSUB 3020 

1740 REM F1 = I IF LIGHT PEN OIJEP ONE CT T>C TflRGETS - 
R5 WILL 

BE EQUAL TO Tht UftUE CF THE PRINT POSITION >*CRE 
TRIGGERING THRGET IS LOCATED 

Program contlniMs 



86 • SO Microcomputirjg, October 1980 




Apparat, Inc., announces the most 
powerlul Disk Operating System forthe 
TRS-80®. It has been designed for the 
sophisticated user and professional 
programmer who demands the ultimate 
in disk operating systems. 

NEWDOS/80 is not meant to replace 
the present version of NEWDOS 2.1 
which satisfies most users, but is a 
carefully planned upward enhance- 
ment, which significantly extends 
NEWDOS 2.1's capabilities. This new 
member to the Apparat NEWDOS' 
family is upward compatible with 
present NEWDOS 2.1 and is supplied 
on Diskette, complete with enhanced 
NEWDOS + utility programs and 
documentation. Some of the 
NEWDOS/eO features are; 

• New BASIC commands that 
supports files with variable record 
lengths up to 4095 Bytes long. 

• Mix or match disk drives. Supports 
any track count from 18 to 80. Use 



35, 40 or 77 track 5" mini disks drives 
or 8" disk drives, or any combination. 

• A security boot-up for BASIC or 
machine code apptication programs. 
User never sees "DOS READY" or 
", -READY" and is unable to 
"BREAK", clear screen, or issue 
any direct BASIC statement 
including "LIST". 

• New editing commands that allow 
program linestobedeleted from one 
location and moved to another or to 
allow the duplication of a program 
line with the deletion of the original. 

• Enhanced and improved 
RENUMBER that allows relocation 
of subroutines. 

• Powerful chaining commands. 

• Print Spooler. 

• DFG function; simultaneousstriking 
of tfie D, F and G keys will allow 
the usertoentera mini-DOS 

to perform some DOS commands 
without disturbing the resident 
program, (e.g. dir while in scripsit.) 



• Upward compatible with NEWDOS 
2.1andTRSDOS2.3. 

• Includes machine language 
Superzap/90 and all Apparat 2,1 
utilities. 

• Enter debug any time by pressing 
123 keys. Also allows disk I/O. 

• Diskette "Purge" command. 

• Specifiable system options (limited 
sysgen type commands). 

• Increased directory capacity. 

• Copy by file commands. 

NEWDOS/80 with all of the 
NEWDOS + utility programs, many of 
which have been enhanced, is priced at 
just $149.00 and is available at most 
TRS- 80 dealers. 

As with 2.1, NEWDOS/80 relies on 
the TRSDOS and Disk Basic Reference 
rvlanual published by Radio Shack. 
NEWDOS/80 documentation supports 
Its enhancements and upgrades only. 



t^264 



MTPm 


r — 1 




Apparotjnc. 



EA 



/UlCROCQ^PUrER 

TECHNOLOGY 
INCORPORATED 



TO PURCHASE NEWDOS/80, COMPLETE AND MAIL TO: 

Apparat, Inc. Microcomputer Technology, Inc. 



4401 5. Tamarac Parkway 
Dwivar, CO 60237 
303/758-7275 303/741-1778 



3304 W. MacArthur Blvd. 
Santa Ana. CA S2704 
714/979-9923 



D Check D Money Order D Master Charge D Visa 

Card No . .. _.. Expiralior Date 

Colo residenisadd 6 5% Mies rai Cai residents add E% sales tan 
Add S10 DO poslBge and handling 

Please rush NEWDOS/80 @ $149 EACH TO; 



Name 



Address 

City 

Phone _ 



State 



Zip- 



■Reader Service — see page 226 



80 Microcomputing, October 1980 • 87 



Announcing the most important utility ever 
introduced for the TRS-80* Model I and Model 11- 



ENHBAS 



TM 



ENHBAS is an Enhanced Basic extension module, 
which loads at the top of BASIC, adding many com- 
mands and background tasks — 

DOver 30 new commands added to your BASIC: 

•SORT-Multi-keying, multi-tagging array sort. Sorts thou- 
sands of items in mere seconds, all with one command! 

•JNAME $ejcp-Usc tine labels along with line numbers in 
branching statements, as in assembly language, using the 
ENHBAS commands GTO and CSUB (special GOTO 
and GOSUB). For example: 
10 GTO "ENTER A LINE" 

20 REM LINE 10 IS THE SAME AS GOTO 30' 
30 JNAME "ENTER A LINE" : INPUT A$ 
How many times have you wanted to use variables to refer- 
ence line numbers? Now you can! GTO and CSUB allow 
variable expressions as operands, such as: GTO X+40 or 
CSUB(Y*10)+30. 

•WHILE / WEND-New, structured programming loop 
construct. Makes for more logical program flow. 

•EXEC / EVAL-Two new, extremely powerful functions! 
EVAL evaluates an algebraic expression in string form: 
A$ = "X -t- 2" : Y - EVAL A$ would result in Y being set 
equal to the algebraic expression X + 2. With EVAL, you 
can manipulate complex functions in string form, and then 
execute them. 

EXEC executes a string expression as if it were a BASIC 
program line! For example: 

A$ = "PRINT X" : X - 4 : EXEC A$ would result in a 4 
printed on the screen (that is, execution of the BASIC 
statement 'PRINT X"), With EXEC, your computer can 
write its own programs and execute them! 

•CALL-Pass control to machine language sub-routines at 
any address, passing parameters both ways, 

•CLM / PAGE-Set up automatic page roll-over and other 
line printer functions from BASIC. 

•A(/ these and many mort! 

Din addition to the above commands, Model I 
ENHBAS contains vector graphics and drawing 
commands. Model II ENHBAS has many func- 
tions suited to business programming — ISAM file 
handling commands. RS-232 access, and many 
more; along with several Model 1 BASIC com- 
mands left out of Model 11 (PEEK, POKE. etc.). 

QENHBAS includes many background utilities: 

•User-select cursor •Short'entry commands 
•Ken click (Shift-letter) 

•2'tone beep on error •Real Control keys 

•Automatic lower-case 'One-letter commands 

•Automatic debounce •Formatted LISTing 

ENHBAS is available for: 

16K Model 1-Level II Tape $39.95 

32K Mode! I Disk $39.95 

32K Model II $99.95 

Other software: 

CSG PILOT-Disk based, high ievei language. Fast! 

32K Model I Disk $59.95 

Z-EMULATOR- Executes assembly language program lines 

16K Model 1— Level II Tape / 32K Model I Disk . . . $29.95 
ENHCOMP-integer subset BASIC compiler. Fullgraphicsand 
unlimited length variables. Written in machine-language— fast! 

32K Model I Disk $24.95 

ABBREV-Level-I abbreviations in Level -11/ Disk BASIC. 

16K Model I— Level-II Tape / I6K Model I Disk . . . $24.95 

'TRS-80 IS a registered !rademdrk ol Radio Shack, a Tandy Co 

The Comsoft Group 

6008 N.Keystone Ave., Dept. 80. Indianapolis. IN 46220 
(317)482-3951 



ir^''j IF Fl-l THEM GCiTO ISOO 

1760 REM Ft^IHT If-T THPliET ««■ CHECV FW TflGGEPll-tG 

ir-iCi Pttl Ki TPI^JjEFIIIG - F-EF-EFiT SECUGNCE 
IT^tO KiTU Ifeeo 
1300 CLS 

ISIO F:En THFiiET FiT FPIUT f-OSlTlOH 512 IS CM.'.' CO**ECT 
Ot-lt iU 

F-^Itir FlPt-FTD^F IhTL rtrSFuLE HCrcfJiMMG TO IJSEP PESPOMSE 

ii;-0 11^ hv-*:!;.- gotci isr^ 

ly^U h-FIIITiiP 1 :.;:;. ■■t'lE.ll TKiUGH '.'OU f^t^;.lilE^:-E[■ THFIT Lffl■^ OUESTlOtJ" : 

irz.AO FFI"T'* .-pl "llwroFF-Er TL'i' 1 HM SLB'E •••OU t-IOl-l KHOtl HCX.i 

TCi USE"; 
lS'.".e F-FIMri ITl . "THE LIGHT FtN TO RtH^-WEF' rUESTIONS." 
lS6tJ GOTO I'^eO 
IS.'U FkIHT« ir,'^ ■ •■'.'Lh\- GOuC'"' 

1&&U ff:imt'» -ts: "fiT lehst I rtrji.i '/oup (Cit gok-ig to hri.ie ' 
F#-r,'"i 

l:??i;i F'FIMI't ::p^4. "F-pOBLEir'IS LISIHG THE LIGHT PEH TO RNSLCP 

C'Ufcif lC^lS■■; 
l■:'^jO FFKH'! jri. . ■ ■;,HHUL ME EEiilN'"; 

l.'lyFFim* -'I,- -PEfC'.' TO CCitrnniJE ■■;CHPtf?M' i 
!■?-■•.< FE[1 PL_.ET LI'JHT PEH 

i-?:c ij-.u -"■ ■-' 

l.MO ftr' ^L_LI LljlT h-EM ;TF<TU_" "FIF1F«:LE 

; -.ti FfM ft- im u'f'iiEi 

; :•.''< F-FIT* ■■:■; LD; 

l.-iti KEn 'L;.r '.;* TFHiGEPllfc 

i:'-.-«_i l^ l'» ■ .'> ■ iir GOTJ.e ^«i-Ci 

l-OOO FLM Fl-l IF FE'J i*rr ^ tP T»»tXT 

_i.ilti IF l-l-l GOTU ;OT.CI 

202'0 Ftn HS IT I.IBS HOT - LOOP UNTIL IT 15 

2030 GOTO i^re 

2040 REM FIS IT l.ift? PPINT UEXT MESSAGE 

2050 CLS 

206.0 PftlNH 2&T.."ME CfflJ DO THIS TEST ONE OF TUO UftVS. 

EITHER I" J 
2&-.-a PRINTS :2fc."CFlH TELL VOLl THE PFITE fif« VOU TELL ME 

WHfHT HfiPPENEC>-; 
2080 PR1HT« 392. "OR' I'LL TELL \'0U UHRT HflPPENED PHC VOU 

PICK THE"; 
2090 PRINT* 473. "COR-RECT DATE."; 
2100 PRINT* 523. "IT DOESN'T rlflTTER TO r^ IJHICK URV UE 

DO IT'; 
2116 PRINT'1 tai . "SO ■■■OU CHOOSE"; 
2120 PRINT* 714. ■■] TELL VOU THE DftTE — '/OLi TELL ME UHRT 

HftPPEltD ■' ; 
2130 PPINT4 776, "I TELL VOU UHRT k#»>PE>«:[' ~ '/OU TELL 

nt THE DOTE": 
2140 PEM PESET LIGHT PEN 
2150 CB-IT 9^6 

21fc0 PEM Ft::ET LIGHT P-EH STRTUS '."RPIFSLE 
2176 Pl=P 

21S0 REM PRINT TUCr THRGETS - ONE FOP EBCH POSSIBLE RESPONSE 
2190 FOR FH--704 TO 7fc8 STEP 64 
2200 PRINT* RH-LN; 
2210 REM TEST FOP' TRIGGERING 
2220 IF 1MP(?I9* n2^ GOSUB 5020 
2230 REM Pl=l IF PEN OH THRGET 
2240 IF Pl=-1 GOTO 2290 

2'2:iiia ktM Pf-iHT iie>:t THRGET 

.2260 HEXT F8K 

22 .'0 REM ItO TRIGGER I HG - PEPERT SEQUENCE: 

22fcO GOTO H'AH 

2290 LLS 

230C REM OUI*-tPT DISPLWS' TO 32 CHflRftCTtR FDRfWT 

2310 F-RlNTCHRf 2- ■ 

2326 REM IHFORTI USER OF C€LRV UHILE COTfnjTER IHITIftl^S 

F^l:■t■lTlor^rt_ i,>HPifiB_ES etc. 

2330 FRIMT« 3:'4.■■STf^t^t>B■,' "; 

2340 Rtri OETEPMIHE FORflHT CHOICE OF USER 6"/ PftINT POSITION 

Of r* TRIGGERING TRRGET 
_31* IF mH-,-oS then H3=1 ELSE H3"0 
23e.0 REM IN1IIHL12E OLGSTICH COUNTER' 
2370 Hl^l 
2310 PEM f.'MICOML',' PETEFnit« ORPER IN 1*H1CH OUESTIONS 

HRE HSIEL' 
23'^0 Fl4«-F,1tH50.> 

24O0 PEM [■ttEPrilNE IF SELECTION HfiS BEEN PICKED BEFORE 
2410 IF M2',fi4.> -0 GOTO 2390 ELSE F(2<F*41 = 11 
2420 RESTC*,-E 

2430 REM GLT HPPROPRIRTE STRINGS CGUESTION f»0 HHSUER) ' 
FPCn 

[*iTft STRTEMENTS 
244t] luR m^l TO R4 
24^.0 PEK' PS 
24C.6 RE HI- E"' 

.■4,-y i*.:r H":. 

_4C.U If h:.-1 THEM BT.^ET? ELSE B5-B9 
24-.-'0 IF h:-1 then t2-Ei3 EL;€ E12=B? 
2500 Bl- il'-bj 
-^lu FC* Ht=l TO 4 
^■52-0 RE it ORE 

2530 REM ffftC-On.-: DETERMltt DTNEP POSSIBLE RNSl«RS FC»? ' 
USER S 

CHOICE 
2j40 FWRNt^'SO ■ 

Ll.'JO REM lETEFMIHE IF IT HRS BEEN PREUIOLISLV CHOSEN 
25i:-0 IF F12',FM) = 1 OR Fi2'H4j = 11 GOTO 2540 ELSE R2(ft4>"R2<R4 > + 1 
2570 FOP R^-1 TO fl4 
iSiiiO RERLi E£: 
259ti REH[) 89 

2600 IF H3'-l THEN E!l<fl6>=B8 ELSE B1<R6''=B9 
2610 NEXT ft5 
2620 NEXT Pe 
2630 CLS 

2640 FRINT4 0. "QUESTION NO!";fll 

2650 REn BRRtCH ACCORDING TO QUESTION FO»?MRT 
266.0 ON R3+1 GOTO 26S0 -2768 

2t70 PEM FOP OflTE RS QUESTION' FOPMRT. RflWyM-V DETERMINE 
H"j<.l THE OLESTION IS PHPRSED 

Prograr" continues 



88 • SO Microcomputing, October 1980 



l-i.C' Otl M4[>',3' GOTO 2699 .2716 -2730 

.t.'O ftltJT* 12S.-UHHT IS "163;- HOST MOTED F»'>"J 

^itiU CjOTCI 2790 

2('1U fRIHT* 128."UHflT HflPPtrtD CN ";e3;"'>-j 

2726 GOTO 2790 

2730 PRINT* 12&.B3J- IS HH IW^CiRTFIMT DATE, UMHT HHPPENEP''" i 

27-H) G0T0279e 

iT-je Rtn WJE TO PROBLEMS IH GRfWCP OCCURENCE nS OUCSTION' 

FC«I1HT IS FHRflSEP IN OMLV ONE WftV 
276© FS'IMT* 126,63;" - UHEhT" I 

277^ RtM Tht PHSloERS fPOM UHICM ThC '-ISER I*".' CHOOSE BFE 
STQfifD 

IH HRRflv Bl. H£ THE CftDEP IH WHICH T>CV ME 
PRINTED 

OUT MIGHT IJC'ICft-E T'l THE U?EP UMRT THE CORRECT 

PHSt-e^ IS T»C "iU'EP I" l.HICH TkCV RPE POINTED' 
27Se REI1 1£ FWH.CML'/ [tTEHlIICt', 

28ee FOR- ft5=0 TO 4 

2810 f*»RNDi:S>-l 

2S20 IF BlfRfe)-"" GOTO 231© 

28;e FfinT* rt7,ei '-«•>; 

2&-ie IF **£■■« T*l* H6~Hr+61 
2856 BUHfej--- 
2860 fi7=H7*64 

;:e7e next rs 

288e REM RESET LIGHT PEH STATUS ijlRRirCLE 

2890 Pl^ 

1-9WO REM RfcSET LIGHT PEN 

291& OUT 93.0 

2920 Hr-^61 

2930 kEfl SET UF' TARGET PRINTING LOOF- FOR 5 OIFFEREHT 

Tf*,-G£T i 
2940 FOR PO^Q TO 4 
2950 REM FPINT IflftGET 
2960 PRINTS R7, LHl 
2970 H7=H7*64 

2980 REM nxOU OISPURV TO STflCLIZE 
2990 FOR m-'l TO 8 
3000 REM TEST FOR TRIGQERPC 
3010 IF Ih»-t99>M27 GOEue 5820 
3020 I^M Pl = l IF LIGHT PEN URS OUER TFRGET PRESEMTLV 

FRIHTEf 
;-0:» IF F1>1 GOTO 308© 

3040 REM f& IT IJHSHT FPINT ME^T THRGET 
305t1 l«)-:r H5 

3et.U REM MOTHIMG TflGGeREC' ■ PEPERT SEPtCUCE UNTIL TRIGGERED 
30; -O liOTO 2920 

3030 IF F(8»ft7 TkCN ft-?"fl9* 1 EL5t ««-flft« 1 
Z6^& Ren DtTERMlrC IF USER IMPUT wflS CORPECT 
3100 IF flS*H7 GOTO 3130 
311U liOIO ;2?0 
;i26 REM H^ THL hMSWEf. UHS CORRECT ftfVCOflLV CCTERMIHE 

LUt«*ftTULfiTOR-/ REMHRK 
3138 Ot* RtC'(5.> GOTO 3140 .3160 .3130 .320© 3228 
3140 PR1NT« 709, "THRT-S RIGHT"J 
3150 GOTO 3390 
31CU PRlNTil 709, "CORRECT"! 
;iru LiOTO 3390 

3180 F'RIMT* re9."iJER'^ GOCt'"'J 
319© GOTu 3390 

3200 PRINT* 709 "VOU RE fleSOLUTELV RIOfr"j 
3210 GOTO 3398 

3220 PRINT* 789,-8000 UORK"! 
3238 GOTO 3390 
3240 REM fiS IT WftS IMCOfftCCT - NOTIFV USER AND PftlMT 

CORRECT 

fMSUER 
ZZUl OTJ ««•■•:' GOTO 3260 ,3256 3300 .3320 .3340 
3268 fPIHTJ ;o-:<, "SORftV. yPONG RMSUiEP"; 
3270 OJTO 3350 

3280 PRINT* 709,"THRT-S rCT RIGHT"! 
3290 GOTO 3358 
330e PRINT* 709,"UNF0RTUNftTELV THflTS THE URONG flKSfc€»" I' 

3310 GOTO 3350 

3320 PRINT* 7B9,-N0, THfiT IS NOT RIGHT") 

3330 GOTO 3350 

3340 PRINT* 78':'. "INCORRECT- I 

3350 PRINT* 773. "THE CORRECT flNSUCR WftSt "I 

3360 PRlHT'l 840.CHR»'34iie2lCHP«f34> 

3370 IjOTU 33^0 

33Sa k£M CLEF*' PftRRV OF INCORRECT flNSyERS USEP IN LRST ' 

QLCSTIOM fi.-. THE'.' my be used HGflIN IN NEXT 

OJEiTIOtJ 
3390 FOR Wb© to 50 

34O0 IF H2<a3)-ll OS F12<ft5>-1 nCN M<«>-R2<fi5>-1 
3410 NE>n' RS 

3428 REM INCREMENT QUESTION COUHTEP 
3430 Rl=n..l 

3440 REM HRS T>C D«' BEEN RERCHEC-- IF SO GOTO TO Q0 
F-OF:TIi.!" 

CF PPOGF:«fl 
3450 IF Rl=51 GOTO 343© 
3460 GOTO 2390 

3470 REM TIMING LOOP TO PRE5EF' t OISPLRV 
34S0 FOF: f«-= i T OTOO = l-Oa Ftt 

3490 REM F'RINT FINRL ME^T.FtGE ftNC' ClSPLFr,' 5C0Re WO PERCENTRGE 
35oe CLS 
3510 PRINT* 1?; 'WELL. THHT S IT. VOU MRLiE fiNSUERED flLL"t 

3520 PRINT* 237, "RLL FIFTV QUESTIONS. TNIS Tlr« YOU GOT"! 

3530 PRINT* ;i'0,ft9;"RIGMT nO" imj-URONC UHICH WORKS OUT 



3540 

3550 
3560 
3570 
35Se 
35^a 

36iae 



TO" J 

PRINT* 734 fl9*2S"'--"l 

Cl=ft9*2 

REM PF:IHT HDC'ITIONHL COTBIEMT RS UflRRFWTEP BV SCORE' 

IF CIS© ThtN B2-"BtTTER LUCK NEXT TIME" 

IF CI, 60 THEN B2-"G0CC WORK' 

IF CI -70 THEH B2^"'^R-v' GOCO UORK" 

IF CUee T«N 62- "EXCELLENT - 

Program continues 



A Proven CP/M 
Screen Oriented 

Editor 
F6r T1tS-80 I & II 

You Customize the Fastest 

Editor for Word Processing, 

C-Basic, Fortran and Assembier. 

Features of VEDIT: 

Full screen editor with status line. The screen contin- 
uously displays the region of the file being edited. Changes 
are made by moving the cursor to any place in the file and 
typing in new text or hitting a function key. You easily edit 10 
times faster than with a command editor. 

Full an-ay of cursor movements with single key movement 
to begin and end of lines and to tab positions. 

Function keys for character delete, line delete and 
allowiT^ line splitting and concatenating. 

Text movement is very easy using a text register. 

Rexible command mode allows global search arxl 
substitute, repetitive editing operations. 

Blocks of text are readily copied from one file to another. 
Files may be merged on input, split on output and more. 

Extensive 60 page, clearly written manual with sectrons for 
both the beginning and experienced user. 

Special Features: 

Disk buffering can automatically perform Read/Write for 
files larger than available main memory. 

Tabs settable to any positions. Tab key inserts tab 
character or spaces to next tab position. 

Display of clearly marked continuation lines for text lines 
longer than the screen. 
You Customize It: .«•....— ...k.'.-.,t.w.«. 

Keytxiard layout for cursor and function keys. 

Default Tab positions and various parameters. 

Scrolling methods. 

Changes You IMake On the Screen 
Become Changes to the File. 

Compare with the other screen oriented editors, and note 
that VEDfT: 

• Creates and edits standard text files, 
Needs no conversion program. 

• Requires no hardware changes. 

• Never looses characters during fast typing. 

Ordering: Currently for CP/M only, specify CP/M vendor. 
(Mso available for most other CP/M systems. 

VEDIT for TRS-80 Model 1: S100 

VEDIT tor TRS-80 Model II: S110 

Manual: Price refunded with software purchase . S 15 

VISA and MASTER CHARGE Welcome. 

Dealer Inquires Invited. 

See us at the Northeast Computer Show. 

VEDIT CP/M ^S 

« CompuView 
Products Inc. 

1531 Jones Drive Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105 
Call Anytime - (313) 996-1299 



.-Reaaer Service — see page 226 



80 Microcomputing, October 1980 • 89 







(C) 1980 SOUTHERN 
CROSS SYSTEMS 

PLAYER 1 PLAYER 2 
000000 000000 

PUVER 3 PLAYER 4 
000000 000000 

EXTRA GAMES BONUS 
I 00000 

BALL IN PLAY 
1 



THE FASTEST 
PINBALL GAME 
IN TOWN! 

by Shefia Rnntrty! 



More features - 
More challenging 

• ENTIRELY in machine language for fast action 

• 1-4 players 

• Upper and lower flippers 

• Resetting flip flops and rollovers 

• Player controls ball direction 

• Extra balls to be won 

• Extra games to be won 

• Tilt function 

• Double Bonus on third ball 

• Blinking 'Black Holes' 

• Hitting ball with flippers increases speed 

• Ultimate sound feature 

• 1/6 scale of a real pinball game 

For use on TRS 80 Level II 16K* 
Dealer Inquiries invited 



^19 



95 



For Cassettes 

r.:>f;,.ri-.,(rt. of Tandy Corp 



Send check or moneyorders to: SOUTHERN CROSS SYSTEMS -^^ 

Sorry. No phone orders Pacific Trade Center. Suite 301, 190 S. King Street. 

Honolulu. Hawaii 96813 Ph 808-524-5282 




Have computer, will travel. 

Executive Computer SyHtem Carzyliig Cases. 

• Makes your microcomputer truly portable. 

• Protects your equipment: loclcing latches limit access. 

• Rugged black vinyl with metal corners outside. 

• Protaetive foam rubber, black velveteen covered, inside. 

• Computer can be operated without rpmovins from case. 

• And cases are custom designed for lull systems. 



Apple' Executive Case holds 

■ Apple micri>c<>mputer. 

• 9" Sanyo monitor. 

• 2 disk drives. 

• Power strip. 

• 2 boxas diskettes. 

• Manuals. 

■ Dimensions; 2H"x 21"j( lOH 

• WeiKht: 17 pounds. 

• Price; S179 



TRS-80** Executive Case holds: 

• TRS-80 Microcomputer 

• Expansion interface. 

• 2 disk drives. 

• Power strip. 

• 2 boxes diskettes. 
■ Munuals. 

• nimnnHionH 2R"x 2m "x 8% .' 

• WciRht: 17 pounds. 

• Price: S!79 



Tbrms. FOB Los Angeles — Master Charge. Visa or check 
with order. Allow 3-4 weeks for delivery. 

'Registered. Apple Computers. Inc. 
"Registered TVademark, T^ody Corporation. 

COMFUTER TEXTUe 

10960 Wilshirc Blvd. Suite 1504 

Los Angeles. CA 90024 (213) 477-2196 



^390 



IN STOCK FOR IMMEDIATE SHIPMENT 



16K MEMORY KITS S49.95 

41 16's 6 MONTH WARRANTY INSTRUCTIONS INCLUDED 

DISK DRIVES 

PERCOMTFD-100$325 
PERCOMTFD-200$595 

CCI-100$305 

CCI-200 $495 

2 DRIVE CABLE S24.95 4 DRIVE CABLE $34.95 

PRINTERS $695 

MICROTEK MT80P BI-DIRECTIONAL 
1 25 CPS UPPER & LOWER CASE 

1 YEAR WARRANTY 

CABLE-S24.95 

DISKETTES 

MEMOREX OR BASF 10/S26.50 

YOUR SATISFACTION GUARANTEED OR FULL REFUND 

WIICROCOMPUTER SERVICES CORPORATION 

731 4 MATTHEWS-MINT HILL RD. CHARLOTTE, NC 2821 2 



►^442 



■TRADEMARK TANDY. RADIO SHACK CORP 
PFRrOM TM PFRTOM DATA CCl TM CPU IND 



90 • 80 Microcomputina. October 1980 



3610 IF Cl^iee THEri eC^"PERFECT -- MOT OC UKOHC- 

J&3U F-Riru 
-■■t.-n.i FFjtn 

:aii.iu REri iJJb^LUTKt TO IteU^E LI01T PEN IS CXEP TPPGET. 

MLL orif L I SHEr> B-,' TUPHING CF THE L1(«T PEN - OCCKING 

FJf- L>«l«iE in F"JRT "BLUE - Tl*tlING IT 

t^lO REM Mi rtGrtIN TO SEE IF T>t PtN IS STILL IN TtC SHME 



'vl-W 

■J 160 

'Ji?b 

0136 

j-lU 

■_.-.>_. [1 



clU4tl 



FOSJTIOM «<■ REPEfiTItC T>t UHCi.L SECTJEMCE RCWIN 
JLfiT TCi nf#E SUtt. 

REM LOOP TO PZffOPn OPERflTlWI TWICE 

Fl* F«-l TO 2 

IfEM ILPN LIGHT Pi.H OFF 

F*1HI LP J 

F-EM TIMII6 LOOf' TO STABILIZE l'lzf\JTV 

FW rtC-1 TO ISitCXT «C 

REM PESET LIGHT FtTM 

OiJT ■M.O 

f-EH TIMIttG LOW TO 5T*«ILIZE [HSPLff.' 

roF hc-1 to 5iUE;ri PC 

FtM STILL etIUG TRIGGEREP - C*»I'T BE C-tR THIS TARGET 

fc. II IS i*M err 

IF lHP:99f i;r THEN RETURN 

REM TURN THFOET IX 

F-RlItT lm; 

FtM STl"*ILlJt ['ISRUfi'i' n>i 

FC» FlL-l TO lOifCXT HC 

REM FEIl HOT TFIQGtRE!' - CflM-IOT BE OH TfWTST - RETURN 

IF Il#. ;rJ . ^l.T ncn PtTUPN 

Rtri FEF-EfiT TU Mrt.L ^^USt 

It:-. I Ht 

FIN LKtR IF*1iET - SET STRTU-.E: iJHLLt 

ri-i 

FEM ktSET LIGHT PEN 

mt no 

REM PETUSH TO MHir^ F-MXRflM 
RLTURN 

REM [4(IF( FOF: rtlE'-TlLmS ■ CONSISTING OF OftTE FIRST' 
Ff<T 

sEccM- - '/c^i nft-,' cr axiRSf. chfinge aw,' of these' 

■iTJ-l [f-^lFE MS LOHG ftS VCN.I HfV.iE FIFTV IN PLL. 

OrtiM "SEF'TEMCtR 6 ■ 190! " . "U. 5. F^ESIdENT UILLlFn PICKINLEV 

HSi>HSIHHTE['" 

OHTH "Ki^EMEF 16 . l-^ir" . "STHTE OF C»<LFiHOnR MHDE TKC 

4t,TH STRTE UF THE LIIIW 

[■iiTm "pILIJitlST 1^. i':<l2~ -FHIftlft CnWPL OFtNS" 

[■HlH ■jNHLfHRV e. 19i2"- ■rCM MEXICO 4t,TH STRTE TO ENTER 

UNIUI" 
Jt'C-ti L-flTft ■■FEEcRLIflRV t2 ■ 1912' .■■(<// 1 :xnft 43TH STHTE TO ENTER 

UNIOC 
EtitU (jftTFl ■■hf*CH 18- 1912". "KING GEORtE OF tBJEECE flSS^EIMfiTED" 

£*i7ti [.HTM "Jn.'.' re. i'?i4-. -«»i_r> \jnft i- 

oOeO [■mTm -fFRIL b. r-iir" . -U.S.Fl. PECLRRES UfW OW tZPMRM,'- 
ae^tl DfiTH -HO"Efe£R 11. 191S". -PPMISTICE DECLflRED OH TFt 

yeSTERU FRONT" 
Sl&e tifiTH "CtCEMEtP ie 1^13". "U.5.S.R. ESTFCLlS^tl'" 
SlIU [flTR -OCTCfcER r?. r?2?^ -FCUl V-ORV STCCK MFH. ET CRfiSH" 
oJl-0 I>fiTft "JHI***^/ 30. 1933- "fCnXPH MITLEP BECOMES CHFtKELLOP 

OF C£R(*rr,'- 
313« ["HTM -nflPCH ;?. 1933","Jf*f»^ RESIGMS FROM T^« LERGLC 

Of HHTltJIIS- 
3140 W*Tfi "OCIOeER 14 . 1953- . -QERMfiNV RESIGtK FDCM THE 

LEAGUE CF MFlTIOHS- 
Sr-.0 CfiTR -ItCEMEtR 11 . 1936' . ■RBt'lCRTICH OF rlHG EOUflPD 

uni" 

Olt* WTR -r«RCM 1-8. 1939~, '-SF-PMISM CI"IL UM? EW"3" 

iJira C-FIIH -SEPTEMBER- 3. 1939" . -EHa_»«' « FPflUCE OECLfWE ' 

yF*' an uERMWC- 
ei80 [*ITFI "[tLEf«ER a. t94r-,-U.S.FI. [tCLf»E3 UW QH JHF«i" 
31 ?0 DflTM -JUl,'. li. 1945-'. -FIRST ftTOM BOMB TEST" 
3it« [wTM ■■HUGUST 6- I W5'' . "FITCn BCrt: [i<?DPPED Ot4 HIROSHIflfl" 
B21^ [■HTR "rtJGirST 1^. IMI." . • .IflF«< SUPREtCtPS WWfLD UFR ' 

II- 
C2iia DFlTfi "MRV ?. 1945-,-GERT»tA' SUPRENDEPS - UDRLP UFV ' 

II- 
£r;-7.0 ['flTft ".tULV 9. 1*51 - , "EFITftlH i FPF#ICE FOSTW-LV EMO ' 

UOS^t. I*« II" 
bl4l.i OftTfl -JLUE 2, 1953-. -QUEEN ELIJHEiETH II COPONRTEP" 
ai'Ot) ['flTrt "SERTEMBER i:.. 19t;o" • "KHRLrSHCHEi.i ELECTED FIRST 

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DEBUG-S/S 

FOR YOUR TRS-80 



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A POWERFUL 

DEBUG MONITOR 

FOR THE 

EXPERT & NOVICE 

PROGRAMMERS 



DEBU6-S/S It a uniquely powerful nionltor lor |l) inilyzlns. [2] 
creating or modifying, and (3) debugging micfilne-tanguago pro- 
grams on your level II, IBK lystem. 

EFFICIENT - SIMPLE - FUN 

No longer do you need to keep reaching tor your reference card or 
searching through your program listing while debugging your pro- 
gram -- Most all ot this mformalton is al your fingertips with 
DEBUG-S/S Warning- Debugging your program with DEBUG-S/S is so 
efficient and convenient that you may find yourself wishing thai you 
had more bugs to find 

RUN IN SLOW MOTION 

With DEBUG-S/S you may run your program in slow motion or single 
step and observe your Z-80* registers dynamically and/or observe 
your message prmling on the screen one-character-at-a-time' 

SPLIT/SCREEN DISPLAY 

DEBUG-S/S uses a convenient split screen display system The upper 
rtght section of the screen automatically displays upon entry to 
DEBUG-S/S from the user's program This section shows the user's 
next mstruction in hexadecimal and disassembled symbolic form, and 
also shows the user's major Z-80' registers. The left portion of Ihe 
screen is for the user s display or a scratch pad aiea for memory 
dumps The lower right section ot the screen is where DEBUG-S/S 
commands are entered and echoed lor the user's inputs, 

TRANSPARENT MODE 
DEBUG-S/S may be operated in a transparent mode which leaves ttie 
entire screen showing all ot ttie user's display data upon entry to 
DEBUG-S/S except tor the letter D displayed on the upper right corner 
of the screen indicating that DEBUG-S/S has been entered If ttie user 
now wishes to examine his Z-80* registers, he simply types D (Display) 

"NO CRASH" BREAKPOINTS 
DEBUG-S/S uses a single byte breakpoint whicti means you may put a 
breakpoint in the first byte of any instruction m your program and not 
cause your program to crasfi because of the breakpoint insertion Your 
breakpoint will stay active uniil you reset it or redefine it This allows 
you to run through loops in your program repeatedly without having to 
redefine your breakpoint each time Vou may enter any number of one 
byle pseudo breakpoints simultaneously in your program manually 
with the Memory command 

POWERFUL COMMANDS 

Examples ot DEBUG-S/S commands are: Jump - Go - Breakpoint - 
Memory examine/modify ■ Hex Dump -ASCII Dump -Symbolic Instruc- 
tion Dump - Single Step ■ Aulomaiic Step stari/stop - Increase/ 
Decrease Auto Step rate - Clear Screen and save cursor position - Clear 
Screen and home cursor position, plus other commands 

YOU WILL RECEIVE 
You will receive a cassette and instruction manual. DEBUG-S/S is 
assembled into lower memory on one side of ttie cassette and into the 
top of 16K memory on ttie other side DEBUG-S/S uses 4K of RAM. 

'TRS-60 IS a Iradafnark of Itw Tindy COfporition 'Z-flO is a IrKlemark ol ZDog. 

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80 Microcomputing. October 1980 • 91 




MALL 
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92 • 80 Microcomputing, October 1980 



,'R»»ti9t S»nrce~se« pagv 226 



STYLE 



Learn to use the RST instruction 
call to greatest advantage NOW! 



Get Serious 



Roger L Rape 
7545 Marble Dr. 
Liverpool. NY 13088 



Anyone who has attempted 
to trace the program flow of 
the system software In the 
Radio Shack TRS-SO has proba- 
bly encountered the RST (re- 
start) instruction. 

Some calls are used by the 
system to invoke frequently 
used utility routines. Details of 
these routines are provided so 
that a user might take advan- 
tage of the system software to 
reduce the coding required In 
application programs. 

The RST Instruction 
In the Z-80 Instruction set the 



RST provides a compact (one 
byte) subroutine call, its major 
advantage is a savings of two 
bytes over the normal CALL 
nnnn Instruction. While the RST 
was intended to service Inter- 
rupts, it can also be used for fre- 
quently called utility routines in 
the system software in order to 
save as much memory space as 
possible. 

Unfortunately, its format lim- 
its RST's flexibility. A descrip- 
tion of the RST Instruction, as 
described in the vendor litera- 
ture, is shown In Table 1. 

(Note that the Z-SO assembly 
language convention uses the 
actual address for the operand, 
whereas 8080 code uses oper- 
ands ranging from to 7.) 

Upon execution, a call is 
made to one of eight fixed mem- 
ory locations (three "address" 
bits in instruction). These Im- 
plied addresses are only eight 
bytes apart, allowing little room 
for any code of substance. 
Therefore, the usual practice is 
simply to put jump instructions, 
which transfer to an area where 
more space is available, at these 



locations. 

The restart addresses are at 
page zero, the lowest memory 
addresses. In the TRS-80 this 
area is read-only memory (ROM) 
and cannot be modified by the 
user. To avoid t>eing locked into 
specific addresses, the RST 
jumps twice, first from the page 
zero ROM area to an area in 
writeabie RAM memory, which 
can be modified. 

These standard locations In 
RAM (referred to as the restart 
vector table) are defined by the 
jump instructions burned into 
ROM and, in turn, contain jump 
instructions to the area where 
the actual service routine re- 
sides. Because of these extra 
jumps, it is obvious that the RST 
Instruction has no speed advan- 
tage over the CALL instruction. 
As stated earlier, the RST Is 
used in the Level 11 software to 
save memory space. 

Using RST wtth Level II 

The default locations for RST 
06H through RST 38H routines 
are defined at system initializa- 
tion (power-up), when jump in- 
structions are loaded into RAM 



location 4000H to 4014H. The 
addresses loaded in this area 
can be modified after power-up 
to change any of the RST rou- 
tines, except the power-up rou- 
tine (RST 0). Note, however, that 
the TRS-80 Level II software 
makes use of six of the eight 
available RST calls. The user 
should not modify any of those 
six vectors, with the possible ex- 
ception of the last one. RST 38H. 
Table 2 shows the sequence 
of addresses in hexadecimal 
called by the various RST In- 
structions and the actual ser- 



Opcoda Operand 

RST p 

1 1 - t ^ 1 1 1 

wfierfl I = p(B 

Operation: 

(SP-D-PC 
(a'-2)-PC, 
SP-SP-3 

PC.-0 

PC,-P 

Table 1. The Format of RST 



80 Microcomputing, October 1980 • 93 













Vice routine that Is finally exe- 


RST fldQrvss stqu«nc«(hax) Lev*l 11 Routing 






cuted. These are the defaults ini- 


6 aaee: 




D[ 
XOR fl 


;d IsaDlo interrupts 
;clBar A raqiater 




tialized by the Level II software. 
The following sections dis- 






JP 0674H 


; to system in i t ial izc 


t ion 


cuss each of these routines in 
more detail. If one wishes to use 


1 eeee 


4ea0 tC96: 


LD ft, CHL) 


;qet current character 


them in his own programs, the 






EX (SPl.HL 
CP (HL) 
INC HL 


;qet "retufn aOdr" from stocK 
:corrpare char to that often CALL Inatr 
; increment pointer 


inputs expected and the outputs 
returned are described. In sever- 






EX ISP),HL 
JP Z. ID7aH 
JP 1937H 


: restore as adjusted 
;cofil inuo as RST 10H 
;else syntax error 


return oddr 
if same 


al cases, the A register is used 
within the routine and modified. 
If the contents of this register 


2 E)6IQ 


4003 1D78: 


N>a: INC HL 


; increment string po 


nler- 


prior to the RST call must be 






LD fl, (HL) 


;qet charact er 




preserved, either store it away 






CP 3flH 
RET HC 

CP 20H 


; compare to 

;return if equal or hiqhnr 

;checK for space 


(e.g. push it on the stack) or, if 
possible load the value into an- 






JP fl,NXT 
CP 0BH 
JR NC.CHK 


;sKlp over spaces 
; al so sK ip 
; HT 




other register that Is not af- 
fected. 






CP e9H 


; and 










JP NCNXT 
CHK; CP 30H 


; LF 
;con>pare to 




RST (OOH) 






CCF 


:cumpl carrij flag (set if digit) 


This routine is Invoked when 






INC fl 
DEC fl 


; these 2 Instr cleor zero flag 
J in case character uas 


the system Is powered up, gen- 






RET 






erating a hardware reset and Ini- 
tializing the program counter to 


3 Q018 


4006 IC90: 


LD A.H 


;gct high byte of HL 


poir 


0000. A software call of RST OOH 






sua D 

RET NZ 
LD fl,L 


jsubtract off high byt« of DE pair 
; if not sofno, flags sol OK 
J ol SB corrpore 


results in the same restart. 
Basically, the initialization 






SUB E 
RET 


; Lou bgtes 




proceeds as follows. Interrupts 










are disabled and the cassette 


4 ee?8 


4869 25D9: 


LD fl, (40flFH) 
CP 08H 
JR HCDP 


:qet ■jQr iabl c tgpe 
; double proc ision? 
; If so, Jurrp belou 




output port is cleared. The de- 
fault RST vectors and device 
control blocks are copied from 






SUB 03H 
OR fl 


: sets siqn f loq if i 
;stfts 2pro f log if s 
:cleors P/V flog if 


1 1 eqer 
ring 
single 


ROM Into the lowest RAM loca- 
tions, starting at 4000H. The 






SCF 

RET 

DP: SUB 03H 


;3et corrij f 1 ag, not 


double 


system then checks to see 






;cleor5 zero and car 


-y flags 


whether to continue the initiali- 






OR fl 


:5ets P/V flog 




zation from ROM or from disk. 






RET 






If a disk controller is present 
in the system and the break key 
is not depressed, it tries to copy 


5 EIB2S 


4gBC: 


RET 






a one-page bootstrap routine 
from disk. Note that because 


6 0a3Q 


4O0F: 


RET 






the disk controller is In the ex- 
pansion interface, the break key 


7 8936 


4012: 


EI 
RET 

7a£>/e 2. 


;reenable interrupts 




must be depressed, to prevent 
the system from dropping Into 
the disk Initialization when the 
interface, but no disk, is present. 
Otherwise, the initialization con- 



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94 • so Microcomputing, October 1980 



MODEL II 




AUTHORIZED 

TRS-80® 



MODEL I 



A301 



26-4002 

64K 1 Drive 

$3499.00 

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80 Microcomputing. October 1980 • 95 




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tinuBS from the Level II ROM 
software, copying additional de- 
fault values from ROM to RAM. 
setting various memory pointers 
and beginning the MEMORY 
SIZE? dialog. 

RST 1 (OSH) 

The RST OSH call checks 
whether the last character read 
from an input string is a specific 



character required by the syntax 
of the statement being pro- 
cessed. It the proper character 
is found, the routine continues 
to the next character in the 
same manner as the RST lOH 
call (see below); otherwise a syn- 
tax error return is used. The 
character to be checked must 
be stored in the next byte after 
this instruction. 



AUTHORIZED 



Radio /haeK 



Inputs HLregiatef pair points 

lo c^a'acle^ to De checkBd (reauires chaiacter tmmedialeiy aHet in 
struct ion) 
Outputsa] It prope< characlei. A contains r>ext cnaraclet not a space, HT, or LF 

HL points Id location ot character returned 
Flags Carry flag set it digit (0 to 9t. else cleared: zero Hag set <t colon i ). 
else cleared 
P) If wrong character, [umps lo SN error return. 
Otfier registers rixxjified If error return. A.B.CE. 

Table 3. 



Inputs: HL points one location pnorlo next charactef to check 

Outputs A contains ne«l character, not a space, MT, or LF HL points lo location 

o' chaiacter returned Flags Carry tlag set if digit (0 to 9l. else cleared. 

zero tlag set it colon | ), else cleared Other registers modified None 

Table 4. 



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96 • flO Microcomputing, October 1980 




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80 Microcomputing, October 1990 • 97 



Inputs: 
Outputs: 



HL and DE contain 1 6 bit values to be compared. 



Condition 



Appropriate flags to check 

Carry flag cleared, zero fiag cleared 

Carry flag set 

[Sign flag 9 PA/ flag] = 0, Zero fiag ciear 

[Sign flag* PA/ fiag] = 1 

Zero fiag set, carry and sign flags clear 



Address in HL>DE 
Address in HL<DE 
Signed vai in HL>DE 
Signed vai in HL<DE 

HL = DE 
Other registers modified: A (Note: HL and DE not modified 



Table 5. 



As an example of the use of 
this routine, suppose the text 
just processed must be followed 
by a comma and then some ad- 
ditional data. The code would 
be: 

HST 10H 
DEFB', 



Note that the RST routine auto- 
matically increments the return 
address past the defined char- 
acter. 

RST 2 (10H) 

This service routine is used 
primarily for scanning input 
character strings. It retrieves 
the next non-blank character 
after the current HL pointer 
location, also skipping over any 
horizontal tab (HT) and line feed 
(LF) characters that may be in 
the string. 

In addition to returning the 
character and its memory loca- 
tion, it also sets or clears certain 
condition flags to indicate the 
type of character retrieved. The 
RST 10H call is usually followed 
by a conditional jump, depend- 
ing on the type of character ex- 
pected next. (Table 4). 

Be sure to note that the HL 
register pair is incremented be- 
fore the character is read. As an 
example of its use, a routine 
may be converting digits in the 
input string to an integer value. 
The process would be terminat- 
ed if a non-digit character is en- 
countered. Then the coding 
would include: 

BST lOH 
BETNC 

(process chafactef in A) 



RST3(1SH) 

The function of this routine 
98 • SO Microcomputing, October 1980 



compares the contents ot the 
HL register pair to the contents 
of the DE register pair. It per- 
forms an HL - DE compare and 
sets the appropriate condition 
flags. 

The routine is particularly 
useful when comparing a mem- 
ory pointer to some memory 
limit or other stored pointer. 
When comparing memory ad- 
dresses, the carry flag should be 
tested rather than the sign flag. 

An address greater than 32K 
is considered higher than one 
below it, but the sign bit is set 
(negative) for these upper ad- 
dresses. Comparisons across 
the 32K boundary could cause 
erroneous results it the sign flag 
is used. 

On the other hand, if the RST 
call is used for a true arithmetic 
comparison, use the sign bit in- 
stead. In the latter case, the sign 
bit must be exclusive ORed with 
the overflow flag in case the dif- 
ference exceeds the 16 bit num- 
ber range. (Table 5). 

For example, to generate a 
jump if the HL pointer is higher 
than or the same as the DE 
pointer, the code would tie: 

RST 18H 
JPNC.nnnn 

RST 4 (20H) 

This service routine is used in 
the Level II software to check 
the type of the variable that is 
currently being processed. The 



variable type indicator (cor- 
responding to byte length) is 
stored In location 40AFH of the 
reserved area in RAM. (Table 6). 

The routine tests the type in- 
dicator in such a way that one of 
the four condition flags used 
has a unique setting for each of 
the types. (Table 7). 

A RST 20H call is followed by 
a conditional jump instruction. 
For example, to branch If the 
variable is single precision, the 
code would be: 



RST20H 
JP PO.nnnn 



RST 5 (26H) 

Not used by Level II BASIC; 
therefore, the default is an im- 
mediate return. This RST is exe- 
cuted in the Level II keyboard 
driver when the break key is de- 
pressed. Modifying the restart 
vector (400C-E) allows one to in- 
tercept execution when the 
break key is pressed. 

RST 6 (30H) 

Not used by Level II BASIC: 
therefore, the default is an im- 
mediate return. 

RST 7 (38H) 

The default coding for this 
RST simply reenables interrupts 
and returns. One should be 
aware that this RST is some- 
what special. 

First of all, the machine code 



for this instruction is FFH, a 
value to which much of memory 
initializes. An inadvertent jump 
to one of those locations will In- 
voke the restart. 

Secondly, if the Z-80 pro- 
cessor is set in interrupt Mode 1 
by the IM1 instruction, a non- 
maskable interrupt (the kind 
generated by pushing the reset 
button behind the keyboard) ex- 
ecutes a restart to location 38H 
instead of the normal NMI 
restart to location 66H when in 
Mode (the power-up default). 
Setting Interrupt Mode 1 and 
loading a jump instruction at 
locations 4012-4H allows one to 
intercept execution after the 
reset button is pushed, rather 
than enter the reinitialization 
routine In ROM. 

Conclusion 

The service routines called by 
the RST instruction in the 
TRS-eo Level II software were 
chosen because they are fre- 
quently used functions. It is to 
the advantage of any serious as- 
sembly language programmer 
to understand these routines 
and try to use them. 

For example, a program 
which reads in and scans lines 
of text might be written to utilize 
the RST 10H call effectively. The 
programmer who is interested in 
the ultimate compactness 
might also consider using those 
RST's not claimed by the sys- 
tem software. 

For DOS users, be sure to first 
check how your operating sys- 
tem uses them.B 



VariaMfl typ* 


{40AFH) 


Inieger 

Siring 

Single precision 

Double precision 


2 
3 
4 

8 


Table 6. 





Inputs; (40AFH) = variable type 

Outputs: Flags— Sign flag set only if integer, else cleared; 
zero flag set only if string, else cleared; 
PN fiag cleared (PO) only if single prec, else set (PE) 
Carry flag cleared only if double precision, else set 
Other registers modified: A (contains type indicator -3.) 

Table 7. 



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• R^aOei Service— se« page 226 



80 Microcomputing. October 1980 • 99 



TUTORIAL 



More on this handy speed-up 
device for the Shacl<'s Level li BASIC. 



The Useful USR(O) Function 



Terry Kepner 
PO Box 481 
Peterborough. NH 03458 

As I slowly worked my way 
Into assembly language 
programming. I discovered the 
usefulness of the Radio Shack 
USR(O) function. To those of 
you who have not yet tripped 
across this utility, USR(0) allows 



you to call assembly language 
routines from BASIC programs. 
This is handy when you want to 
speed up the normally tedious 
graphic functions and string 
manipulations of Level II BASIC. 
There are two primary meth- 
ods used to imbed these rou- 
tines into your program. The 
first method is the easiest for a 
programmer to use, but can lead 



to problems tor the end user. It 
involves loading the assembly 
language routine into memory 
via the System command, and 
then using CLOAD for the 
BASIC part of the program. 

Second Method 

The second method takes ad- 
vantage of POKE and lets you 
load the assembly language 



routine as a part of the BASIC 
program itself. To do this you 
place the assembly language in- 
structions in data statements, 
then POKE these statements in- 
to active memory. 

Since the first method re- 
quires loading two different pro- 
grams, user errors may creep in- 
to the programs. The second 
method eliminates this problem. 





Program Listirig 


4AS9 □D22024A 


00650 


LD 


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4A5D PD22I44A 


00660 


LD 


( SVKCRAl , lY 




4A0II 


00010 ORG 4A00H 


4A61 CD77 4B 


00670 
006 80 


CALL 


ADDRSS 








efl030 ;*• TBUG* JAN. B1,1SB0 •• 


4Ae4 FD23 


006 90 

00700 


ISC 


lY 






41DD 


10050 RETURN EQIJ 43DDH 


4A6£ DDTEBB 


00718 DSPDMP 


LD 


A, (IX) 




3ceB 


00060 VIDF.O EQ!I 3C00H 




00720 








»»ti 


00070 COUNT DEFS 1 


4A69 CD674B 


00730 


CALL 


DSPRTN 




000] 


000S0 BLOCH DKFS 1 




007 40 








tail 


00090 SVMKMA DEFS 2 
00100 .SVSCRA DKFS 2 
00110 


4A6C FDE5 


00750 ;ASCII 

00760 

00770 


CODE RTS 
PUKH 


I¥ 




*A»t FE41 


00120 STAHT Cl> 'f 




00780 
087 90 








4A»a 2811 


00130 JB Z.CLS 

00140 

00150 CP 'D- 


4A6E DDE5 


PUSH 


IX ir[1HB HEM 


PTR 


lASA FE*t 


4A7 El 


00800 
B0B10 
B0B28 


POP 


ML 




4Aec 2827 


00160 JB I.DUHP 

0017B 

00180 CP 'F' 

8B19B JP Z,480DH ;REP FIX RTN CHECK 

00200 

08210 CP 'S' 

00220 JP I, SHIFT 


4A71 EDSB024A 


LD 


DE. (S'.'HEKA) 




4A0E FE46 
4Ale CAaD4B 


4A7 5 B7 
4A76 ED52 


00830 
00840 

00ase 


OR 
SBC 


HL.DE 




4 All IT 5 J 

4Ar, TAamt 


4A78 ED5B044A 
4MC 19 


008S0 
00870 


LD 
ADO 


DE, (SVSCKA) 
HL,DE 






0^230 

002'i0 


4ATD 112E0e 
4Ae0 19 


00880 
00B90 
00900 


LO 
ADD 


DE,2EH 
HL.DE 




4A1H C3tA4J 


00260 JP 43EAH iRET-HO HIT 

00270 


4A81 L5 


00910 
00920 


PUSH 


HL 




4A1B CD274A 


4AB2 FDEl 

4A84 3E2E 
4AB6 FD7700 


00930 
00940 
00950 

00960 
00970 


POP 

LD 
LO 


lY 

A. ' . ' 

ll¥) ,A 




80290 ;•* CLEAR SCREEN ROUTINE •• 


00310 CLE CALL CLHSCH 


4A1K ;iB03C 


0032B 

00330 LD HL, VIDEO 


4A89 DD7EB0 


009S0 
00990 
01000 


LD 


A.nxi 




4A21 223D4H 


00340 LD |483DH1,HL 

003^0 

00)60 JP RETURN 
00370 


4Aec FE3a 


CP 


30H 




4A24 C3DD4J 


4A8E FA994A 


01010 
01020 


JP 


M , ASCEND 




4A27 21IS3C 
4A1A lltl3C 


••3BI CLRSCR LD HI, .VISED 

• <JM LD DE,VIDE0+1 


4A91 FE5a 
4A93 F2994A 


01030 
01040 


CP 
JP 


5BH 

P , ASCEND 




4A2D 010004 


00400 LD bC,400H 




01 050 








4A30 3620 


00410 LD OIL) ,20H 


4A96 FD7700 


01060 


LD 


nv) ,A 




4A32 EDB0 


00420 LDIR 




01070 








4A34 C9 


00430 XET 


4A99 FDEl 


B10B0 ASCBNf 


POP 


lY 






01448 


4A9B nD23 
4A9D OB 

4A9E 3A0O4A 


01090 
01100 
81110 
01120 
01130 


INC 

OEC 

LD 


IX 
BC 

A. (COONTl 




0l4fii |»» DUNP HEPtODY ROUTINE •• 


00480 


4A3S CD3;4S 


00490 DUMP CALL 4532H 


4AA1 3C 


01140 


INC 


A 




4A30 CD894^ 
4A3U 324048 


00500 CALL 4589H 
00510 [,[) (4B4aHI ,A 
00520 


4AA2 32004A 
4AAS FE04 

4AAT 2BB3 


01150 
01160 

01170 


LD 
CP 
JR 


(COUNT) ,A 

4 

Z, SPACE 




4A3K CD894^ 


00530 CALL 4589H 


4AA9 C3664A 


01180 


JP 


D.SPDMP 




4A41 323F48 


00540 LD ! 4B3FHI , A 




01190 










00550 


4AAC FD23 


01200 SPACE 


INC 


lY 




4A44 CD:74A 


005*0 CALL CLBSCR 
00570 


4AAE AF 
4AAF 32004A 


01210 
01:20 


XOR 
LD 


A 

(COUNT!, A ;CLEAR 


COOKT 


4A47 DD:A3f4a 
4A4B FD210e]C 


00580 LD IX,(483FH1 ; ME« LOCS 
00590 LD lY, VIDEO JSCB LOCN 


4AB2 3A014A 
4Afi5 3C 


01230 

01240 
012SB 


LD 
INC 


A, (BLOCK) 
A 




4A4r 01D000 


00600 LD BC, 208 
0B61B 


4AB6 32014A 


01260 
B1Z70 


LD 


( BLOCK 1 ,A 




4AS2 AF 
4AS] )2H4A 


00620 XOR A 

■ •610 LD (COUNT], A 


4AB9 FEB4 


01280 


CP 


4 




4A5« 31B14A 


•■648 LD (BLOCK) ,A 








Program continues 



100 • 80 Microcomputing. October 1980 



4MB 2flK> 


• 1298 
flllBB 




JR 


NZ.DSPDHP 


4AB0 AP 


•llIB NEWLIH 


XOR 


A 


4ABe 1II14A 


B112B 
fltllB 




LD 


(BLOOD.A ;CLEAII BLOCK 


4AC1 lllTII 


B134B 




LB 


DE,8B17H 


4AC4 FD19 


Bliss 




ADD 


lY.DE 


4AC6 FD32S44A 


B116B 




LD 


[SVSCRA) , I¥ 


4ACA □D22>24A 


81378 




U) 


(SVNEHA) , IX 


4ACE 7S 


81188 




LO 


A,B 


4m:p B1 


81398 




Oil 


C 


4ADI 2BI7 


814S8 
8141B 




JR 


Z, DSPRET 


4A02 CD77 4B 


81421 
8141B 




CALL 


ADDRSS 


4 ADS PD23 


8144B 




IMC 


lY 


4A07 IBSD 


81458 
814fi8 




JR 


DSPDHP 


4AD9 21BaiF 


8147B 


DSPRET 


LO 


KL.lFBBH 


4ADC 223D4B 


B148B 




l.D 


(4e3DH) ,HL 


4M)F C3DD4 3 


B1498 
B15BB 




JP 


RETURN 


4AE2 4F 


815L8 


□ 5t>CHfi 


LD 


C,A 


4AE3 CB3F 


81518 




SRL 


K 


4AES CDIF 


81538 




SRL. 


A 


4AE7 CB3F 


81548 




SRL 


A 


4AE9 CBIF 


B155B 




SRL 


A 


4AeB CI1F7 4A 


B15«8 




CALL 


CHECK 


4AeE 67 


B157B 




LO 


H,A 


4AeF 7 9 


B15BB 




LD 


A,C 


4API E6aF 


• 15 9B 




AHD 


8FH 


4AF2 CDF74A 


81«88 




CALL 


CHECK 


4AFS tr 


81618 




LD 


L,k 


4Arfi C9 


81628 




RET 




4Ar7 C6 3I 


81638 


CHECK 


ADD 


A,38H 


4AF9 FE3A 


81648 




CP 


3 AH 


4APB FABMB 


81658 




JP 


H, CHECK 1 


4AFE C6»7 


816«8 




ADD 


A, 7 


4Bia C9 


81678 
81688 
81698 
817BB 

8171B 


CHECH 1 


BET 






;•• HOVE UP/OOM) fttXJTOE •• | 












81728 








4BII CD3245 


8173B 
817 48 


^irr 


CALL 


4532H 


4BI4 CD8945 


81758 




CALL 


45e9H 


4BI7 324248 


81768 
81778 




LD 


(4a42H] ,A ;50[IRCE-HSB 


4BIA CDS 945 


• 1788 




CALL 


4589H 


4BtD 324148 


81TM 
BlBtl 




LD 


(4B41H) ,A .-SOURCE-LEB 


4B1« CDTB4S 


8181* 
81828 




CAU. 


4S7BH 


4B1] CD894^ 


8181B 




CALL 


4S89H ;DEST-KSB 


4Blt 32444B 


81848 
81858 




LD 


(4B44K) ,A 


4B19 CDS94S 


•Hi* 




CALL 


458 9H 


4B1C 324148 


81878 
818B8 




LO 


(4B43HI ,A iDEST-LSB 


4B1P CD7B4S 


81B98 
819BB 




CALL 


4S7BH 


4B22 CDB945 


8191b 




CALL 


45B9H 


4B25 12464B 


8192B 
B1938 




LD 


<4846H),A ilBYTES - MSB 


4B28 CDB945 


81948 




CALL 


4589H 


4B2B 124548 


81958 
B1168 




LD 


(4S45H) .A ilBYTES - L5B 


4B2E 2A414B 


81)78 




LD 


HL, I4841H) 


4B31 eDSB4148 B19eB 




LO 


DC, I4B43H) 


481S B7 


B199B 




OR 


A ;KESET CARRY 


4B16 ED^2 


82888 




SBC 


HL.DE 


4B38 P24D4B 


82B1B 
82828 




JP 


P.nOVDVm 


4B3B CD554B 


B2838 


HOVUP 


CALL 


USE TUP 


4B1E ES 


81848 




FUSU 


HL 


4B1P D5 


82858 




PUSH 


DE 


4B4B El 


82868 




POP 


HL 


4B41 89 


82878 




ADD 


HL.BC 


4B42 ES 


82BB8 




PUSH 


HL 


4B41 Dl 


B289I 




POP 


DE 


4B44 El 


82118 




POP 


HL 


4B4S 89 


81111 




ADD 


HL.BC 


4B46 2B 


8212B 




DEC 


HL 


4B47 IB 


82118 




DEC 


DE 


4B48 EDB8 


82148 




LDDR 




4B4A C1DD43 


B2158 




JP 


RETURN 


4B4D CD^54B 


B217B 
B21B8 


HOVDWN 


CALL 


USE TUP 


4B58 EDBB 


B219B 
B22BI 




LDIR 





4B52 C3DD41 
4B55 2IC81F 
4B5a 123D4a 

4B5B 2A4148 
4B5E ED5B434i 
4B63 ED4B454f 



4B6T C5 
4B6a CDE24A 
4B6B CI 

4B6C FD7 488 
4B6F PD13 

4eTI P07S88 
4B74 FD23 



4B77 DDE5 
4B79 Dl 



4B7A 7A 
4B7B CDfi7 4B 



4B7E 7B 
4B7F CD674B 



81218 

ail28 HSCTUP 

• 2118 
82Z4B 
8225B 
B11G8 
B2278 
B21B8 
B2198 
82388 

•231* DSPRTN 

• 2328 
8111B 
82148 
82358 
•1168 
B137B 
82188 
B219B 
824BB 
82418 
82428 

824)8 AODRSS 
B244B 

B245B 
B246B 
B2478 
B24BB 
82498 
82588 



PUSH 

CALL 
POP 



tHC 
RET 



POSH 
POP 



LD 
CALL 



RETURN 
KL.IFCBH 
(4B1DH) ,HL 

HL, <4841K) 
DE, [4B41H) 
BC, (4B45H) 



BC 

DSPCHtt 

BC 

(tTI.B 
lY 

<iy).L 

lY 



A,D 
DSPRTH 



A,E 
D5PRTH 




ELECTRONIC 

HANDICAPPER: 

BASKETBALL 

by Rick Sothen, John Laurence. Walter Gavenda 



PREDICTION 

ARIZONA STATE AT ALABAMA 
ALABAMA OVER ARIZONA STATE BV 6 POINTS 

ALABAMA AT ARIZONA STATE 
ARIZONA STATE OVER ALABAMA BV 7 POINTS 



BEAT THE SPREAD!! 



Relax and enjoy the game--you already know the winner. 
You even have a predicted point spread You know what's 
happening in all the other games, too 

BASKETBALL, first in the ELECTRONIC HANDfCAPPER 
series, will introduce you to the benefits of predicting in 
advance the winners of this season's basketball games 
This two-tape package gives you power ratings to get you 
started You keep the data tape informed of the current 
week's wins, losses and points with about an hour of your 
input time each week. The program then calculates a 
winner and point spread for you to use 

Last season, our test market was able to predict 85% of the 
winners with a point spread accuracy of 64%. One week, 
five upsets were accurately predicted 

Now, Acorn doesn't guarantee any specific percentage of 
accuracy, and we certainly don't want to encourage 
anyone to develop any bad habits ELECTRONIC 
HANDICAPPER: BASKETBALL is designed to enable 
you to pick winners and predict point spread with a degree 
of accuracy which significantly exceeds the laws of 
chance. 

The two-tape package is $99.00 and requires Level II 16K 
TRS-80.* You can put it on disk if your system is disk 
based. 

We're betting that you'll enjoy this and other tine Programs 
such as CHECKBOOK PLUS ($29.95) and SUPERSCRIPT 
($29 95 each) from Acorn Software Products Ask for these 
and other quality Acorn programs at your local computer 
store 

TRS-80 li ■ tradtmwk o( Tandy Corp. 




DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 



n ^ 

Software Products, Inc. 



»i0 



634 North CaroHns Avtnu*. S.E., Washington. D.C. 20003 



^Reader S»iviee—s»e page 22b 



80 Microcomputing. October 1980 • 101 




SOFTWARE! 



I itmiED sorrwkU t 



-ur. of tec 



Yes! Qiulity Software for the TRS-80 is now 
written & •vuUble. BCC i§ pleued to be able to 
present some very fine software now with even 
more available in the very near future. Also we 
develop ciutom designed software for your 
every need. Write us for a FREE price quote. 

* 115= .. ■„-. ,. ■■•^n ■ 'J . -'...5 ■ ■ -a-J ■-^p",'.' r 

For Software Think BCC -^=S' 



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■ailoua Dlkar flildi. 

vQ5S=^ For Supplies Think BCC ^====0. 
o Disks & Tapes 



I'l Inch dtakallFi W ttand St9.tt (10 In plak, oaa) 

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Bourrut Consulting Corporation ^S7 

81Ff«ndlyfld Sm.th(ouxi,nv 117B7 



1 




CQMPUTER 
PIRATES 

.OflTfl 
THIEVES 

ARE HERE... 

Don't let computer pirates: DIVINE your DATA 

FILCHE your FILES 
PERUSE your PROGRAMS 

Protect them all with CRYPTEXT, the hardware 
encryption module that brings ultra-high level 
security to the small computer user. Once 
encrypted, your files can be stored or trans- 
mitted in strictest privacy. A single CRYPTEXT 
unit will differentially control the medical , 
legal or financial records, mailing lists, and 
design data for an entire firm. 
Breaking CRYPTEXT encrypted data is like un- 
scrambling an egg. We don't say its impossible 
but we have 3 oz . of fine gold waiting for the 
first person who succeeds in breaking our test 
message . 
SECURITY SYSTEMS FOR USE WITH : 

TRS-80 APPLE II SUPERBRAIN NORTHSTAR 




DEC. 


HEX 


ASCU 


32 


20 


SPACE 


33 


21 


! 


34 


22 




35 


23 


U 


36 


24 


i 


37 


25 


°'„ 


36 


26 


A 


3S 


27 




40 


2S 


( 


41 


29 


) 


42 


2A 




43 


28 


+ 


4A 


20 




45 


2D 


- 


46 


2E 




47 


2F 


; 


46 


30 





49 


31 


1 


60 


32 


2 


61 


33 


3 


52 


34 


4 


53 


35 


5 


54 


36 


6 


55 


37 


7 


56 


38 


8 


57 


39 


9 


58 


3A 




5S 


3B 




eo 


30 


< 


61 


3D 


= 


62 


3E 


> 


63 


3F 





64 


40 


& 


65 


41 


A 


66 


42 


B 


67 


43 


C 


66 


44 


D 


69 


45 


E 


70 


46 


F 


71 


47 


G 


72 


48 


H 


73 


49 


1 


74 


4A 


J 


75 


dB 


K 


76 


4C 


L 


77 


4D 


M 


78 


46 


N 


79 


4F 






DEC. HEX ASCII 


BO 


SO 


P 


61 


51 


a 


82 


52 


R 


83 


53 


s 


B4 


54 


T 


85 


55 


U 


86 


56 


V 


87 


57 


w 


68 


58 


X 


89 


59 


Y 


90 


5A 


Z 


91 


5B 


t 


92 


50 


I 


93 


5D 


- 


94 


5E 


- 


95 


5F 


_ 


96 


60 


a 


97 


61 


a 


9B 


62 


b 


99 


53 


c 


100 


64 


d 


101 


65 


e 


102 


66 


t 


103 


67 





104 


68 


h 


105 


69 


r 


106 


6A 


1 


107 


6B 


k 


106 


60 


1 


109 


6D 


m 


110 


6E 


n 


111 


6F 





112 


70 


P 


113 


71 


a 


114 


72 


r 


116 


73 


s 


116 


74 


t 


117 


75 


u 


118 


76 


V 


119 


77 


tl 


120 


78 


X 


121 


79 


y 


122 


7A 


; 


123 


7B 


1 


124 


70 


1 


125 


7D 


- 


126 


7E 


- 


127 


7F 


— 



Character Codes Decimal & Hexadecimal 



but introduces its own: conver- 
sion. 

BASIC uses decimal numbers 
when POKEing and assembly 
language uses hexadecimal 
numbers for its instructions. 

This means that the program- 
mer must convert the hex- 
adecimal numbers into decimal 
in order to use the POKE pro- 
cess. This is a painful and bor- 
ing procedure. There is also a 
good possibility that the pro- 
grammer will make an error. 

It didn't take me long -three 
Opcodes — to realize that doing 
it that way was for the birds. 

So, I wrote a short program 
that did this chore for me and 
also produced a hard copy tor 
future use. 

Since I have found this hard 
copy indispensable, I've decided 
to share it with the rest of 



computerdom. The rest of this 
article is the Z-80 Opcode 
Hexadecimal-to-Decimal Con- 
version Chart. Also included is a 
hex-decimal listing of the ASCII 
codes, including both upper and 
lowercase characters. (The new 
Radio Shack manual leaves out 
the lowercase letters.) 

I hopeyoulind this chart to be 
as useful as I find it.H 



Hexadecimal to Decimal 




Conversion 




Chart 


00 





019405 


1, ^3^. 5 


02 




03 




04 




05 




0620 


6, 32 



102 • 80 Microcomputing. October 1980 



Hixadselmal 


Decimal 


H«Kad«ctmal 


D*c(ma1 


07 


7 


?H 


1 ji 


OS 


8 


7C 


124 


09 


9 


7D 


125 


OA 


10 


7E 


126 


OB 


11 


7P 


127 


OC 


12 


flO 


128 


OD 


13 


81 


129 


OEJO 


14, 12 


82 


no 


OF 


1 ^ 


«3 


131 


101E 


IK, 4ft 


84 


132 


I1B405 


1''. 1 J-. 5 


S5 


133 


12 


18 


86 


114 


11 


!■» 


87 


135 


M 


20 


8S 


116 


15 


21 


S9 


117 


1620 


27, 32 


BA 


13B 


'7 


25 


BB 


139 


Tfl2K 


24, 46 


BC 


140 


1 t 


25 


BD 


141 


lA 


26 


BE 


142 


1B 


27 


9F 


14 ( 


u- 


2B 


90 


144 


ID 


29 


91 


145 


1E20 


5(1, 12 


92 


14li 


IF 


n 


93 


147 


102E 


!2, 4*. 


94 


14« 


21B405 


33, 132, 5 


95 


119 


2I840S 


34, 112, 5 


96 


150 


2) 


35 


97 


151 


24 


3ft 


98 


152 


2S 


TJ 


99 


151 


2620 


38, 3? 


9A 


154 


27 


19 


9B 


155 


282E 


4 n . 4 fi 


9C 


156 


29 


11 


9D 


157 


2A840S 


42, 112, 5 


9F 


158 


2B 


43 


9r 


151 


2C 


44 


AG 


160 


2D 


45 


A1 


161 


2E20 


46, 32 


A2 


162 


2F 


47 


A3 


163 


102e 


48, 46 


h* 


164 


11S405 


49, 132, 5 


A5 
A6 


165 

166 


32B40S 


50, 132, 5 


55 


51 


A7 


167 


34 
35 


52 
53 


AH 
A9 


I6B 
169 


J620 


54, 32 


AA 


170 


37 


55 


AB 


171 


1B2E 


56, 4G 


AC 


172 


)9 


57 


AD 


173 


lABIOS 


59, 132, 5 


AE 


174 


IB 


59 


AF 


175 


3C 


fin 


BO 


1 7'. 


3D 


(, 1 


Bl 


177 


3E20 


h2. 32 


H2 


17 9 


37' 


63 


B3 


1 71 


40 


t* 


B4 


180 


41 


65 


B5 


181 


42 


«« 


B6 


187 


43 


S7 


B7 


18 1 


44 


68 


B8 


184 


4S 


ei 


B9 


185 


4f"i 


70 


M 


186 


47 


71 


BB 


187 


48 


72 


BC 


188 


(9 


73 


BD 


189 


4A 


7< 


BE 


190 


4n 


75 


BF 


191 


4C 


7fi 


CO 


192 


4D 


77 


CI 


191 


4£ 


7i 


C2S40S 


194, 132, 5 


4F 


79 


C38405 


195, 112, 5 


50 


■0 


C48405 


196, 132, 5 


51 


•1 


C5 


197 


52 


•2 


C620 


198, 32 


53 


83 


C7 


199 


54 


84 


CB 


200 


5S 


85 


C9 


201 


56 


B6 


CAa40S 


20 2 , 15 2, 5 


57 


87 


CBOO 


201, 


S8 


Bl 


CB01 


201, 1 


59 


a* 


CB02 


203, 2 


SA 


M 


CB03 


205, 3 


SB 


91 


CB04 


201, 4 


5C 


92 


CB05 


201, 5 


5D 


93 


CB06 


201, 6 


5K 


94 


CB07 


20 3, 7 


5F 


•5 


CB08 


203, 8 


60 


M 


CB09 


203, 9 


61 


97 


CBOX 


301, 10 


62 


98 


CBOB 


203, 11 


63 


99 


CBOC 


201, 12 


64 


100 


CBOD 


20), 11 


65 


101 


CBoe 


203, 14 


66 


102 


CBDF 


203, 15 


67 


103 


CBID 


201, 16 


68 


104 


CB11 


201, 17 


69 


105 


CB12 


203, )8 


6A 


1M 


CB15 


203, 19 


6B 


107 


CB14 


201, 20 


6C 


108 


CB15 


203, 21 


6I> 


109 


CB16 


203, 22 


6B 


110 


CB!7 


203, 23 


6r 


111 


CBIS 


203, 24 


70 


112 


CB19 


203, 15 


71 


113 


CB1A 


203, 26 


72 


114 


CBIB 


201, 27 


71 


115 


CB1C 


203, 2B 


74 


lie 


CB1D 


201, 29 


75 


117 


CBIE 


203, 30 


76 


111 


CSlf 


203, 31 


77 


119 


CB20 


20J, 32 


78 


120 






79 


131 






7A 


132 




Program confinuss 



SMALL BUSINESS SYSTEMS GROUP, INC. 

the company who brought you real TRS-80 business software 
HARDWARE 



NEC 5510 Spinwriter 


2995 


16K Level II 


799 


DATAHOYAL 5000 


1495 


64K Model tl 


3899 


Okidata MicrolineSO 


695 


48K 2 disk Model III 


2614 


OriginatB^nswer Modem 


189 


64K Superbrain 3.0 


2995 


US Robotics 330 Modem 


310 


48K Zenith ZSg 


2595 


The Connection " 




Atari 800 


995 


with ST80 III C 


439 


Atari 400 


595 


Lynx 


239 


64K Altos ACS8000-2, 




The Source 


95 


Soroc120, CP/M 


5645 


RS737C board 


99 


GTC 100A Terminal 


985 


16K 250 ns NEC Memory 


75 


Soroc IQ120 


9RR 


Box 10 5 '/«" Diskettes 


35 


Zenith Z1 9 


985 


Box 10 8" Diskenes 


49 


80 track MPI sgle drive 


595 


Box B 'A X 11 Paper 


33 


80 track MPIdble drive 


1095 


Box 14 7/8" Paper 


43 


40 track Siemans 


390 


4 Drive Cable 


49 


8" Siemans for Mod II 


1049 


2 Drive Cable 


35 


Dual Siemans for Mod II 


1595 


Model M Cables 


ask 


Z89 Add-on drive 


525 


Ribbons, etc. 


ask 


32K Expansion Interface 


490 


SOFTWARE 






VIOD 


MOD II 




Name & Address 


99 


195 




Inventory 


195 


325 




CPA Client Billing 


350 


650 WRITE FOR NEW 


3 Disk Coor AR,AP,GI 


350 


950 CATALOG 




Stand alone AR,AP or GL 


125 


225 




Payroll 


125 


225 




AR with Invoicing 


275 


375 




Stock Control 


225 






Dental Billing 


600 


1200 




Personal Finance Icmpled 


60 


79 




6 Games by Lance Micklus 


75 ^ 




SItiUIII"' communications 


150 


2gQ DEALER INQUIRIES 


VTOS 4.0 by Randy Cooke 99 


INVITED 




SORT80 


58 


99 





We also have CP/M, Wordstar, Bectric Pencil, Pearl, 
Microsoft, Superbrain Business Software, and much 
much more. 

TRS-80 la a trademark of Tandy Corp. 

COMING SOONMI 

SBSG Business Software on the Zenith and Altos 



¥ 



M'i 



Small Business Systems Group, Inc. 
6 Carlisle Road 
Westford, MA 01886 
(617) 692-3800 

Our 24 hour/day 

on-line computer and 

message center. 

FORUM-80 
1-617-692-3973 



80 Microcomputing, October 1980 • 103 



DISK DRIVE WOES? PRINTER INTERACTION? 

MEMORY LOSS? ERRATIC OPERATION? 

DON'T BLAME THE SOFTWARE! 



K^ 




ISO-1 

Power Line Spikes, Surges & Hath could be the culpriTi 
Floppies, printers, memorv & processor often interact! 
Our unique ISOLATORS eliminate equipment interaction 
AND curb damaging Power Line Spikes, Surges and Hash. 
■ISOLATOR IIS0-1A) 3 filter iiolaMd Sprong lockati; 
integral Surga/Spike Suppression; 1B75 W Maximum load, 

1 KW load any socket $56.95 

'ISOLATOR (ISO-2) 2 filter isolatnl 3-prongiockat banks; 

(6 sockatt total); in^iral Spike/Surga Suppression; 

1875 W Max load, 1 KW either bank S56.9& 

*SUPER ISOLATOR (IS&3). similar to ISO-1A 

except double filtering & Suppression .... $85.95 
'ISOLATOR (ISO-4), similar to IS0-1A axcapt 

unit has 6 individually filtered sockets .... $96.95 
'ISOLATOR (ISO-S), similar to ISa2 excapt 

unit Km 3 socket banks, 9 sockets total . . . $79.95 
'CIRCUIT BREAKER, any modal (addCB) Add $ 7.00 
■CKTBRKR/SWITCH/PILOT any modal 

(-CBSI Add $14.00 

1^ PHONE ORDERS 1-617-6S5-1532 

/S^ Electronic Specialists, Inc. 



t^U 



171 South Main Sireel, Natlch. Mass 01760 



EXptSM 



ADVANCED BUSINESS 
SOFTWARE FOR THE TRS-80 

(Hew AvMlaWf Fw Ma4al II Uso) 
' FORECASTING * RISK AHALYSIS ' U.S. MACHO MODEL 
If yours ssnous about improving your business 
wfth a computer, why not use the best business planning sotTware 
available? Dr Dawd M Chereb has made the most powerful and 
suctBSsful business analytical techniques available to micro 
computer uurs. 

All programs listed below are in Basic, for 92K (or morel dish 
based TRS 80 systems 

BUSINESS PLANNING PACKAGE lor FORE- 
CASTING - An integrated set of forecasting programs 
to handle a wiety of business forecasting needs 
from Trend Analysis to Advanced Multiple Regres- 
sion (100 pg User Manual) 199 
INVESTMENT RISK AHALYSIS • The major ingred 
lent in any investment is unceriiinty This 
prog rem accounts for cost chsngas, shifting 
revenue streams and interest rats fluctuations 
Now you can manage risk. (35 pg. User Manual) 
199 
U.S. SIMULATION MODEL Knowing where the 

economy is going and how it reacts to government 
fiscal and monetary actions can save you a lot at 
money This is a user oriented economic situation 
model constructed to professional standards (BO 
pg User Manual) 1199. 

MOT/C£ TO casTomins: 

Bicaast of tht Iremmifous lacrtasa in racanl 
orders, oar shipping raspoosa lima has stawad Wa 
ara axpaoding in ordar to corract this situation. But 
for the ml month our shipping data will average ona 
weak after receipt of your order 

To order CAU Z13/424-3IS2. or write to APPUED ECONOMIC 
ANALYSIS, 4005 Locust Ave.. Long Baach, CA 90807. 

>^47 



Haxadeelmal 


Decimal 


Haudeclmal 


Decimal 


CBI1 


20), 13 


CB9C 


ZOl, 156 


C322 


203 


14 


CB9D 


201, 157 


CBll 


203 


15 


CB9E 


103, 158 


CB24 


203 


le 


CB9r 


203, 159 


CBJS 


203 


37 


CBAO 


103. 160 


CBIC 


203 


IB 


CBX1 


203, 161 


CBIT 


203 


39 


CBA2 


203, 162 


CB28 


203 


40 


CBAl 


203, 163 


CB29 


203 


41 


CBA4 


203, 164 


CB2A 


203 


41 


CBA5 


103, 165 


CB3B 


203 


43 


CBAG 


101, 166 


CB2C 


203 


44 


CBA7 


101, 167 


CB3D 


203 


4S 


CBAB 


101, 168 


CB2E 


201 


46 


CBA9 


101, 169 


CB2F 


203 


47 


CBAA 


ZOl, 170 


CB3B 


203 


56 


CBAB 


103, 171 


CBJ9 


201 


57 


CBAC 


201, 172 


CB1» 


203 


58 


CBAD 


203, 173 


CBIB 


201 


59 


CBAE 


201, 174 


CB3C 


203 


60 


CBAF 


101, 175 


CB3D 


203 


fil 


CBBO 


201, 176 


CB3E 


203 


fil 


CBBl 


103, 177 


CfliF 


20 3 


63 


CBB2 


203, 17B 


C8«0 


203 


64 


CBB3 


103, 179 


CB41 


203 


65 


CBB4 


103, 180 


CB4 2 


203 


66 


CBB5 


203, 1B1 


CB4] 


203 


67 


CBB6 


103, 182 


CB44 


203 


68 


CBB7 


203, 183 


CB4 5 


203 


69 


CBB8 


203, 184 


CBt6 


203 


70 


CBB9 


203, 185 


CB47 


203 


71 


CBBA 


103, 186 


CB4B 


203 


72 


CBBB 


103, 187 


CB49 


203 


71 


CBBC 


201, 1BS 


CB4A 


203 


74 


CBBD 


203, 189 


CB4B 


203 


75 


CBBE 


20), 190 


CB4C 


201 


76 


CBBT 


20), 191 


CB4D 


203 


77 


CBCO 


303, 191 


C84E 


203 


78 


C8C1 


201, 191 


CB4F 


103 


79 


CBC2 


201, 194 


CBSO 


101 


BO 


CBCl 


201, 195 


CBS1 


101 


B1 


CBC4 


20), 196 


CBs: 


103 


81 


CBC5 


203, 197 


CB51 


201 


ei 


CBC6 


203, 198 


CB54 


203 


84 


CBC7 


103, 199 


CBiS 


203 


85 


CBCB 


203, 100 


CBS& 


20) 


86 


CBC9 


103, 201 


CB57 


103 


87 


CBCA 


203, 202 


CBS a 


203 


SB 


CBCB 


101, 201 


CB59 


10 3 


89 


CBCC 


203, 204 


CB5A 


20 3 


90 


CBCD 


101, 205 


CBSB 


20 3 


91 


CBCE 


103, 206 


CB5C 


203 


92 


CBCE 


203, 207 


CBSn 


201 


93 


CBDD 


201, 208 


CBSE 


203 


94 


CBD1 


101, 209 


CB5P 


203 


95 


CBDl 


201, 110 


CBSO 


201 


96 


CBD3 


103, 111 


CBSl 


203 


97 


CBQ4 


103, 212 


CB62 


203 


98 


CBD5 


201. 213 


CB6] 


203 


99 


CBD6 


103, 214 


CBS 4 


203 


100 


CBD7 


201, 115 


CBS^ 


203 


101 


CBDB 


101, 216 


CBSe 


203 


101 


CBn9 


201, 117 


CB67 


203 


10) 


CBDA 


101, 11B 


CBG8 


10) 


104 


CBDB 


201, 219 


CBS? 


103 


105 


CBDC 


201, 220 


CB6A 


201 


106 


CBDD 


201, 221 


CB6B 


203 


107 


CBQE 


103, 222 


CB6C 


203 


108 


CBDF 


103, 223 


CB6D 


10 3 


109 


CBEO 


203. 224 


CB6E 


203 


110 


CBF1 


203, 225 


CB6F 


203 


111 


CBE2 


203, 226 


CB70 


20 3 


112 


CBE3 


203, 127 


CB7t 


20 3 


113 


CBE4 


103, 118 


CB72 


103 


114 


CBE5 


103, 129 


CB71 


203 


115 


CBE6 


203, 230 


CB74 


20) 


116 


CBE7 


20), 231 


CB7 5 


103 


in 


CBEB 


20), 232 


CB7t 


10) 


lis 


CBE9 


203, 233 


CB77 


201 


119 


CBEA 


203, 234 


CB7S 


20 3 


110 


CBEB 


203, 235 


CB79 


103 


121 


CBEC 


203, 236 


CB7A 


20 3 


111 


CBED 


103, 237 


CB7B 


20 3 


123 


CBEE 


103, 238 


CB7C 


203 


124 


CBEF 


203, 239 


CB7D 


201 


125 


CBFO 


101, 240 


CB7E 


203 


126 


CBF1 


103, 241 


CB7r 


20 3 


127 


CBr2 


103, 141 


CBBO 


20 3 


118 


CBF3 


103, 141 


CB81 


101 


119 


CBr4 


203, 244 


CBIJ 


20 3 


130 


cars 


101, 145 


CB81 


201 


131 


CBr6 


101, 146 


CBB4 


201 


131 


CBF7 


103, 147 


CBSS 


201 


133 


CBFB 


203, 148 


CBSe 


203 


134 


CBF9 


103, 249 


CfiB7 


203 


135 


CBFA 


203, 250 


CBBB 
CBS 9 
CBBA 
CBIB 
CBBC 
CBBD 
CBBE 
CBSr 
CB90 
CB91 
CB9I 


203 
203 

203 
203 
203 
203 
203 
203 
201 
203 
101 


136 
137 
13B 
139 
140 
141 
142 
14) 
144 
145 
146 


CBPB 

CBFC 
CBTD 
CBFE 
CBFT 

CCB405 
0)8405 
CE20 

cr 

DO 

D1 

D18405 

D120 

D48405 

D5 

D620 

D7 

DB 

09 


103, 151 
201, 252 
201, 253 
203, 254 

203, 255 

204, 112, 5 
105, 132. 5 
206, 12 
207 

108 
209 

210, 112, 5 

211, 11 

212, 132, 5 
213 

214, 31 
215 
2t6 
117 


CB9 3 
CB9 4 

CB9 5 
CB96 


103 
103 
201 
101 


147 
148 

149 
ISO 


CB9 7 
CB98 
CB99 
CB9A 
CB9B 


201 
203 
203 
10 3 
103 


151 
152 
153 
154 

155 



104 • 80 Microcomputing, October 1980 



^ Reader Servtca— see page 2X 



H»ab*Glmil 


DtClmil 




H*iad*clmsl 


D*clmal 








DAB<05 


218, 


1 12, 5 




t:D6; 


217, 


9B 








DB20 


219, 


32 




Fn67 


317, 


101 








act*ob 


2ia, 


132, 5 




FU6B 


217, 


104 








DD09 


311, 


9 




ED6 9 


237, 


105 








□ D19 


221, 


35 




ED6A 


237, 


1 06 








DD2ia4as 


221 , 


33, 132 


5 


rn6F 


217, 


11 1 








DD22B4D5 


221, 


J4, 132 


5 


ED72 


337, 


114 








DD2 3 


221, 


35 




ED718405 


217, 


115, 


132. 5 1 




DD2 9 


221 , 


41 




Ell 7 8 


337, 


120 








DQ2AI4D5 


221 , 


42, 132 


5 


F,n7 9 


237, 


131 








DD2B 


221 , 


41 




ED7A 


337, 


133 








DD)405 


221 , 


52, 5 




FD7fl8 4 0". 


317, 


123, 


113, 5 1 




DDl^OS 


221, 


53, 5 




FDAO 


217, 


160 








□D360520 


221 , 


54, 5, 12 


FDA1 


237, 


161 








QDl! 


221 , 


57 




EDA2 


317, 


162 








DO4605 


221, 


70, 5 




EDA3 


217, 


163 








□D4E0S 


221 , 


78, 5 




ED AS 


237, 


168 








DD5605 


221, 


B«, 5 




EDA9 


237, 


169 








DD5E0 5 


221 , 


94, 5 




EDAA 


237, 


170 








DD6605 


221, 


102,5 




EDAB 


237, 


171 








DD6E05 


221 , 


110, 5 




ED BO 


217, 


176 








DDT 00 5 


221 , 


113, 5 




EDBl 


337, 


177 








DDT 105 


221 , 


113, 5 




EDB2 


217, 


178 








DD720; 


221, 


114, 5 




EDB3 


237, 


179 








DD7305 


221, 


115, 5 




EnB8 


237, 


184 








OD7405 


221 , 


lie, 5 




EDB'} 


237 , 


1 B5 








DDTS05 


221 , 


117, 5 




EDBA 


237 , 


1 B6 








DDTTOS 


221, 


119, 5 




EDBB 


217, 


1 87 








DDJE05 


221, 


126, 5 




EE20 


218, 


32 








DDI60S 


221, 


134, 5 




EF 


339 










DDIEOS 


221 , 


142, 5 




FO 


340 










DD9605 


221 , 


150, 5 




Fl 


341 










DD9E0 5 


221 , 


158, 5 




F2B405 


242, 


132, 


5 






DDASO; 


321 , 


lee, 5 




F3 


243 










DDU:OS 


221 , 


174, 5 




F48405 


244, 


1 32, 


5 






DDBfiOS 


221, 


183, 5 




r5 


245 










DDBEOJ 


221 , 


190, 5 




Ft 3 


246, 


12 








DDCBOSO& 


221 , 


203, 5, 


6 


F7 


247 










DDC8050E 


221 , 


303, S, 


14 


FB 


24B 










DDcnosie 


221 , 


201, 5, 


22 


F9 


249 










DDCBD51E 


221 , 


303, 5, 


10 


rAB405 


250, 


1 12, 


5 






□DCB0526 


221. 


203, 5, 


38 


FB 


251 










DDCB052E 


221 , 


303, 5, 


46 


rCB4 5 


252, 


1 13, 


5 






DDCB0;3E 


221 , 


301, 5, 


62 


FDO^ 


251, 


9 








DDCB0546 


221 , 


203, 5, 


70 


FD19 


251, 


25 








DDCB054E 


221 , 


203, 5, 


78 


FD31B40S 


353, 


13, 


1 12 


5 




DDCB0S56 


221 , 


201, 5, 


86 


FD22B405 


253, 


34, 


1 33 


5 




DDCB055E 


321 , 


203, 5, 


94 


Fn33 


253, 


35 








DDCBOSee 


231 , 


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FD2B 


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221 , 


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221 , 


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221 , 


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rots 05 


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327 






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132, 5 




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353, 


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ES 


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353, 


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332 






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351, 


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E9 


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S, 


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EB 


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64 




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253, 


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65 




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102 




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611 




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80 




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217 


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253, 


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153, 


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217 


86 




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253, 


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217 


87 




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253, 


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251. 


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217 


B9 




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253, 


225 








ED5A 


237 


90 




FDE3 


253. 


327 








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237 


91 , 132 


, 5 


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253. 


229 








ED5E 


237 


94 




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253, 


231 








ED5r 


217 


95 




FDF9 


253, 


249 








ED6Q 


237 


96 




FE20 


354 


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ED6I 


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97 




FF 


255 











This Weekend: 

STIK 

IT.... 
••to your 



THal > fighli Ejmar* > VIDIET-STIK lighl pen has the TRS-80 CONNECTION 
tor LEVEL I A II Your 4K to 48K THS-OO System will come alive under your 
VIDIET-STIK within minutes of its arrival That s because there are no wires to 
soiaer or tr»c«s to cut You re uc anO running as fast as you can plug the 
intarlacB irito your system s cassette EAR-jack. CLOAD our custom LIGHT- 
WAVE demonstration software and RUN And because thie interface has a 
plug for your recorder, you wont have to unplug it again when loading your 
other software tapes The interface allows them to pass right thru whenever 
you're not using the pen Its exclusive switched tip ' design means the pen's 
electrically isolaled from your system when it s not >n use Jusi point & pres$> 
It s thai simple Plug. CLOAD and RUN And have we got the software lo'you 
to RUN with' Our demonstration tape includes a Cllibration program lusedto 
adjust the CRTs brightness and conlrastl plus STIK-TAC-TOE, AWARI and 
TOWERS Two challanging games and i puzzle that will Keep grownups and 
Children Stik'ing it to your TRS-80 for hours And there are inslructions 
provided so you can tMtgin writing your own light pen programs (lightware) 
for fun or profit (Level II) Or just Sit b«cK and enjoy our LIGHT-WAVE lapes 
each month Esmark s unmatched commitment 1o light ware can bring you up 
to live new games, puzzles. Onlls&educational ciuizes or simulations each 
month Our current LIGHT-WAVE releases are 



LIGHT-PAK2 - LIGHTPEG (4 peg-|umppuzzles) 
ENORUN [Othello with a twist ] 
LIFE9 (Conway s LIfE with mutations) 
Price SI 9 95 (including postages handling) 
LITEGAWMON (Backgammon you H Stik with) 
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PRICE S19.95 (includinQ postage £ handling) 



(LEVEL II) 



LIGHT-PAK3 
(LEVEL II) 



Order yours now and we'll include a free copy of FLASHBACK. Esmark s 
newsletter dedicated to the latest news m lightware applications And. don t 
forget to tell your Inends Ttie VIDIET-STIK can also Be Ofdered for use on 
most Other micro systems using the following processor chips 



8080 



Z80 



6800 



6502 



All thai s required is a standard cassette jack leading to Ground and a 
readable single bit input port Driver softwafe is provided along with 
instfuctions lor writing lightware applications And tell your local Dealer that 
Esmark'sgol a Dealer package he won't want to miss out on. Delivery (s 3 to 6 
weeks from receipt of your order CO O s are S3 00 extra but will be shipped 
within two weeks All pncesaraF O B Mishawaka. Indiana Indiaria residents 
add 4^ state sales lax 



ALSO COMING FROM ESfWtARK 

[ 1 TRS-eO Pnnter Interface (Cassette AUX-jack inlerface for all RSZ3Z 
printers Includes LLIST& LPRINT software) 

1 1 TRS-eO RS232 Communications Interface (Makes your TflS-ao a lull 
I/O terminal to timethanng systems the world over Gives you 
intelligent or dumb terminal capabilities al 110 or 300 BAUD Alto 
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iNCOHf'ORATED 



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8 
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507<AE. Mckinley HWY. mishawaka, in 46M4 

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'ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS MARKETING POSTAGE & 

HANDLING 



- Raadet Service— see page 226 



80 Microcomputing, October 1980 • 105 



BUSINESS 




Livestock management 
via micros. 

When the 
Cows Come 
Home 



ShBrlll B. Nott 

Dept. of Agricultural Economics 
Mlchigar) State University 
East Lansing, Ml 48824 



Livestock farmers are now us- 
ing large computer systems 
to store and process data on In- 
dividual animals and herds. Re- 
gional Interactive computers 
can be accessed over telephone 
lines for Individual animal feed- 
ing recommendations. Dairy 
and goat farmers can enroll in 
the Dairy Herd Improvement 
Association (DIHIA) to get 
monttily reports on milk produc- 
tion, as well as maintain perma- 
nent cow histories. 

Dairy researchers have devel- 
oped a herd reproductive man- 
agement concept for which a 
microcomputer is ideal. A com- 
puter program can forecast a se- 
quence of caretaker activities 
for breeding cows. The program 
can recommend whether or not 
to breed and which bull to use; it 
can schedule vaccinations and 
medical exams, and describe 
treatment for different health 
problems. 



Computer Tasks 

Four questions need answer- 
ing when developing a breeding 
and health management sys- 
tem. 

First, what management re- 
ports are needed? You can In- 
clude a number of useful re- 
ports, Including the following: 

1. Calvings expected within 
the next X days. 

2. Uterus exam needed be- 
cause of recent calving. 

3. No heats reported X days or 
more since calving. 

4. Heats to be expected today. 

5. Not pregnant for X days or 
more. 

6. Pregnancy check needed 
today. 

7. Dry off within the next X 
days. 

8. Reproductive tract prob- 
lems within the last X days. 

9. Health treatments {not re- 
productive) made within the last 
X days. 

10. Antibiotic treatments 
made within the last X days. 

11. Vaccinations needed to- 
day. 

Second, what Information 
must be stored to get those re- 
ports? Several items must be 
filed regularly to Insure timely 
and complete reports. The input 
options include: 



1. Add a new animal to the 
disk. 

2. Calving information. 

3. Results of uterus exam. 

4. Heats seen, receive bull to 
use. 

5. Whether or not to breed and 
which bull to use. 

6. Inseminations completed. 

7. Results of pregnancy exam. 

8. Cows dried off. 

9. Reproductive health prob- 
lems and treatments made. 

10. Health (not reproductive) 
problems and treatments made. 

11. Vaccinations completed. 

12. Delete an animal from the 
disk. 

Dairy managers may want to 
know everything about an ani- 
mal or a subject. 

The suggested information 
groupings are as follows: 

13. Animal location, status, 
sex. 

14. Vaccinations. 

15. Calvings. 

16. Pregnancy status, heats 
and breedings since last calv- 
ing. 

17. Reproductive health 
items. 

18. Health (not reproductive) 
items. 

Third, how will each record be 
packed? This project uses ver- 
sion 2.2 of TRSDOS, which 



packs each buffer (and hence 
each 256-byte disk record 
space) according to this format: 

1 byte = alphanumeric (string) 
character. 

2 bytes = integer 

4 bytes = single-precision 
number. 

8 bytes = double-precision 
number. 

To store as much as possible, 
devise a set of codes to repre- 
sent aiphatwtic information. Al- 
though string characters might 
seem to be the most effective, 
the possible code list Is short, it 
includes through 9, the alpha- 
bet and a few other symbols- 
well under 100 codes. Integers 
use two bytes but the possible 
codes range from - 32,768 to 
-^ 32,767; over 65,000 definitions 
can be set. Floating point 
numbers can be stored directly 
as data or can be treated as 
codes. 

Fourth, will code numbers or 
alphanumeric data be stored? 

A dairy farmer who knows 
cows by name should get to 
know them by number, if he has 
a choice between identifying a 
cow as Penelope or 9998, the 
trade-off is clear. 9998 requires 
two bytes; Penelope needs 
eight. Integers use less disk 
space, and moat farmers ai- 



106 • 80 Microcomputing. October 1980 



ScBnned by Ira Galdklang - www.trs-BD.cnm 



the electric pencil II 



TM 



1980 Michael Shraycr 




for the TRS-80 Model IP Computer 



The Electric Pencil Is a Character Oriented Word Processing 
System. This means that text is entered as a continuous string 
of chcFocters aid is manipulated os such. This allows the user 
enormous freedom end ease in the movement end handling of 
text. Since lines are net delineated, any number of char- 
octers, words, lines or paragraphs may be inserted or deleted 
anywhere in the text. The entirety of the text shifts and 
opens up or closes as needed in full view of the user. Cor- 
r ioge returns as wel I as word hyphenation are not required 
since each line of text is formatted automatically. 

As text is typed end the end of a screen line is reached, a 
portially completed word is shifted to the beginning of the 
following line. Whenever text is inserted or deleted, existing 
text is pushed down or pulled l^ in a wrap arour>d fashion. 
Everything appears on the video display screen as it occurs 
thereby eliminating t¥iy guesswork. Text may be reviewed at 
will by variable speed or poge-at-o-time scrolling both in the 
forward did reverse directions. By using the search or the 
search and reploce function, any string of characters may be 
loooted end/or replaced with cny other string of charocters as 
desired. Specific sets of ctxirocters within encoded strings 
may also be located. 

When text is fjf'nfed, The Eiectric Pencil automatically 
inserts carrioge returns where they ore needed. Numerous 
combirxitions of Line Length, Page Length, Charocter Spocing, 
Line Spocing end Page Spacing allow for any form to be 
handled. Right justification gives right-hand margins that 
are even. Pages may be numbered os well os titled. 



the electric pencil 

-a Proven Word Processing System 

The TR5D0S versions of The Eiectric Pencil II ore our best 
ever! You can now type as fast as you like without losing cny 
charocters. New TRSDOS features include word left, word right, 
word delete, bottom of page numbering as well as extended 
cursor controls for greater user flexibility. BASIC files may 
also be written end simply edited without odditionol software. 

OirCP/M versions ere the same as we hove been distributing 
for several years end allow the CP/M user to edit CP/M files 
with the addition of our CONVERT utility for an additional 
$35.00. CONVERT is not required if only quick and easy word 
processing is required. A keytxxird buffer permits fast typing 
without character toss. 

CP/M TRSOOS 
Serial Diablo, NEC, Qume $ 300.00 $ 350.00 
All other printers $ 275.00 S 325.00 

The Electric Pencil I is still available for TRS-80 Model I 
users. Although rwt as sophisticated os Electric Pencil II, it 
is still an extremely easy to use end powerful word processing 
system. The software has been designed to be used with both 
Level MI6K system) and Level II models of the TRS-80. Two 
versions, exie for use with cassette, and one for use with disk, 
are available on cassette. The TR5-80 disk version is easily 
transferred to disl< end Is fully interactive with the READ, 
WRITE, DIR, end KILL routines of TRSDOS. 




Features 

TRSDOS or CP/M Compatible * Supports Four Disk 
Drives * Dynamic Print Formatting * Diablo, NEC & 
Qune Print Packages • Multi-Column Printing • Print 
Value Chaining * Page-at-a-time Scrolling • 
Bidirectional Multispeed Scrolling * Subsystem with 
Print Value Scorebexird • Automatic Word & Record 
Numba- Tally * Global Search & Replace • Full Margin 
Control • End of Page Control • Non Printing Text 
Commenting • Line & Paragraph Indentation • 
Centering * Underlining * Boldface 





'TRS40 Is a registsrad trade majl> □< Radn Snack, a division ol Tandy Corp 



TRC Cassette $ 100.00 

TRD Disk $ 150.00 



,^255 




MICHAEL SHRAYER SOFTWARE, 

1198 Los Robles Dr. 

Palm Springs, CA. 92262 

(714)323 1400 



INC. 



^ReaOv Service— s«e pag» 2X 



80 Microcomputing, October 1980 • 107 



[from the creacori of) 
Tha Ptncil Sharpcnan'^Si Th« Stir Brightener' 



now comes 



THE POST 

POWERFUL MERGE UTILITY 

(peiMinaliZBd form letters with data from yout tiles} 

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COMPUTER PAPER 

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TRS-80- 



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how did 1 gel alurg wilhoul itV ' ;> Ihe usual rf dCliun to this aduaruvd disk indexing progiam 

AUTOMATICALLY credit-, son pnnl si-dtr h a Masltr Indfx of all disk dies. 

AUTOMATICALLY read filt udmes. disk ^uTnt>ft^ (rm hund entr^) 

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ROM 

_- Wa.sht puilT ir\ a day, :v^\'.-:zi »;i:;rLT:^'i:i.":.''"i,;',Ui"'i^';,:r";::,,i;'.: 



■-.-^i. 


* T^ tJ(» 


ll 


^1 ■•■rch r 


f^rmzr- 


l'h*'l, tf« 


L r 


, ti avA^d 1 


' -t ■ 


M«pL«r 


nd 


vi-iiri E*4J 


. '.TiL 


t*p^ h«« « Donii« tra^lB* 




















**• '^J 


^- 




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coJc 1^ vi4«. piLnf*' «i «*p». n^^idv* 




TRS-80* SOFTWARE! THE BEST 



-THE DATA ORGANIZER 



•Variable length records -Max, 20 field per record 

64 K Mod II S250.00 32 K Mod I S150.00 

MAGAZINE DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM 

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(312)327-7550 ^ms 

-~ —A IndamMk of Tandy ^"t 



108 • 80 Microcomputing, October 1980 



ready accept code numbers. In- 
tegers ease the task of writing 
software because they can be 
used directly as array Indexes. A 
suggested set of descriptions 
with codes and variables for 
herd use Is In Table 4. 

Dairy Cow Files 

The following tile formats will 
meet your reporting needs and 
will work as random access tiles 
within the constraints of the 
TRSDOS. I offer the formats, 
records and variables as a start- 
ing point for your own project. 

Discuss them with farmers, 
ranchers, animal scientists, vet- 
erinarians and other llvestocK 
professionals. The final deci- 
sions are too Important to be left 
only to systems analysts and 
programmers! 

I set up three random access 
records of data for each cow. On 
TRSDOS diskettes 335 records 
are available. Keeping all three 
records for a cow on one disk, 
100 cows use 300 records. This 
leaves 35 records for other uses. 

I use records 305 and 310 as 
Indexes to keep track of which 
cow identification numbers are 
at which record locations. 

In accessing the disk, the 
computer first gets record 310 
and finds the cow's record num- 



ber. If the cow Is not on the disk, 
an appropriate message Is 
printed. If the cow is on the disk, 
the variable JCOW Is set equal 
to the cow's record number. The 
first record carrying status, calv- 
Ings and breeding can tte put or 
retrieved at JCOW, the second 
at JCOW -I- IX and the third at 
JCOW + 200. 

Tables 1, 2 and 3 give the de- 
tailed descriptions of space uti- 
lization, buffer variables and 
random access memory vari- 
ables for records 1, 2 and 3, re- 
spectively. 

Although each record can 
have 256 bytes, none of the sug- 
gested formats use It all. Some 
space Is left for future data addi- 
tions. Also, the machine will run 
better If It Isn't filled to capacity. 

To store RAM variables on a 
disk, you must reset the RAM 
variables Into fielded buffer vari- 
ables and put the buffer vari- 
ables onto the disk. To get data 
from a disk, the computer takes 
one record and places It In a 
fielded buffer. The buffer values 
are then reset Into RAM vari- 
ables for manipulation. Several 
buffers may be activated simul- 
taneously, thus making several 
records of data available. 

Each record starts with the 
cow identification numtwr and a 







Space 


BuHer Vartabta RAM Varlablea 






on Disk 


BS(119t 


KS(1S|KC()KB() 


Animal 10 No. 




2 


1 


1 


Disk Location No. 




2 


2 


2 


Date o( AntlUotlc Ust 




2 


3 


3 


Sinn data 




2 


4 


4 


Pan No. 




2 


e 


5 

6 


Vaccinations S codaa 




10 


10 


10 


Sen and Calving Status 




2 


11 


11 


No. of Rows Used— Calvtngs 


2 


12 


12 


B Calving Sets or Rows: 








KC(8,8t 


Calving date 




2 


13 


1 toll: 1 


Calf sex 




2 


14 


2 


Call status 




2 




3 


Cow status 1 




2 




4 


2 




2 




S 


3 




2 




e 


4 




2 


75 


7 


Calf-a slra 




2 


76 


e 


Breeding Availability 




2 


77 


13 


Bull to use tor Breeding 




2 


78 


14 


No. of rows used— heals 


brod 


2 


79 


15 


8 Sets or Rows of Heats, 


breeders: 






KB<8.5| 


Heat Date 




2 


80 


1 toll: 1 


Who saw heat 




2 


B1 


2 


Breeding dale 




2 




3 


BuK used 




2 


118 


4 


Insemlnator 




2 


119 
aces used 


S 


238 sp 






256 spaces available 




Table 1. Cow Status 


Catvings and Breedings 



MARK GORDON 

COMPUTERS 

DIVISION OF MARK GORDON ASSOCIATES, INC. 

IS KENWOOD ST.. CAMBRIDGE. MASSACHUSETTS 02139 
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The minimum requirement is a 32K TRS-80' 
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^flMtfer Service— sea page IX 



80 Microcomputing, October 1980 • 109 



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Spaca Bulftr VariaM* RAM VariaWa* 




on Disk 


BFV&5I 


LW) LH( ) L*(| 


Animal ID No 


2 


1 


1 


Disk Localion No 


2 


2 


2 


Placenlj Status Code 


2 


3 


2 


Vaginal Dischaffle Code 


2 


4 


4 


Tract Slatus al Inseminalton 


2 


b 


5 


No of Rows Used Below 


2 


6 


fc. 


1 1 ODservalion sets o' rows 






LHitl 3) 


as (oliows 






1 - 1 to 11 


Date of ProDlem 


2 


7 


J = 1 = date 
J = 2 = Dfobiem 
J = 3 = route 


Health Problem 


2 


e 


L*11,3) 
1 = 1 toll 


Treatment route 


2 


49 


J = 1 = Calendar Date 
J = 2 = Treatment made 


Treatment Made 


15 


50 






243 spaces used 






256 spaces avalla&le 




Table 2. Reproductive 


Tract Health Items 



record {JCOW) number. These 
two variables let you check tor 
errors. If either number brought 
into RAM is not what you ex 
pect, an error message is 
printed and processing is 
stopped until the problem is 
fixed. If parts of the disk become 
unreadable, the two variables 
may help in retrieving what is 
readable. 

Dates are stored repeatedly in 
all three records. These are not 
calendar dates, but numbers rel- 
ative to a fixed day. (See Listing 
1.) January 1, 1968 is my con- 
stant date 1 Date 366 is Decem 
bar 31, 1968 (a leap year), and 
date 367 is January 1, 1969. 

A date constant lets you store 
a date as an integer. It also lets 
you find out how many days 
have elapsed since a specific 
task was performed. Date con- 
stants ignore the number of 
days in a month. 

Software can make these 
transformations invisible; the 
farmer will input calendar dates 
and receive results In the usual 
month/day/year format. 

Note in Table 1 that every en- 
try on the disk is a two-byte inte- 
ger. First come the animal and 
record (disk location) numbers 
for error checking. Next are the 
animal status codes showing 
the last date of antibiotic use, 
birthdate of the cow, and pen or 
corral number of her current lo- 
cation. Next is a set of codes for 
five different vaccinations. 

Sex and calving status (see 
Table 4 for my definitions) will 
speed up generating reports 



where the complete disk is 
searched. The next value will 
range from through 8, indicat- 
ing how many calvings are in the 
record for the cow- Each calving 
set has eight codes: the date, 
calf sex, calf status at birth [nor- 
mal, large, etc.), four cow status 
codes at time of giving birth 
(normal, milk fever, etc) and the 
calf's sire. 

If artificial insemination is 
used, the two codes on breeding 
availability and bull to use can 
be preset. The employee can 
then receive instructions on 
what action to take if the cow is 
in estrus. 

The next value will range from 
through 8, indicating how 
many heats and breedings are in 
the record. Each breeding set 
has five variables: heat date, 
who saw the heat, date bred, 
semen used and who did the in- 
seminating. When a calving is 
reported for the cow. this last 
groupof data is zeroed. t>ecause 
only data since the last calving 
is important. 

Table 2 describes the second 
record. The animal and record 
(disk location) numbers are for 
error checking. Next come three 
codes for flagging cows that 
need special observation or 
treatments. The code defini- 
tions are in Table 4. 

The placenta code is tor the 
statusat time of calving, and the 
vaginal discharge code is for 
following through after calving 
to detect metritis. The tract 
status at insemination flags any 



110 • 80 Microcomputing, October 1980 



abnormalities at time of breed- 
ing. 

The next value will range from 
through 11 and Indicate how 
many reproductive observation 
sets are In the record. Each set 
has four variables: date ob- 
served, the problem (e.g., 
metritis, not ovulating), the 
route of treatment (e.g., in- 
travenous, intramuscular), and a 
15-place alphanumeric string to 
describe the treatment. 

Forget trying to encode this 
with integers. Let the farmer 
type on the keyboard what 
seems best. Although this will 
use more disk space, the task of 
creating codes for all possible 
treatments found at the farm Is 
doomed to failure. 

You may find that 15 charac- 
ters are too few. Another alter- 
native is 24 characters to the 
treatment string and eight in- 
stead of 11 stored sets. Remem- 
ber the 256-byte constraint. 

Table 3 describes record 3. 
The animal and record (disk lo- 
cation) numbers are for error 
checking. The next value will 
range from to 11, indicating 
how many health sets are in the 
record. Each set has four vari- 
ables; date observed, problem 
code (a short list can suffice If 
"other" is Included), the route of 
treatment (oral, intramammary. 
etc.) and a 15-place alphanumer- 
ic string tor comments. 

Demonstralton Software 

The hardware Includes a 
TRS-60 Model I with 4aK of RAM, 
a printer and two disk drives. 
The first drive stores the soft- 
ware; the second drive stores 
only animal data. Version 2.2 of 
TRSDOS and disk BASIC are 
used. A structured program- 
ming approach results In sever- 
al short subroutines. 

The following previously de- 
fined reports and tasks were 
programmed and debugged: not 
pregnant for X days or more; add 
a new animal; calving Informa- 
tion; health (not reproductive) 
problems and treatments; de- 
lete an animal; calvings; and 
health items (not reproductive). 

These will demonstrate the 
system. 

Much effort went Into build- 
ing what I call overhead subrou- 
tines and standardized arrays. 



Each of the three records need 
to be opened, fielded, read from 
disk to buffer and reset into 
RAM variables. Then the steps 
need to be reversed to store 
data on the disk. Individual sub- 
routines do these Jobs. 

if more than 100 animals are 
to be recorded, another subrou- 
tine waits for a different disk to 
be loaded into drive 2. The two 
date-transformation subrou- 
tines are overhead. 

All the arrays are defined and 
dimensioned in the main pro- 
gram. Management action re- 
port 5, not pregnant for X days or 
more, was the only one acti- 
vated. To activate the next re- 
port requires only a few subrou- 
tine calls, some manipulation of 
already-defined variables and a 
few print statements. 

The software has 632 tines, in- 
cluding remarks. Using the 
PRINT MEM command before 
and after loading the program 
Into RAM Indicates the program 
size Is almost 24K. 

After running the program to 
dump one record for a cow. 



PRINT MEM Indicates the pro- 
gram plus execution space re- 
quired (26.9K). This leaves only 
10.7K of space to add options to 
the program. Given the hard- 
ware and software used, all op- 
tions cannot be activated In one 
big program. 

Some Variables 

A complete dairy livestock 



management system should in- 
clude milk weights. Each milk 
weight will be a decimal numt>er 
using four bytes of space. Two 
observations per day for 31 days 
requires 246 bytes, nearly a rec- 
ord. Part of a second record is 
needed on the few farms that 
milk three times per day. 

It you try to integrate milk 
weights with breeding, calving 





SpM« BuftarVerUbta RAM 




onOtsk 


BH{SO| 


VartabtM 


Animal 10 No. 


2 


1 


11 


Disk Local ion No 


2 


2 


12 


No ot Rows Us«d Below 


2 


3 


NG(4| 


1 1 observation sets or rows 






IH{n,3) 


BB lollows: 








Date ot Problem 


2 


4 


1 = 1 lo 11 

J = 1 = Problem 

J = 2 = Route 

J = 3z Constant Date 


Healtri Problem 


2 


S 


83(11.2) 
1 = 1 to 1 1 


Treat meni Route 


2 


46 


J - 1 = calendar date 
siting 


Trealmeni Made 


15 


47 


J =2 = treatment made 
Stnng 


239 spaci 




used of 








2S6 available 




Table 3. Health Items (Not Reproductive) 



Variable 


Coda 


DeNnHlon 


Route of gMng heaWi Ireatmenta: 


Catt mk: 






T5S(0) 





Unknown or otf>er 


TiKO) 





Unknown 


T5J(1) 


1 


Intermammary 


T1«(1) 


1 


Female 


T5$(21 


2 


Intermuscular 


Tl«2) 


2 


Male 


T5*(3} 


3 


Interperitorteal 


T1S(3) 


3 


Female twins 


T5J(4| 


4 


lnlerver>ous 


T1S(4) 


4 


Male twins 


T5K51 


5 


Oral 


TlfcS) 


5 


Mixed twins 


T6I(6) 


6 


Ulterous Infusion 


Calf ataliM at Mrth: 




Reproductive health prablema: | 


T2V0) 





Unknown 


P1V0) 





Unknown 


T2*<1) 


1 


All normal 


PIRD 


1 


Retained placenta 


T2S(2) 


2 


Born dead 


P1$(2) 


2 


Posi calving discharge 


T2«(3) 


3 


Found dead 


PI $(3) 


3 


Metritis 


T2«4| 


4 


Alive, crippled 


Pl$(4| 


4 


Pus on catheter 


T2X5) 


5 


Large calf 


PI $151 


5 


Sticky when bred 








PI $(6) 


6 


Scar tissue 


Cow atatua al Mnia ot gMng Urth: 


PIKT) 


7 


Other abnormality 


T3$(0) 





Normal, no comments 








T3$(1) 


1 


Assisted delivery 


Health problims (no< reproducttve): | 


T3»(21 


2 


Atwrled or si III born 


P2W5) 





Unkr>own 


T3«3} 


3 


Milk fsver 


P2S<1) 


1 


Mastitis 


T3K4) 


4 


Udder broken down 


P2S0) 


2 


Foot rot 


T3$(51 


5 


Weak back lags 


P2$(3) 


3 


Milk fever 


T3«a 


6 


Oowner cow 


P2*<4) 


4 


Oft feed 


T3K7) 


7 


Large calf 


P2$<51 


5 


Diarrhea 


T3X8) 


8 


Retained placenta 


P2S(6) 


6 


Pneumonia 


T3$(9) 


9 


Cleaned Dy hartd 


P2»(7) 


7 


Calving problems 








P2*81 


e 


Hardware 


Animal >ax and alalua coda: 


P2S(9) 


9 


Other problems 


T4H0) 





Unknown or other 








T4$(11 


1 


Female, never had a calf 


Brvadtng KaltM coda: | 


T4$(2) 


2 


Female, calved al least or>c«, now In milk 


TWO) 





Unknown 


T4$<3) 


3 


Female, calved at least once, now dry 


T6S(1) 


1 


Open, breed It other criteria are mei 


T4«4) 


4 


Female, In teedlot 


T6$(2) 


2 


Assumed to be pregrunt 


T4$(5) 


5 


Male, castrated 


T6$<3| 


3 


Palpated, krxnwn to be pregnant 


T4»(6) 


6 


Male, not castrated 


T6S(4) 


4 


No, do not t>reed 


T4»(7) 


7 


Male tor breeding 


T8S(5) 


5 


Running witti a bull 








T6J(6) 


6 


Not relevant 






Table 4. Suggested Variables. Code Numbers and Definitions 



80 Microcomputing, October1980 • 111 



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ana neaith data on a single disk- 
ette, the result may have to be 
quite different from Tables 1, 2 
and 3, 

The formats I've discussed 
are designed for breeding live- 
stock using artificial insemina- 
tion. If natural service is used, 
much of the herd reproductive 
approach becomes irrelevant. 
Most of record 1 and all of 
record 2 is not needed. 

In feeder operations (beef, 
hogs, lambs) the file formats 
should be devoted more to pre- 
i/entive health strategies, daily 
feed amounts and weight gains. 
As in the dairy example, disk 
space is the first problem to 
consider. 

A different approach would 
involve a series of separate pro- 
grams, one for input and an- 
other for generating reports or 
editing. Redundant program 
lines make writing the second 
and third programs easier. 

One disadvantage to this is 
that the farm worker has to both 
load and run a series of different 
programs during each session 
and shuffle the data disks. But 
TRSDOS offers a chain option 
for automatically loading and 
running a different program. 

In this project all data Inputs 
are taken from the keyboard af- 
ter a screen prompt. As soon as 
the input is read it is checked for 
errors. I devoted considerable 
attention to idiot-proofing. This 
is an adequate input technique 
given the speed with which the 
computer operates when mov- 
ing among RAM, the screen and 
the keyboard. 

Study Other Systems 

Several research herds have 
had computerized data storage 
and inventory programs created 
for them. The package devel- 
oped for the U.S. Dept. of Agri- 
culture's research herd at Belts- 
ville, MD, is mentioned in the 
Journal of Dairy Science (May 
1974. p. 61 1). The Michigan State 
University dairy research center 
at East Lansing uses another 
system. 

Both systems can be studied 
for data handling procedures 
and coding schemes. The soft- 
ware accounts for many re- 
search functions and Institu- 
tional inventory requirements 



not needed in a privately owned 
herd. 

The herd reproductive man- 
agement concept has been im- 
plemented on several comput- 
ers. A mail-in batch-operated 
software package written in 
PL-1 was created and field 
tested on several dairy farms by 
Virginia Polytechnic Institute 
and State University. 

I set up software In FORTRAN 
on an interactive time-share 
computer operated by the Mich- 
igan State University Coopera- 
tive Extension Service, It was 
tested on only two herds, and re- 
mains available on a trial basis. 

At least one private firm, Herd 
Reproductive Services, Inc., 
Athens, GA, has developed soft- 
ware for managing herd repro- 
duction. This firm will provide a 
farmer with a minicomputer, the 
software and monthly consult- 



ing services. 

Opportunities exist for cre- 
ating management-oriented 
livestock breeding and health 
record systems on microcom- 
puters. However, the planning 
process will take time and de- 
mand a thorough knowledge of 
livestock. ■ 



References 

Beall, Gary, 'Good Records 
Don't Have to be Complicated," 
Hoard's Dairyman. February, 
1976, 

Hughes, Joan K., and Jay I, 
Michtom, A Structured Ap- 
proach to Programming, Pren- 
tice-Hall, Inc.. 1977, 
Miller. R.H,; M,E, Creegan; and 
R,E. Pearson, "Computer Sys- 
tems for Herd Reproduction and 
Health Data," abstract of paper 
38, Journal of Dairy Science. 
May, 1974. 



** raviNG ! 


fOf?flTION 


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» 


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= Ftiiiit. 


ixveu Ri LH?T m:i 


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LN BlSffi bf*l. 


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*• TB utnE orr m.i^ mm ^ 




(BLTN nfmrnm m fih m \^ 45 




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1 i/n/isT? 


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112 • BO Microcomputing, October 1980 




PRIAM 

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■Heaae' Sforice ^e« page 22€ 



80 Microcomputing. October 19&) • 113 



GENERAL 



Set your memory size from BASIC. 



Memory Sizer 



Jack Decker 

1804 West 18th Street Lot 155 

Sault Sle. Marie, Ml 49783 



In magazines such as this one, 
you often see hybrid pro- 
grams. Written in BASIC, they 
use a machine language sub- 
routine caiied by the USR(X] 
function during execution. 

The author ot the program 
usuaiiy tries to make the loading 
procedure more convenient by 
embedding the machine lan- 
guage code in DATA statements 
within the BASIC program. 

Overwrltlnfl 

These DATA statements are 
usuaiiy read by a FOR-NEXT 
ioop that POKEs it into its prop- 
er iocation in memory. Aiready 
you can see a source of poten- 
tiai problems, since the code Is 
POKEd without regard to what- 
ever else may already be there. 

If you have KBFIX or some 
other machine language routine 
loaded and the BASIC program 
overwrites it, tough lucK— you 



have just lost your routine and 
maybe hung up your computer 
in the bargain. 

What's that, you say? I forgot 
that I had to turn off the com- 
puter, power up again, and an- 
swer the MEMORY SIZE? ques- 
tion to protect some machine 
language memory. 

Yes. that does destroy any 
machine programs residing in 
memory. Now, what was that 
MEMORY SIZE? Had it written 
down somewhere. Should have 
written it on the cassette label, I 
suppose. Suddenly this "conve- 
nient" program leaves some- 
thing to be desired. 

All of these troubles can be 
avoided. For instance. Listing 1 
shows one unusual method that 
will work when the machine 
code to be used is less than 256 
bytes long and is completely 
relocatable. For demonstration 
purposes I'll use a machine pro- 
gram that places ASCII codes 
corresponding to the contents 
of register pair ML in the upper 
right-hand corr>w of the video 
display. 

The machine language rou- 
tine is stored in string variable 
B$. VARPTR^BS) returns the ad- 
dress of the string's first three 
memory locations containing 



the length ot the string, the least 
significant byte and the most 
significant byte. It you POKE 
these latter two bytes into loca- 
tions 16526 and 16527, the 
USR(X) locations, then BS will be 
treated as a machine language 
program when the USR function 
is called. 

Note that if the VARPTR loca- 
tions are greater than 32767, as 
they could be in a system with 
more than 16K ot memory, you 
must subtract 65536 to keep the 
POKE command within allow- 
able limits. 

If BS is the first string variable 
to be assigned in a program, it 
will stay in the same location. 
However, if you choose to as- 
sign other string variables first, 
and if the length of those vari- 
ables will be changed during the 
run of the program, then you'll 
have to find B$ in memory 
before executing the USR call. 
You can do this by repeating the 
commands in line 30 just before 
making each USR call. (This 
could tw done in a subroutine.) 

Avoid Powar Up 

The above method works for 
most relocatable machine lan- 
guage routines. But you can 
locate your routine in high mem- 



ory, and avoid powering up the 
computer to set the memory 
size. Let's examine what hap- 
pens when you answer the 
MEMORY SIZE? question. 

As far as I can tell, the main 
locations for the memory size 
are 16561 and 16562. When you 
type a number in response to the 
memory size prompt, the com- 
puter subtracts 2 and stores 
that number in 16561 and 16562. 
So if you ever forget what mem- 
ory size you started with, you 
can type: 

■'PEEKdWeil ♦ PeEK(16562)"256 ♦ 2 

and the computer will tell you. 

Actually, the address in those 
locations represents the highest 
usable memory location for 
BASIC, normally used for string 
storage. So, for example, if you 
set the memory size to 30000, 
the last iocation available for 
string storage (or other BASIC 
variables, if no string space Is 
cleared) is 29998. You could 
start your machine program at 
29999 with no ill effects. 

But you can't just POKE the 
new value minus 2 into 16561 
and 16562 to reset the memory 
size. Other pointers must also 
be reset— those that govern the 



114 > 80 Microcomputing, October 1980 






FOR TRS— 80* 

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"nwrr" 


ACdSl 

TUM 

Itroch to 
tracit) 


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LOAD 

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{untDrm4lt*d 

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itmiT 
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150K br*** 
(beth»MM| 


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low brMi 


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YES 


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NO 


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YES 


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YES 


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ISOK t>v(« 

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80 Microcomputing, October 1980 • 115 



start of string storage and the 
position of variables in memory. 

Fortunately, you don't have to 
reset each one individually. All 
you need to do is issue a CLEAR 
X command where X is the num- 
ber ot bytes you need cleared for 
the program. The X argument 
must not be omitted, even if you 
donl need any string space 
cleared, because that also 
resets a pointer. If you don't 
need any string space, you can 
]ust CLEAR 0. 

Using the above information, 
if you wanted to reset the mem- 
ory size to 30000, you could 
issue these commands: 

POKE16S6146 POKE 16562 117 CLfcAR 
GO 

46 -f 117-256 = 29998, or 2 less 

than our desired memory size. 

However, if your machine lan- 
guage routine is relocatable, 
you can go one better than this. 
You can reserve enough mem- 
ory for your routine while the 
program is running, and then 
free that memory for other uses 
when the program is finished. 



Freeing Mamory 

Take a look at Listing 2. The 

code IS compressed with multi- 
ple statements on a line, so keep 
in mind that everything between 
lines 1 and 2 is part of line 1, and 
so on. Here is how the program 
works. 

First, POKE 16396.23. This 
disables the break key since you 
don't want to exit the program 
without executing line 9999. You 
then PEEK at the present mem- 
ory size in locations 16561 and 
16562. and let variable C equal 
the present memory size minus 
the length (in bytes) of your ma- 
chine routine. This will be your 
new memory size 

Poke your present memory 
size into 16526 and 16527. This 
IS temporary since you want to 
recover these values after you 
issue the CLEAR command 
(which clears all variables). You 
could |ust as easily have used 
any of several other memory 
pairs to store these values, but 
these are the USR(X) locations 
that you will be using later any- 
way. 



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Next you break your new 
memory size down into least 
significant and most significant 
bytes (LSB and MSB), and POKE 
these back into 16561 and 
16562, Then comes the manda- 
tory CLEAR command (be sure 
to replace SC with a numeric 
argument) 

Starting in line 2, you recover 
your original memory size from 
the USR{X) locations and store 
them in variables QY and QZ (to 
be used at the end of the pro- 
gram). Now we PEEK at your 
new memory size and add 1 to it 
to determine where your ma- 
chine program will start (vari- 
able C). 

It the entry point (the byte of 
the routine to be accessed first) 
IS not the first byte of the rou- 
tine, you must calculate the en- 
try address by adding the dis- 
placement from the start of the 
program (variable D). Break this 
entry point address down into 
LSB and MSB and POKE it into 
the USR(X) locations (16526 and 
16527), You then do the actual 
POKEing ot your routine into 
memory, starting at the first 
location of your newly protected 
memory. 

If the memory location indi- 
cated is greater than 32767, you 
must include the offset of 
-65536, This necessitates the 
function (A>32767) -65536 
shown in the example. Notethat 



PL indicates the program length 
and must be replaced by the 
number of bytes to t>e POKEd 
from DATA statements. 

Restoring and Mcxlilying 

At the end of your program, 
line 9999 in this example, you 
need only rePOKE the old mem- 
ory size into 16561 and 16562, 
issue the necessary CLEAR, and 
POKE 16396,201 to re enable the 
break key. This restores every- 
thing to the way it was before 
you ran the program, without 
any need to power up again. 
Note that QY and QZ are the on- 
ly variables that must be left un- 
changed throughout the pro- 
gram. 

The above routines can also 
be modified to put a system 
machine code in your programs, 
that IS, code that stays m mem- 
ory and IS used m the command 
mode. 

Should you use one ot the 
above routines, I would also 
suggest you use the CLEARX 
statement at the beginning of 
every program, you never know 
how much memory was re- 
served for strings in your last 
program. Finally, if your pro- 
gram really hogs the string 
space, issue a CLEAR 50 at pro 
gram end so that you can load 
the next program without en- 
countering an OM ERROR (out 
of memory error). ■ 



IB KUH A=l TU 4r I'.t.AU 1-: BS- 

28 DATA 34, b2, 60, 201 

30 B = VARPTmKS): I'OR A=fl TO 

IB* (B^ 32167) •6bS36) : NLXT 
40 CLS: A^USf;(A) 


ilS*CIIHS 111) 
1: D=Dtl: 


: l.t. 
POKt 


16^20«A 


PLl.K 








Program Listing 









THE KOlXUilNG CONSTANTS MUST BE INStPTt^D INTO PROPER PI. 
ACES: 

PL lf.t:PLACf. WITK PHOCRAW LUNCTII - IN BYTF.,S ) 

SC (RKHl-ACt: WITH .STRING SPACI. TO Br CLEAHtD - DO tJOT oM 

ITL 1) 

LP (REPLACE WITH ENTRY PO I tJT - BYTI. U 1 .SPl.Al. i MENT EHnrl :, 

TAilT) 

1 POKi.lejyh, 33 :A=P[I,K( 16561 1 :T1=PEEK(16^62) :C = A«il*2S6-l'L 
;POKh:l6'j2b,A:POKE16 J2T , H : C- I tIT (C/ 2'i6 1 : A = C -11' 2^6 : POK E16 3 
61 ,A:POKE16=j6 2,B:CLt.ARS<: 

2 QY-PLEK 116^261 : QZ .^ PEEK 1 16b 27 ) : A-PEEK( 16S61 J 1B-PEEKII6 
562] iC-A*r.'256-t-l:D=C + t:P:B=INT(D/256) : A = D-B"256 : PCKE:16 S2 
6,A:POKE16 527,B:FORA^CTOC-tPL-l:Hi:ADE:POKE:A» (A>32767t "65 
!)36,P:t.EXT 

'i999 !'OKEI6 5>6 1,yV:!'OKtl6S6i , gz iCLLAR^O : !>OKf.lb 396 , 20 1 ; EI u 



Program Listing 



116 • 80 Microcomputing. October 1980 



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INTERFACE 



A handshaking story with a hard copy conclusion. 



H-14, Meet the TRS-80 



Frank Friesen 
23 Gemini Avenue 
Winnipeg, Manitoba 
Canada R2G 0T5 



After owning my TRS-80 for 
a while I became tired of 
copying programs from the 
screen by hand. I needed a 
printer. The H-14 line printer 
from Heathkit seemed to be the 
t»est buy. The kit cost less than 
half the amount of the Radio 
Shack line printer and even had 
lowercase. 

The kit took only 12 evenings 
to finish, but while building it I 
realized that the on board CPU 
and software controlled UART 
could not easily be bypassed, as 
I had hoped. This meant that the 
only way I could communicate 
with the printer was by serial 
means. 

The RS 232 or 20ma current 
loop could be bypassed so that 
information could come. viaTTL 
levels. The problem was the ex- 
pansion interface which puts 
out parallel information. This 
wasn't going to stop me — the 
price difference in printers could 
pay for a mini disk drive. 

Looking around my workshop 
I saw an MM5303 general pur- 



pose UART (Universal Asyn- 
cronous Receiver Transmitter). 
Using this iC, a 74LS00 quad 2 
Input NAND gate and some 
extra wiring to the Heathkit con- 
trol board, i made a working in- 
terface. 

Circuit Operation 

The circuit is simple and easy 
to understand (see Fig. 1). Paral- 
lel information is input to 
the UART {IC 1) from the expan- 
sion interface iine-printer-port 
edge connector. Upon receiving 
the strotte on pin 23, the UART 
begins transmitting this data 
serially on pin 25 (SIN). 

The format will be eight bits, 
with no parity, and one stop bit, 
as set by the voltage levels on 
pins 35 to 38 of IC 1. During this 
transmission, the COMPLETE 
signal, pin 24, of ttie UART, goes 
low. It causes pin 1 1 of IC 2 to go 
high, indicating to the computer 
that the printer, or at least the in- 
terface circuit, is busy. 

When transmission is com- 
plete, pin 24 of the UART goes 
high, causing pin 1 1 of IC 2 to go 
low, indicating the printer is 
ready to receive more informa- 
tion. 

The circuit derives its power 
from the H-14 line printer. Also 
the CLK signal on pin 40, which 
is used by the UART for timing 
and clocking the data, is taken 



directly from the UART In the 
H-14. This means that any baud 
rate set in the H-14 will be 
automatically set in the inter- 
face as well (not including 110 
baud, since this requires two 
stop bits, not one as is set now). 
i run mine at 4800 baud with no 
problems. 

The H-14 provides one hand- 
shaking signal, RTS. which goes 
low if the printer is off line or the 
print buffer is full. This signal is 
gated through IC2 to the line 
printer port. In this way. either 
the printer or the UART can 
cause a PRINTER BUSY signal. 

The strobe signal is run 
through two gates simply to give 
the data lines a little additional 
time to stabilize before tieing 
strobed. Pin 23 on the edge con- 
nector is tied to pin 24 (GND) to 
disable the fault detect line 
since it is not needed. 

Construction 

I built the circuit on a pre- 
etched experimenter tward that 
holds both IC's. I also used 
sockets to avoid unsoldering 
problems in the future. 

Set a common -t- 5 volt area 
and a common GND area and 
make the following connec- 
tions: 

1.Pin3 3.21,36,&39of iCIto 
the common GND 

2. Pins 1.38, 37,35 & 34 of IC1 



to the common -(-5 volts 

3. P)n 24 of IC 1 to Pln13 of IC 
2 

4. Pin 23 otic 1 to Pin 6 of IC 2 

5. Pins 3, 4 & 5 of iC 2 
TOGETHER 

6. Pin 14 of iC2 to +5 volts 
7 Pin 7 of iC 2 to GND 

Ail that remains now is to 
wire the two interconnection 
cables. I made the cable to the 
H-14 out of six three-foot pieces 
of #24 stranded wire simply 
because I had them available. 
Six-conductor ribbon cable 
would also be suitable. Using 
different colored wires can 
make identification easier. 

Before starting to wire the 
H-14. remove the jumper wire 
from J114,J115 or J114,J113. 
This interface circuitry is 
bypassed and the associated 
ICs could t>e removed (UlOl, 
U102, U103. U104), 

Remove the bottom plate of 
ttie H-14 and make the follow- 
ing connections to the control 
board, using the six-wire cable. 
Be sure to count the pins cor- 
rectly. Viewing from the bottom 
puts pin 1 on the opposite side. 
Also, be careful not to make any 
accidental solder bridges to 
other pins. 

The U numbers refer to H-14 
ICs and the others to the ICs on 
the board just completed. 

1.OnewiretolCU105Pin40; 



118 • 80 Microcomputing, October 1980 



the other ana to the +5 volt 
common 

2 One wire to IC U105 Pin J2 
(RTS); other end to IC 2 Pin 12. 

3. One wire to IC U105 Pin 20; 
other end to common GND. 

4. One wire to IC U105 Pin 15 
(CLK); other end to IC 1 Pin 40. 



5 One wire to IC U105 Pin 10 
(SIN): other end to IC 1 Pin 25. 

6 Last wire to IC U104 Pin 1 
( - 12): ulher end to IC 1 Pin 2. 

This conipielei, ihe wiring to 
the H-14, 

Run the cable through the slot 
in the base plate. Reinstall the 



base plate. Be sure the cable 
does not interfere with the print 
head movement 

For the second cable I used a 
ten-conductor ribbon cable 
about 15 inches long. I could not 
find a 34-pin female connector 
lu mate with Ihe expansion in- 




10 



^ 



t 



i_i2kli. 



HTS 



■i uiosf4c 
-J uioit^c 
^ uioapis 

uioa osi 



rmst Hints 

UC SOLDEHEO 
TO 'He PINS 
ON FOIL SIDE 



EDGE CONMEcron 
10 1H5-80 

f imiiSiON 

iNTL"HF»rE 



Figure 1 



terface card edge, so I used a 
40-pin connector and simply cut 
off the pins I did not need. 

The pin configuration of the 
line printer port is shown in the 
expansion interface manual. Pin 
1 IS the pin on the top nearest 
the keyboard. Pin 2 is directly 
opposite on the bottom side of 
Ihe tK>ard. Wire the cable as 
follows: 

1 Connect one wire to Pin 1 of 
the connector; the other end to 
Pin 1and2o(IC2. 

2. One wire to Pin 2 of the con- 
nector; the other end to the com- 
mon GND of the circuit board. 

3. One wire to Pin 3 of the con- 
nector; the other end to Pin 26 of 
IC 1 (MM5303). 

4. One wire to Pin 5 of the con- 
nector; the other end to Pin 27 of 
IC 1. 

5. One wire to Pin 7 of the con- 
nector; the other end to Pin 28 of 
1C1. 

6. One wire to Pin 9 of the con 
nector; the other end to Pin 29 of 
IC1 

7. One wire to Pin 11 of the 
cunnector; Ihe other end to Pin 
30of IC 1. 



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■ RcaOmi Svrtice — sm page 226 



80 Microcomputing. October 1980 • 119 



8. One wire to Pin 13 of the 
connector; the other end to Pin 
31 of IC1. 

9. One wire to Pin 15 of the 
connector; the other end to Pin 
32of IC1. 

10. One wire to Pin 21 of the 
connector; the other end to Pin 
11 of the IC 2. 

11. Connect a sn^all bare wire 
between Pin 23 and 24 on the 
connector itself. 

Conclusion 

i put the completed Interface 
into a smaii experimenter box 
and ran one cable out each side. 
As seen, the parts count Is very 
low. Parts required are: 
One MM5303 (or equiv) UART 
One 74LS00 Quad 2 i/P NAND 



GATE 

One 40-pln socket (recom- 
mended) 

One 14-pln socket (recom- 
mended) 

One 34-pln female connector 
(0.1-inch spacing) 

MIscelianeous wire, PC 
board, etc. 

The cost of the unit Is iess than 
$15. 

I normaily operate the H-14 
using the manual switch to 
select character width. Because 
the printer driver routine only 
sends carriage returns (not line 
feeds), the dip switch (sw102) In 
the H-14, position 3, should be 
set to 0, causing an automatic 
line feed on carriage return. This 
works fine until i try to select a 



new character width using this 
command: 

LPWNT CHRK27); CMR»(117X CHnK20) 

The above command causes 
96 characters per line. The only 
problem Is that the H-14 will no 
longer generate internal line 
feeds. The easiest way around 
this Is to generate a line feed 
from BASIC in a subroutine 
such as the following: 

XXX PROGRAM LPflINT LINE: GOSUB 
10DOO 

10000 IF PEEK(14312K>«3 THEN 10CO0 
ELSE POKE14312,10. RETURN 

Line 10000 waits until the 
printer is ready and then sends a 
line feed directly, bypassing the 



print driver routine. 

If you change character width 
by software, calling this line in a 
program after the LPRINT line 
produces the line feed needed. 

It is easy to see that this will 
not work with LLIST or LPRINT 
lines longer than the numtMr of 
characters available on the line. 
To use LLIST you must use the 
manual mode and are limited to 
only the small or large 
characters. Note that the dip 
switch is sampled only at power 
up. This means if you change 
character size with software, 
you must turn the H-14 off and 
on again to get back the auto 
line feed function. If you use 
large characters, this is only a 
minor inconvenience.! 



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Your TRS^Cr- Mod I May Not Bo Tlio Probloml^ 

Normal household and 
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power (ACi can vary as ^' 
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moral Th« TdMQ™ Pow- 
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Power modification stabilizes system voltages al- 
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DMiiM iMk'wtliM lor PrKtsnr A Eipintlon Inttrtin 

(w/parts list & pwr. supp. selection data) $9.95 

Jnl I KH Ht Practtw My 
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selection data) $31.95 

Liwl 2 Kit For PfDcwtor ind EipiMlHi Iniirlin 
(instructions, parts, cables & power supply 

selection data) $49.95 

Send check or money ordet to 

P A L BUSINESS/COMPUTER SYSTEMS 
P.a Box 333. Rimona. Calll. B2065 ^354 

Calitornia Residents p<e>5e add 6% sales ta« 



Hard Copy Printer 
For Your Computer 

COMPLETELY 
REFURBISHED 

Model 33. Friction Feed 
Receive only Table Model, 110 
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MA Loop 

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ELECTRONICS CORP. 

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(201) 863-7916 



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P.O. box 1246. Covino CA 9W22 

Phon* (213) 332-2216 m 966-9666 

k — Visa and Mastercharge accepted — ^ 



DISASSEMBLED HANDBOOK 
FOR TRS-80 

VOLUME I— HO. POSTPAID 

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Advanced av'tcmbly luiyuagccourw—IJ ChafNtts 
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COMMENTS 

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Vol.: 

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CHICATRUG—ship us another canon tia Ah Mail 
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phone <7l6i 753-2654 for COD orders 



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120 • dO Microcomputing, October 1980 



/C^ PROGRAM STORE 



(202) 337-4691 



4 200 Aisconsin AveNA POBox96C9 vVash.nqron DC 20016 



frr 



jism/ 









All programs for TRS-80 
n 6k , Level II coinuter . 



Avalon Hill Game Company has just Intro- 
duced their first five war and strategy 
Eames for the home computer. You pUy 
against the program . Each package 

inctudea instructions and software for the 
TRS-90, APPLE II and PET computers 
having 16k of memory. 

Midway Compaign 

The battle of Midway is recreated with 
you in control of the outnumbered and out- 
ranged U.S. Navy. The Japanese need air 
superiority to win . $14 . 9S 

B-1 Nuclear Bomber 

Pilot your advanced bomber towards the 
target city in the Soviet Union. Avoid the 
MiG fighters and the surface-to-air missies. 
$14.95 

North Atlantic Convoy Raider 

This simulates the Blsmark convoy raid 
of 1941. You control the British Home 
Fleet. $14. BS 

Nuke War 

This nuclear confrontation pits you 
against the computer. You choose either 
massive espionage or military build-up. 
$14.95 

Planet Miners 

One to four players compete against the 
computer staking clalmH in the solar 
system. Watch out for sabotage and claim 
jumping. $14. 9S 

by Robert Lafore from Adventure Inter. 

In these TRS-80 disk programs you 
influence the story by speaking with the 
charactera. Each program seta a fictional 
•cene. Then you start the dialogue with 
the other 
characters . 



Six Micro Stories offers 

introduction. $14.95 



good 



Local Call For Death is a detective story in 
the style of Lord Peter Whimsey. $19.95 

Two Heads of the Coin Is a psychological 
mystery set in the London of Sherlock 
Holmes. The most challenging. $19.95 

Electronic 

Handicapper 

BASKETBALL 

by Sothen, Laurence 1 Gavenda 
from Acorn Software Products 
Baaketball is the first in the Electronic 
Handicapper aeriea from Acorn. It will 
introduce you to the benefits of predicting 
the winners of this season's basketball 
games. This two-tupe package gives you 
power ratings to g^t you started. You keep 
the data tape informed of the current 
week's wins, losses and points. The 
program then calculates a winner and point 
spread for you to use. Last season It was 
used to predict 85% of the winners with a 
64% accuracy with the point spread. 18k 
required. $99.t]0on tape. 



STOCK 
TRADER 



from Galactic Software 

This system is designed for the active 
"trader" and not the long term Investor be- 
cause the system Is technically oriented. It 
tracks issues you select and reflects their 
performance against the overall market . 
There is also a comparison of the issue 
aguinst itself to allow spotting "unusual" 
activity. 

The initial data are from either the 
Standard and Poor Stock Guide or Value 
Line. The dally data of high, low, close 
and volume are Input from the nowapuper. 

The program Is intended to be a guide to 
indications and not as a aole recunintend- 
atlon . 

Tape S89.00 Disk $99.00 

Manual only $20.00 




PINBALL 



by John Allen from Acorn 
Get your flipper fingers ready for action in 
this real-time, machine language game. 
Lots of sound and fleshing graphics. 
There are five speeds so anyone can play. 
This veraion features the dreaded 
"Bermuda Square"! 
Protected tape $14.95 
Protected disk S20.9S 

INVADERS 
FROM SPACE 

by Carl Miller from Acorn 

"Maybe it's too fast!" Perfcrred by sU the 

local arcade addicts, this machine language 

game has great sound. Allen Invasion , 

Invaders and Invaders Plus just can't 

compete . You csn adjust parameters 

Including the speed, if you think it's too 

fast. Only a few heroes will be able to save 

earth . 

Protected tape $14.95 

Protected disk $14-95 



THE EdlPIRE STBIKES! 



L 



from Computer Simulations Company 
The rebellion begins with one base end one 
warship. You take on fighters, conduct 
ground operations and secure planets, 
adding to the number of Rebel bases- Don't 
let any Empire Scoutcraft escape! You are 
the last hc^e. $14.95 



Superscript 

by Richftrd Wilkeu from Acorn 

"Bcripalt" from Radio Shack Is a great progrnm. 
but it lacks some features. Superscript udda 
features to your disk version of "Scrlpalt." Some 
of these features are: 

You can get a directory or kill filet from within 
Superscript. TRSDOS or NEWDOS can read 

Superscript files. You can insert text Into 
unjustified lines during printout. For example. 
inserting a name after "Dear" and before the 
colon. For this purpose a lowercase driver is 
included. 

On printers that can backspace, underlining 
and slaalied zeroes (0] are oplLuns . On Diablu and 
NEC printera one can superscript . jiubscript . 
underline, boldface and select 10/12 pitt-h . ■ 

The keyboard driver Is changed to allow a 
con-eel key repeat which is faster than tapping on 
a key and which does not destroy the video 
display. The initial character sent to the prnter 
is changed from a linefeed to a carriage return to 
empty the buffer. A required space may be 
specified when It is undesirable to place spHceti 
between parts of text when justifying. From the 
keyboard you can also enter special chsrHCtcrs 
such as brackets, braces and uarets. 

Serial and parallel drivers are Included on the 
disk. You can customise these drivers for use 
with other types of letter qusUty printers. The 
serial drivers are included which use the 
ETX/ACK protocol for 1200 baud communications. 
Furthermore, printer drivers can be protected in 
high memory. 

The "L" command used to load a file now 
requires a fllespec to avoid destroying text buffer 
If the question mark Is omlttsd from the "7L" 
command. 

On disk for $39.95 

STUCTURED 

BASIC 

TRANSLATOR 

by Gene Bellinger from Acorn 

Try structured programming. You can write pro- 
grama using PROCEDURES. CALLS. CASE 
-CALLS, IF-THEN-ELSE. WHILE and UNTIL. 
Once written. SBT will quickly translate the 
structured code into an efficient BASIC program. 
Speeds Up program development and document- 
ation. The program is both fast (a 20k UAolC 
program in leas than 4 minuses) and compact. 
RequircL: 32k and one disk drive. Suppbad on 
disk for $29.95 
□ nij(in-.K:t)tir;nri,Ju;;uuujL,..ULjJUt.i-uuuui — jljjuui 



^7n\ 



THE PROGFW! STORE 

4200 Wisconsin Ave NW 
P.O. Box 9609 Deot. K 4 
Washington DC 20016 



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I TO ORDER 
TOLL FREE 
800-424-2738 

§For prograri information call 
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a 
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CONSTRUCTION 



A sad tale of one user's efforts at tiomebrew interfacing. 



Caveat Emptor 



M. Parrls 

646 Island Park Drive 
Ottawa, Ontario 
Canada K1Y0B7 



When I bought a TRS-80 it 
was with the expectation 
of using it with a hard copy 
device of some kind, and. until 
line-printer prices became more 
reasonable, this was almost cer- 
tainly going to be the beat up 
Olivetti terminal I use— 110 
baud, RS232 compatible. 

However, I didn't want to elim- 
inate the option of eventual 
higher printing rates, so I looked 
around for some type of general 
purpose I/O interface. Radio 
Shack's RS232 board together 
with the necessary expansion 
interface cost a minimum of 
$400. On the other hand, with 
some pain, I might be able to 
design and build an I/O interface 
for about $35. 

Between these two extremes, 
the best bet appeared to t>e the 
TR&80 Serial I/O board kit of- 
fered by Electronic Systems for 
$59.95 (connecting cable $19.95 
extra), advertised with variable 
baud rate, variable bit count and 
parity and LPRINT, LUST and 
BASIC Input. My estimate of $35 
was based on Electronic Sys- 
tems' parts list and current cata- 
log prices, but the thought of 
hours of designing and fabricat- 



ing a board was enough to per- 
suade me to try the kit. 

Still Waiting 

I sent away for the kit and 
waited over seven weeks for its 
arrival. Unpacking it, I was con- 
cerned that Electronic Systems 
had not taken any antistatic pre- 
cautions. The components, jum- 
bled together in a polyethylene 
bag. might have zapped some of 
the low power logic, diode- 
protected or not. Several of the 
I.e. and socket pins were bent 
as a result of this packaging, 
and there was no component 
list (other than that appearing in 
the catalog). 

Documentation consisted of 
a circuit diagram with no com- 
ponent values marked, a compo- 
nent placement diagram and 
two short driver routine listings. 
together with a note concerning 
baud rate, parity, data and stop 
bits selection via onboard dip- 
switches. 

Ordinarily, the lack of compo- 
nent values wouldn't matter, If 
an accurate component place- 
ment diagram were included. 
However, in this case there was 
a discrepancy between the 
parts supplied and the parts 
necessary to assemble the 
board as per diagram. This par- 
ticular hurdle was crossed by 
means of a few educated 
guesses and the purchase of 
one extra resistor. 1 did write to 
Electronics Systems by the way, 
enclosing an S.A.S.E. too, but 
didn't get any clarification. 



There was need for some cau- 
tion in attaching the 40-con- 
ductor cable and its socket. The 
pin numbers were marked on the 
board in such a way that they 
appeared to reference the ex- 
pansion port connector, in 
which case I might have easily 
connected the cable upside 
down. It's advisable to make cer- 
tain (and mark the orientation) 
of cable connectors, board and 
TRS-80 expansion port before 
switching on the soldering iron! 

The remainder of the assem- 
bly was easy. I'd decided that I 
might eventually want to intro- 
duce some subtleties into the 
DART'S handshake, so I rein- 
stated the switching arrange- 
ment which Electronic Systems 
had apparently removed In this 
revised version of the I/O board. 



^ 



P^ 



— O- 



i>- 



i»- 



^ 



This involved mounting a dip- 
switch (the board was already 
drilled for It anyway) and cutting 
the foil at the five places where 
the switch elements had been 
strapped closed. Functionally. 
the circuit Is unaltered provided 
the switches are closed. 

No Reply 

Assembly complete, two 
Clock adjustments had to be 
made for the baud rates. The 110 
baud adjustment (1760 hz) was 
an easy matter, but the 150-2400 
baud clock (38.4 khz) proved In- 
tractable and the trouble was 
eventually traced to a faulty 
gate in a CD4096— possibly 
static damaged. 

Once again I wrote to Elec- 
tronic Systems, suggesting they 
might like to send a replace- 




Figure 1. 



122 • 80 Microcomputing, October 1980 



TO DATA BU5 



Ul 



■^ 




1^ 



Figure 2. 



that it doesn't insert into the 
socket, which sets A4 perma- 
nently high In the board ad- 
dress. A twtter method is to use 
a two pole, two way nonshortlng 
Switch to preserve compatibility 
with Electronic Systems' I/O 
routines. 

Diagram Discrepancy 

Fig. 2 shows the other major 

circuit diagram discrepancy; 
neither U2 pin 22 (TBE) or U5 pin 
2 is connected to U2 pin 30, but 



they are connected together. 
The UART status Is detected via 
U2 pins 31 and 28 only (D3 and 
D5), so that the board can't be 
used with the TRS-80 in-ROM 
line printer driver routine 
without some receding of its 
status. 

In Fig. 3 I've shown the 
changes I made, in addition to 
the board address change of 
course, in order to use in-ROM 
LLIST, LLPRINT without custom 
written software. 



ment— to date, though, I've had 
no reply! 

In any event, t replaced the 
CD4096, successfully adjusted 
the clock and burned in the 
board tor a few hours. The board 
required about 130 mA, +5V. 
and 50 mA, - 12 V. This would 
have been nice to know before- 
hand, but it was about what I'd 
expected and I'd already made 
the power supply anyway! 

By this time I was more than a 
little concerned at the poor 
documentation supplied by 
Electronic Systems and thought 
it advisable to read over the rou- 
tines supplied, one for LLIST, 
LPRINT, the other tor BASIC in- 
put. Disassembly of the pro- 
grams showed that the board's 
address was treated as 37FB 
hex. Fig. 1 shows the address 
decoding logic In the circuit dia- 
gram which was supplied, and 
the address is clearly 37E8 hex, 
as. after all. it should be for the 
line printer driver routine In 



ROM. 

But why capriciously use cus- 
tom written I/O routines when 
there's an adequate one already 
in ROM? 

I reckoned I should check the 
whole board against the circuit 
diagram. Among the several dis- 
crepancies revealed, which 
would have made troubleshoot- 
ing from the diagram difficult or 
impossible, the most important 
was that A4 was not inverted. Ul 
was simply bypassed at pins 12 
and 13 as indicated in Fig. 1 . The 
board address was, after all, 
37F8 hex and not 37E8 hex, mak- 
ing it Impossible to use the 
board without Electronic Sys- 
tems' routine. 

The hardware fixup is easy 
enough. Cutting out the foil by- 
pass and reconnecting Ul pin 12 
to U4 pin 6, the board address is 
restored to 37E8 hex. As a tem- 
porary, but less satisfactory ex- 
pedient, U4 pin 6 can be isolated 
by bending the I.C. pin out so 







00100 


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Listing 1. 





EDUCATIONAL 

SOFTWARE 

TRS-80* 

80 + Programs In: 



ELEMiNTARY 

SCIENCE 

GEOCRArHY 

ECONOMICS 

FOREIGN LANG. 

GAMES 



MATH 
BIOLOGY 
HISTORY 
ACCOUNTING 
BUSINESS ED. 
FARM RECORDS 



rrograms vc grouped Into packAges of 
4 to 7 proRrAmt priced at SI4.9S per 
package Including shipping and han- 
dling.' Available on disk or tape. 

Write for catalog: ^ as 

MKRO LEARNINGWARE, BOX 2 1 34, 
I. MANKATOMN 56O01, 507-62 S-2Z0! 
"TRS'BO Is ■ rtgistsfMl Iradcmart ol TANDY CORP 



Football Pool Program 

Use you' TRS-80 dis* systefn Run voi" iwoektv o">ce 
tootboll pool iwrth Itits menu duven program This pro 
gram irKludes a p'eprog'ammed 1990 NFL looiball 
schedule Oo'ws mctude Monday n.gtii lootbsll, point 
spreads, c'ep'ogfanimed NFL games or your own col- 
lege seleclions Program auiomaiically compules wm 
nets J 35 00 Ircluding d>sk 

Truss Industry Software 

Requires 32k one disk drive, and ofnler Comc'e'e 

Cuning bill package includes special p<ogram Casseiie 
Svsiems alia available Software computes all truss 
configurations with many including material costs 
System currently m use t>v mafor truss manufacturer 
call or write for details 

CmA pngmtt mMMtMt from.- 

DATA TRUSS. INC 

PC Bon 14542 

Gainesville, Florida 32604 

1904) 372-1560 



t^453 



.- < A > ^ 



ENGINEERING SOFTWARE 

Ni^* l((im SUPERIOR 
lor Situctuta! and Design Engineets' 

STRUCTURAL NUTRU AMLTSIS PROGRAM Cdii:uUles mo 
^erns snea'i lOi'Mroldlioni-'yJd-SDUct^enK dud aiui 'orces i'^ 
d-i membrrs ol a IMO OirnensiO'UI Irame Structural jiUlySiS irtQui 
nl lontcooidindles cross 4«non pi open i« '0' McniiemOei ii« 
an, numuer ol unilnim Di poinl loaill on wch rnemDei Mmirnum 
iHK Leuei II Onear.C *9.9S 

SECTION PROPERTIES PROGRAM Computes sei.M}i piopfrlie^ 
• f rMpinrnt^ ol inrrtu ^cliunmoOuiu^iIOP boMorn ipfl nqtii^ 
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Readier Service— see page 226 



80 Microcomputing, October 1980 • 123 



for the TPS-60 from Micro -IVIega 



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• 29 



rV1ict-o-IVlegaP.O.Box6aB5AHingt:on,\;b 22S06 







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00160 


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00300 




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00380 




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LD rtr( INOUT) 


(LOCK AT UART 


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Listing 2. 





Hold it though! Even if these 
amendments are applied, there 
may yet be a problem. The in- 
ROM line printer driver routine 
assumes you have a line printer 
with auto line feed! If a line feed 
character (OA hex) is encoun- 
tered, it's replaced by a trans- 
parent null character (00 hex). 
(See the TRS-BO BASIC II ROM 



39C-3C1 hex (924-961 decimal.) 
Unless your hard copy device is 
equipped with auto line feed or 
your serial i/0 board Is designed 
to deal with the problem you're 
out of luck! 

Many other purchasers of 
Electronic Systems' TRS-80 Se- 
rial I/O Interface must have en- 
countered these problems. To 



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32670 


2 Ff IKF 1 6422. 1 511 :PD.\F 16423. 127 




3 F0RI^32670Ta32767;READA:f DKEI.AINEXT 




1 DATAt21.11}.1r40.1}6.2:i4>llr40>IO 




r, DATA254.l2.32.2i!.l/5.221.1D2r3 




;■ DATA40r22.221.12fi.3r221.150f4 




7 DAFA/l r 205. 249 r 127. 32. 2S1. 62. 10 




3 DAT A50 i 243. 55. t Hi .244. 79.24 t 34 




9 DATA245.205.24f). 12 7.33.251 .241 .50 




10 DATft248.5^.254.l3.192.203..'!4B.127 




11 DA FA.!2.; 01.62.10.50.248.35.221 




1? DATA52f4.?21 t 126.4.221.190.3 




13 DATA 121, 19.1.205.248. 127. 32. 251.63 




14 D-'.T A 10. 50 .248. 55. 12 1.22 1.54. 4 




15 DATA0.201 .50.240.55.330.36.254 




16 IiAlA36i201 




Listing 3. 





124 • 80 Microcomputing, October 1980 



recap: I had a serial I/O interlace 
that worked splendidly provided 
that I could use custom-written 
driver routines or that it could be 
made compatible with the 
TRS-80 ROM or Radio Shack 
software; but only if I had an 
auto line feed printer, which I 
didn't. 

Listing 1 shows minimum 
changes which must be made to 
Radio Shack's Ed iter/ Assembler 
program in order to make it di- 
rectly compatible with Electron- 
ic Systems' TRS-80 Serial I/O In- 
terface. Simply load the object 
tape of this routine after the 
EDTASM tape and run the pro- 
gram at 18058 decimal. 

Listing 2 shows a comprehen- 



sive line printer routine which 
completely replaces the In-ROM 
routines for LLIST, LPRINT more 
effectively than the (much 
shorter) routines Electronics 
Systems provided. 

Listing 3 shows a BASIC 
loader pfogram, the equivalent 
of Listing 2. 

Cortcluakxi 

My final verdict is that this se- 
rial I/O board will — just tiare- 
ly— do what the manufacturers 
claim for IL Within these limits It 
works well, and can be made to 
work better. The design, how- 
ever, was badly thought out and 
some customers might have 
trouble. ■ 



TO DITA Bus 









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rHiMtaan^y 



WHAT IS "THE PATCH"? 



We Biked ounelvw; WHY should our 
computer be as bUnd as everybody else's? 
Why not unlock the unused and wwted abili- 
ties available within each and every THS-80 
Model 1. These abilities allow the displav to 
he dressed up and the computer to he effec- 
tively easier to use. 

Now we have developed the means for get- 
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know you need it loo. With "THE PATCH", 
a new RBe of simplicity and convenience hai 
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don't kid younelf, you need the enhance- 
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* Does you keyboard bounce? 

Some say, "I have a software fix for 
thatl" 

* Does your display still have that stand- 
ard, dull, unaerline cursor? 

Some brag, "We have a program w4iicfa 
will Kive you a Block cursor, and it even 
blinks!!" 

* Does your Dualcaie printer make you 
look foolish when you tell It to print lower- 
case because you could only see UPFERcaie 
on the display? 



Most cry, "We have a kit you can In- 
stall . . . and a program lo run it!!!" 

* Don't you have better uses (or protected 
memory than to waste it on programs which 
are TOTALLY UNNECESSARY? 

You sob, "I need all those advantages but 
they are )usl too much trouble lo have all at 
once so I'll make do with what I have. 

FORGET ALL THAT , . . moke your 
life easier 

What we are trying to tell you is: 

1. You CAN have Keyboard debounce if 
you need if! 

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4. You CAN have typewriter style key- 
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5. You CAN have faster cassette data 
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faster! 

6. You CAN have even more features as 
we make them available. 



All this from THE INSTANT you power 
up your computer, without making your 
other programs unusable because some un- 
necessary driver program is eating that mem- 
iir>-. 

■THE PATCH" is not a BOM. "THE 

PATCH' is not H PROM. "THE PATCH" 
is a microprocessor which modificK thr 
Level II ROM lo repair changes made 
by TANDY when they designed your compii- 
ti-r. TTiis itate-of-the-art technology make« 
these changes possible without using ANY 
of your computer's memor>-. That means, 
any prosram you use on your computer 
now, will still work after you install "THE 
PATCH", including word processors. 

"THE PATCH" fit( easily into the Level 
II ROM sockets inside your computer, no 
cables or switches to install. 

Sound too good to be true?? Call us. Tell 
us your innermost fears. Lei us answer your 
questions. Do not cheat yourself oul of using 
ALL of your computer's abilities ALL of 
the time. 



THf PATCH 16-3 97 plm S? SO ship and tianO 
Optionv Block Cursor N. C Drbouncp N/C 

C.tsiPtle liic S10 00 
ViSli 0( Mjstc C.ml .icci'ptcO 



Jus ss ; i>',i : 



H..\ S'll. i 



'Rmt^r S»rvic»—sa9 pag* 226 



W Microcomputing, October 19^ • 125 



THE ORIGINAL MAGAZINE FOR 
OWNERS OF THE TRS-80 "* MICROCOMPUTER 



FOR TRS-M - 



OWNFRS 



CQiriPUTHOMlCS 

MONTHLY NEWSMAGAZINE 

Practical Support For Model I & II 



MONTHLV 

NEWSMAGAZINE 

FOR TRS-«0 ■ 

OWNERS 



• PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS 

• BUSINESS 

• GAMBLING • GAMES 

• EDUCATION 

• PERSONAL FINANCE 

• BEGINNER'S CORNER 

• NEW PRODUCTS 

• SOFTWARE EXCHANGE 

• MARKET PLACE 

• QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 

• PROGRAM PRINTOUTS 
AND MORE 



FRtt 



PROGRAMS AND ARTICLES PUBI ISHED rN OlIR FIRST 12 ISSUES 
INCl HDF THE FOLI OWING 

" A rOMPl FTF. INCOME TAX PROGRAM (l ONG AND SHORT FORM i 

• INVKNTORY CONTROL 

• STO<K MARKET ANAl YSIS 

• WORD PROCESSINt; PROGRAM (FOR EHSK OR CASJ^^TTEl 

• I nWP R CASF MOniFICATION FOR YOUR VIDFO MONITOR OR PRINTFR 

• PAYKOII (FFDEKAl lAX WITHHOl DING PROGRAMi 

• EXTEND If. DIGIT ACCURACY TO TRS wr FUNCTiONS (SUCH AS ' 
SQUARE H(K)IS AN[) I RIG( )NOME IKIC FUNCTlONSl 

• NEW DISK DRIVES I OR YOUR ERSW 

• PRIMER OPTIONS AVAII AKl F FOR Y(K]R TRS Hn'" 

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• COMPLETE MAII ING LIST F'R'K-.RAMS (BOTH FOR DISK OR CASSFTTF 
SFQOFNriAL AND RANDOM AtXFSSi 

• RANDOM SAMPI ING"*BAR GRAPH 

• fHECKHOOK MAINTINANCI PROGRAM 

• I F\'F I [| UPDATES'**! EVEI II INDEX 

• fHl DII UARD IMOKMAIION STORAGl I II I 

" KK.INNERS (.UIDf K i MAt MINE I ANGUAC^E AND ASSFMhl Y 
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SIAIISTICAI ANDMATHEMATICAI l'RO(;RAMS (ROTH 
Fl EMENIAHV AND ADVANCED^ AND 



^ WORD PROCESSING PROGRAM (Cass^Ue or tiisk) fnr wrrtinq Ictipfti, tcxi, nuilinq lisfs. etc , wrlti fach new siiKsrnptions <« fpti*nAiaI 
^y» LtVEL 11 RAM TEST ((tihspltr or Disk) Ch.'i ks i.nxliim .m t fS^ intTwiry In t-nsut.' (Iwl <»ll iTH-mory localions are u'otkinq propfil', 

DATA MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (Casst-ltp nr Disk) C..mp(ft.- I^l.' md.ia.j^'nvnl hir i,oi,r TRS HO'" W^W^ ^ 



CLEANUP (CrisspriF or Disk) E.isl .« nun Mfl/i- (l.irnc 

ADVENTURh (Cd-tsptrr or Disk) AHvcriHirtr «) by Sioti Ad^ms (From AdvcniiirpUrKl Internal lonal) 



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SEND FOR OUR NEW 4H PAGE SOFTWARE CATALOG. (INCl UDING LISTINGS OF HI JNDREDS OF TRS 80- raOGRAMS AVAILABLE ON 
CASSETTE AND tMSKETTEt $2 00 OR FREE WITH EACH SU [ASCRIPTIONS OR SAMPLE ISSUE 



5 



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SPRING VALLEY, NEW YORK 10977 

ONE YEAH SUBSCRIPTION 124 
TWO YEAR SUBSCRIPTION $48 
SAMPLE OF LATEST ISSUE % 4 



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START MY SUBSCRIPTION WITH ISSUE 

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ADD M YFAR (CANADA. MEXICO) - ADD )IZ YEAR AIR MAIL - OUTSIDE OF IJ S A . CANADA ft MEXICO ' 



126 • 80 Microcomputing. October 1980 



CQIYIPUTHQMICS 



N 
C. 



• • • EVERYTHING FOR YOUR TRS-80 • • • 

IKS W) Ik II [rHilcniiirk iif ih<- Kiiitlii Stiix k nivlNJnii i>l liuxlv CiiriHir.iilnii 

* All Orders processed within 24-Hours 

* 30-Dav Money Back Guarantee on all Saflware (less a $3 penalty, for handling) 

* lO-Doy Money Back Guarantee on Disk Drives and Printers PLUS /20-Dui.s hrt-e Sen k p 



LEARNING LEVEL II By David Lien 

The Original Aulfior Ol The Level Manual 

A SiPp By Step approach lo Learning Level M 

especially qeareirl lo new TRS-80"" 0*i"f'-t 

S1SH 



TNS-W" DISK AND OTHER MYSTERIES 

Over '00 pages of inoespenSiDle niormalion toi 

aisk owners Learn to recover jnlornialion from 

bat) disks, ho* to make Basic programs unlislaDle 

and 12 more chapters n( never published tips anO 

intormalion Written Dy H C Pennington 

ifor alt Disk OwnefSI t32.50 



NEW SBSO BUSINESS SYSTEM FOR MODEL I 
OR MODEL II - IN STOCK 

- Genera; L odqer 

- Accounis Receivahli" 

- Accounts Payable 

- Payroll 

- Inventory Control *ilh Invoicing 

Each module can be operated individually or ,is a 

cou'dmaied SYSTEM. Tyfn-Key error catch. nq 

operation Irn beginners 

Complete manual ana documentation 

accompany each program 

Minimum System requirements ?-DiS«i Drives 

'or Model I l-Disli Drive lor Mode* tl 

Each module (an be formatted to span a at a 

on up to 4-Dish Drives 

Free 30-Day telephone ( onsultalion 

Call for complete speci'icalions 

Model I Version S12S.0a Per Module 

S495 00 Per System 
Model II Version fZH.OQ Per Moduli? 

SMS.DO Per System 



DATA MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 

- DMS replace inden cards or any data requiring 
lung hsls ot information 
TBS In-Memory tnlormation System 
iFor Cassetle Systems^ S39.9S 

TBS Disk Data Manager (Requires : or more disk 
d'lves) Set up fast random access files 'n 
minutes Stores up to 320K o' inlormalion on 4 
Drives Up to 10 fields and 255 Characters per 
record Supports upper and lower case RS-232or 
TRS ?32 Features complete editing $41. SO 

Personal Software CCA Data Management 
S/Slom Completely user oriented menu drive 
130 page Step Hy Step Mangsi Capaoie oi 
inventory control sorting data reporting data m 
nearly any lorm i lor reports and mailing labelsi 
Sorts dita by up to 10 fie'ds frir ;ip code Balance 
due geographic location or whatever Prints 
rnpofts with subtolals and totals automatically 
calr:ula1ed Fast random access ITS. 00 



FROM RACET COMPUTES 
REMCDEL-PROLOAD ■ Rpnumbers program 
lini-s ( ombines programs Trie only renumbfr 
pri.igram trial will reniirnbt-' tie middle of a 
program Specify 16H 32K ..ti 4BK Works with 
Cassette or Dis« (34 K 

GSF - Use in your Basic Programs loi Instant 
Sorting (will sort 1000 Hems m 9s#cDndsi Other 
commands include Compress and Uncompress 
Dala Duplicate Memorv Display Screen Controls 
and Fast Graphic Controls S34.95 

I For Cassette of Disli SOecily 16K 32K or 4flt<i 
D050RT - All G S F commands plus sp^i m 
MiiMirip Disk Sorting Routines S34.95 

iSpecifv 3?K or 48K | 

INFINITE BASIC - Adds "^0 commands to yoi-r 
TRS-8(]- includinq InstanI Sort Matn. 
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Justification Siring Cenlering Simultaneous 
Eguatiohs. Upper and Lower Case Reverse and 
more [For Cassette or Disk' 149.95 

INFINITE BUSINESS {FtequKes Intmite Basic) 
Eliminate Roun,i-"ff error 127 Digit Calculation 
Accurst, Insert New Elements in Sorted Arrays 
Aulomalic Page Headings Footings and 
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more (For Cassette or Disk I 129.95 

COPSVS - Copy Machine Languaq.^ F'roiiMrns 
(For Casseltp Onlyl 114.95 

DSM iDisk Sort Mergei J75 00 



FROM SMALL SYSTEM SOFTWARE 

RSM-2 Machine Langjaqe Mon-t^r 126.95 

RSM-2D Disk Vciiion of HSM 2 129 95 

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AIR RAID - The ullimale TRS-80'" game convi'ils 
your TRS-SO" into a real lime Shooting gaiii'iy 

S14 95 

BARRICADE - A fast pong style game 114 9S 
CPM - 'For Dis" Unlyl t150.00 

TRS-332 INTERFACE - Interface with So'lwar.^ 
driver RS-232 printers to yOur TRS-BO"" I49.9S 
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commands to your TRS flO" 114.95 

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PENMOD- Uselhi'Eipf tni (>.-.i-il wmi flS sluwcr 
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SO N. PASCACK ROAD 
SPRING VALLEY. NEW YORK 10977 

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— ^^ ^ , HOUR 
l0^24 ORDER 
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Order By Phone Or Mail 
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CHECKBOOK It if or Cassette or Disk) S39.tS 

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The TRS 8')' version updated for the TRS 80" 

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FOR MOD-II OWNERS 



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GSF SORT ROUTINE $50.00 

CP/M $170.00 
PEACHTREE BUSINESS 

SOFTWARE Call 

WORD STAR $495.00 



■ ReaOer Seni-ce— see page 226 



80 Microcomputing. October 1980 • 127 



CQHIPIJTHQWICS 



FOR YOUR TRS-80 ••• 



TRH-WI !■ a irBflrinark of thr Radlii Shark Olvlalon i>f Tiinrly Coriioraiinn 




COORDINATED BUSINESS SYSTEMS 



SMALL BUSINESS 
SYSTEMS GROUP 



• EACH MODULE CAhJ BE OPERATED INDrVIDUALLY OR AS A COORDINATED SYSTEM. 

• TURN-KEY ERROR CATCHING OPERATION FOR BEGINNERS 

• FREE 30-DAY TELEPHONE CONSULTATION WITH SBSG 

• EACH MODULE CAN BE FORMATTED TO SPAN DATA ON UPTO 4 DISK DRIVES 

• COMPLETE MANUAL AND DOCUMENTATION ACCOMPANY EACH MANUAL 

■ MINIMUM SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS - 2 DISK DRIVES FOR MODEL I 1-DISK DRIVE FOR MODEL II 



ACCOUNTS PAYABLE 

The accounts payable system receives data concerning purchases trom 
suppliers and produces checks in payment ot outstanding invoices In 
addition, it produces cash management reports This systern aids in light 
financial control over all cash disbursements ot the business Several 
reports are available and supply information needed for the analysis o1 
payments, expenses, purchases and cash requirements Alt A/P data feeds 
General Ledger so that data is entered into the system |ust once These 
programs were developed 5 years ago (or the Wang micro-computer and 
have been tested in rnany environments since then The package has been 
convened to Ihe TRS-BO™ and is now a well documenied, on-line, inter- 
active micro-computer system with the capabilities o' (or exceeding many 
larger systems 



CAPABILITIES 



ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE 

The Objective of a computerized A/R system is to prepare accurate and 
timeley monthly statsrrents to credit customers MBnagemenl can gener- 
ate information required to control the amount of credit extended and the 
collection of money owed in order to maximize profitable credit sales 
while minimizing losses from bad debts The programs composing this 
system were developed 5 years ago. especially for small businesses usmg 
the Wang Microcomputer They have been tested in many environments 
since then Each module can be used stand alone or can feed General 
Ledger for a fully integrated system 



PAYROLL 

Payroll Invoices many complex calculations and the production of reports 
and documents, many of which are required by government agencies IKS 
an ideal candidate for the computer With this Payroll system in-house. 
you can promptly and accurately pay your employees and generate 
accruale documents/reports to management, employees, and appropriate 
government agencies concerning earnings, taxes, and other deductions 
The package has been converted to the TRS-BO" and is now a well 
documented, on-line, interactive micro-computer system v»ilh the capa- 
bilities of (or exceeding) many larger systems 

CAPABILITIES: 

* performs all necessary payroll tasks including 

• file maintenance, pay data entry and verification 

• computation of pay and deduction amounts 

• printing ot reports and checks 

* can handle salaried ar>d tiourty employees 

* employees can recetve 

• hourly or salary wage 

• vacation pay 

• holiday pay 

• piecework pay 

• overtime pay 

(Continued on next p»ge) 



* menu driven easy to use, full screen prompting and cursor control 

* invoice oriented, everything revolves around the invoice, handles new 
invoice or credit memo or debit memo 

« invoice inlormalion recorded, invoice C, description, buyer, check 
register ■. invoice date, age date, amount ot invoice, discount (in %), 
freighi. tax (S). total payable 

* transaction print and file maintenance procedures insure accuracy 

* flexible check calculation procedure; allows checks lo be calculated for a 
set of vendors - or - for specific vendors 

* program prints your checks, contiguous computer checks with your 
company letterhead can be purchased from SBSG 

* reports include (samples on back). 

• open Item listing, closed item listing - both detail and summary 

• debit memo listmg/credit memo listing 

• aging 

• check register report (to give an audit trail ot checks printed) 

• vendor listing and vendor activity (activity of the whole year) 

* fully linked to GENERAL LEDGER, each invoice can be distributed to as 
many as five (5) different GL accounts: sysem automatically posts to cash 
and A/P accounts 



CAPABILITIES 



* menu driven; easy to use. full screen prompting and cursor control 

* invoice oriented, invoices can be entered before ready for billing, when 
ready tor billing, after billing or after paid 

* allows entry of new invoice, credit memo, debit memo, or change/delete 
invoice 

* allows for progress payment 

* transaction information includes; 

• type of A/R transaction 

• customer P.O » 

• description ot P.O 

• billing date 

• general ledger account number 

• invoice amount 

• shipping /transportation charges 

• tax charges 

• payment 

• progress payment information 

■ transaction print and file maintenance procedures insure accuracy 

* customer statements printed; computer stalemenia with your company 
letterhead can be purchased from SBSG 

* reports include: (samples on back) 

• listing of invoices not yet billed 

• open Items (unpaid invoices) 

• closed Items (paid invoices) 
" aging 

* fully linked to General Ledger, will post lo applicable accounts; debiU A/R. 
credits account you Specify 



128 • W Microcomputing. October 1980 



{PAYROLL CAPABILITIES CONTINUED) 

* employees can be paid using anycofnbinaiionofqay lypes (except, hourly 
cannol receive salary & salary cannot receive hourly) 

* special non-taxablp or taxable lumpsums can be paid regularly or one time 
(bonus, reimbursements etcl 

* healtti a welfare deductions can be automatically cstcuIMm) for each 
employee 

« earnings-to-date are accumulated and added to permanent records taxes 
are computed and deducted US income lax. Social Security tax. state 
income tax, olber deductions (regular or one time) 

* paychecks are printed computer checks with your company letterhead 
can be purchased from SBSG 

* calculations are accumulated tor. employee pay history. 941A report. W-2 
report, insurance report, absentee report 

* III My linked to General Ledger Eachemployees payroll information can be 
distributed to as many as (12) twelve diflerenl GL accounts, system 
autnmalically posts to cash account 



INVENTORY/CONTROL INVOICING 

• OVER 1000 ITEMS ON MODEL I 

• OVER 3000 ITEMS ON MODEL It 

• LOW STOCK ALARM 

■ INVOiniNG DEDUCTS FROM INVENTORY 

• COMPLETE INVENTORY REPORTS 

• REORDER POINT REPORT 

• OUICK ITEM ACCESS 



CLIENT BILLING. STOCK CONTROL DENTAL BILLING. COMMODITIES 
Medicare Medicaid billing also available 



MODEL I 
MODEL II 



$125 Per Module 
$495 Complete System 
$225 Per Module 
$995 Complete System 



WE ARE THE ONLY SOFTWARE COMPANY THAT OFFERS A REFUND 
WITHIN 30 DAYS ON ALL SOFTWARE (H 4 E COMPUTRONICS 
MONTHLY NEWSMAGAZINE SUBSCRIBERS ONLY) . WE DO 
CHARGE A S3 PENALTY TO COVER POSTAGE AND HANDLING 



ly.'- 



GENERAL LEDGER 

The General Ledger accounting syslem consolidates financial data from 
other accounting subsystems (A R. A P Payroll, direci postmgl in an 
accurate and timely manner Ma)or reports include the Income Slalement 
and Balance Sheet and a ■special" report designed by management The 
beauty of this General Ledger system is that il is completely user lormatted 
You customize' the account numbers, descriptions, and report formats to 
suit your particular business requirements These programs were de- 
veloped 5 years ago for the Wang micro-computer and have been tested in 
many environments since then The package has been converted to the 
TRS-80'" and is njw a well documented, on-line, interactive micro- 
computer system with the capabilities ol (or exceedmg) many larger 
systems 



CAPABILITIES 

* more than 200 chart of accounts can be handled 

* account numl>er structure is user defined and controlled 

* more than 1.750 transactions may be entered via 

• direct posting, done by hand validated aoamsi the account file 
before acceptance 

• external posting generated by A R A P. Payroll or any other user 
source 

* data IS maintained and reported by 

• month 
■ quarter 

• year 

• previous three quarters 

* reports (samples on back) include 

• trial balances 

• income statement 

• balance sheet 

• special accounts reports and more 

* user formats reports with tt>e loilowing desigried as you wisti 

• titles 

• headings 

• account numbers 

• descriptions 

• Subtotals 

• totals 

• skip lines 

• skip pages 

* up to eight levels of totals - fully user designated 

* menu driven, easy to use lull screen prompting and cursor control 



■CQrnRJTHQI^lCS 



H N. PASCACK ROAD 
SPflING VALLEY, NEW YORK 10977 




HOUR 
24 ORDER 

LINE 
(914) 425-1535 




PLEASE SEND ME: 

MODEL I S125 PER MODULE _ 

$495 COMPLETE SYSTEM _ 

MODEL II S225 PER MODULE ._ - 

$995 COMPLETE SYSTEM 



NEW TOLL-FREE 

ORDER LINE 

(OUTSIDE OF NY. STATE) 

(800)431-2818 



CREDIT CARD NUMBER 
SIGNATURE _ 

NAME 

ADDRESS _^__ 



EXP DATE. 



CITY 



STATE 



^IP- 



AOOS«.VE*n ICANAO* MERlCO) U>0 fl? Y£*R AIR UAtL OuTSiOf Or u S A CANAO* A MEMICO ■" 



'AvMllvf Service— »« fM9» !!6 



80 Microcomputing. October 1980 • 129 



H 



CQIYIPLJTHQWICS 



c. 



• •• EVERYTHING FOR YOUR TRS-80 ••• 

TR.S-M) Is ■ irodcmHrk of ihr Raclln Shark Dlvlnlon of Tandy Curporailiin 



loo ^^^l i MASTER PAC 100 

FOR YOUR TRS-80" LEVEL U MICROCOMPUTER 

ALL ON CASSETTE OR DISKETTE 



BUSINESS AND PERSONAL FINANCE 
CHECKBOOK MAINTENANCE 
TIME FOR MONEY TO DOUBLE 
FEDERAL FICA & WITHHOLDtNG TAX 
COMPUTATIONS 

HOME BUDGET ANALYSIS _ — 

ANNUITY COMPUTATION ..aIWCaS 

UNIT PRICING ftljSl'*'"^ 

7 CHANGE FROM PURCHASE " 

8 NEBS CHECK PRINTER 

9 DAYS BETWEEN DATES 

10 MORTGAGE AMORTIZATION TABLE 

11 INVENTORY CONTROL 

12 PORTFOLIO VALUE COMPUTATIONS 

13 VALUE OF A SHARE OF STOCK 

14 SALES RECORD KEEPING SYSTEM 

15 FUTURE VALUE OF AN INVESTMENT 

16 EFFECTIVE INTEREST RATE (LOAN) 

17 PRESENT VALUE OF A FUTURE AMOUNT 
18. RATE OF RETURN VARIABLE INFLOW 

19 RATE OF RETURN CONSTANT INFLOW 

20 REGULAR WITHDRAWAL FROM INVESTMENT 

21 STRAIGHT LINE DEPRECIATION 

22 SUM OF DIGITS DEPRECIATION 

23 DECLINING BALANCE DEPRECIATION 

24 BREAK EVEN ANALYSIS 

25 SALVAGE VALUE OF INVESTMENT 

26 PAYMENT ON A LOAN 

27 FUTURE SALES PROJECTIONS 

28 CREDIT CARD FILE 

29 ECONOMIC ORDER QUANTITY lEOQ) 
INVENTORY MODEL 

30 VALUE OF HOUSE CONTENTS 

31 TEXT EDITOR 

32 MONTHLY CALENDAR 

33 DAY OF WEEK 

34 CASH FLOW VS DEPRECIATION 

35 COMPLETE MAIL SYSTEM 
36. INTEREST RATE ON A LEASE 






TlSTlC* 



STATISTICS AND MATHEMATICS 

37 RANDOM SAMPLE SELECTION 

38 ANGLO METIC CONVERSION 

39 MEAN, STANDARD DEVIATION. 
MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM 

40 SIMPLE LINEAR REGRESSION 

41 MULTIPLE REGRESSION ANALYSIS 

42 GEOMETRIC REGRESSION 

43 EXPONENTIAL REGRESSION 

44 SIMPLE MOVING AVERAGE 

45 SIMPLE T TEST ^m* ^' 

46 CHI SQUARE TEST S » ** 

47 NORMAl PROBARILITIF-S 

48 BINOMIAL PROBABILITY 

49 POISSON PROBABILITY 

50 MATRIX ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION 

51 MATRIX TRANSPOSE 

52 MATRIX INVERSE 

53 MATRIX MULTIPLICATION 

54 SOLUTION OF SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 

55 QUADRATIC FORMUI A 

56 LINEAR EQUATION SOLUTIONS 

57 ROOT HALF INTERVAL SEARCH 

58 ROOTS OF POLYNOMIALS 

59 ROOTS NEWTONS METHODS 

60 PRIME FACTORS OF INTEGER 

61 LEAST COMMON DENOMINATOR 

62 RADIAN DK.KFf CONVERSION 

63 NUMERICAL INTK iHATION 

UTILITIES 

64 QUICK SORT ROUTINE 

65 PROGRAM STORAGE INDEX 

66 MULTIPLE CHOICE QUIZ BUILDER 

67 FORM LETTER WRITER 

68 SHELL SORT 
f,^ CASSETTE I ABEL MAKER 

70 CODES MESSAGES 

71 MERGE TWO FILES 

72 SORT WITH REPLACEMENT 



MATH 



GRAPHICS 

73 DRAWS BAR GRAPH 
74. DRAWS HISTCKjRAM 

75 MOVINC; BANNER DISPLAY 

GAMBLING AND GAMES 

76 RANDOM SPORTS QUIZ 

77 GOVERNMENT QUIZ 

78 HORSE RACE 

79 MAGIC SQUARE 

80 ARITHMETIC TEACHER 

81 HIGH 1 OW (GAMBLE 

82 IJNSt^RAMBl F LETTERS 

83 HANGMAN 

84 GAME OF NIM 

85 RUSSIAN ROULETTE 

86 ROUIETTF GAME 

87 ONE AHMED HANDII 

88 Nil IHE lAKGEI 

89 WALKING DRUNK 

90 SI ATE CAI'lIAl QUI/ 

91 TIC TAC lOE 

92 DICE GAME 

93 LUNAR LANDAR GAME 

94 BIORHYTHM 

95 HORSE SELECTOR (CLASS CALCULATOR! 

96 RANIXJM DICE HOIJ 

97 RANIXJM ROULETTE ROLL 
•W RANDOM CARD DEALER 
94 GUESS THE NUMBER 

100 WHITE OUT SCREEN 



GAMBOHO 






"--r-::::^- 



GUARANTEED SATISFACTION 

WE ARE THE ONLY SOFTWARE COMPANY THAT OFFERS A REFUND WITHIN 30 DAYS ON ALL SOFTWARE (H & E COMPU 
TRONICS INC, MONTHLY NEWSMAGAZINE SUBSCRIBERS ONLY) WE DO CHARGE A $3 PENALTY TO COVER POSTAGE 
AND HANDLING. 



iCQIYlPlJTHQI;^lCS^ 

50 N. PASCACK ROAD 
SPniNG VALLEY, NEW YORK 10977 

PLEASE SEND ME: 

D MASTER PAC 100 CASSETTE VERSION $59 95 
D MASTER PAC 100 DISKETTE VERSION $59 95 
D MASTER PAC 100 (MODEL II DISKETTE VERSION) 




HOUR 
ORDER 

LINE 



W24 

(914) 425-1535 




$99.95 



NEW TOLL-FREE 

ORDER LINE 

(OUTSIDE OF N.Y. STATE) 

(800) 431-2818 

* AU order* procvMcd within 24'HourB 

* SO-Dav money back guarantmt on att Softwarm 
fl«u a $3 pmnaltii for hanMna) 



CREDIT CARD NUMBER EXP DATE. 



SIGNATURE . 



NAME 



ADDRESS 



CITY STATE 

••• ADD U FOR POSTAGE AND HANDLING ($4 OUTSIDE OF THE U.S.A.) •" 



ZIP 



130 • 80 Microcomputing, October 1980 



CQiriRJTHDWlCS 



• • • EVERYTHING FOR YOUR TRS-80 '• • • 

TRS-SO In a iradcmark (if thr Radln Shark Olvlslon of Tandy Corporation 



WCR080FT BAStC COMPILER 

With TRS-flO'" BASIC Compiler, your Level II programs will run at record speeds! 
Compiled programs execute an average of 3- 1 times faster than programs mn under 
Level II. Make extensive use of integer opefaborts. and get speeds 20-30 times faster 
than the interpreter. 

Best of all. BASKT Compiler does it with BAStC, the lar^uage you already know. 
By compiling the same source code that your current BASIC interprets, BASIC 
Compiler adds speed with a minimum of effort 

And you get more BASIC features to program with, since features of Micro 
soft's Vereion 5.0 BASIC interpreter are irxrluded in the package. Features like the 
WHILE. WEND statement, kxtg variable names, variable ler>gth records, and the CALL 
statement make programmir>g easier An exclusive BASIC Compiler feature lets you 
call FORTRAN and machine lar^uage subroutir^es much more easily than in Level II 

Smpfy type in and debug your program as usual, using the BASIC interpreter 
Then enter a commarxl line telling the computer what to compile and what options 
to use. 

Voila! Highly optimized, Z-80 machine code that your computer executes in a 
flash! Run it rxjw or save it for later Your compiled program can be saved on disk for 
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Want to market your programs? Compiled versions are ideal for distnbution 
You distribute only the object code, rrotthe source, so your genius stays fully protected 

BASIC Compiler runs on your TRS80'" Model I with 48K and disk drive. The 
package includes BASIC Compiler, linking bader and BASIC library with complete 
documentation tl95.0O 



1980 INCOME TAX PAC 

Completely Revised ■ Latest Tax Tables ■ Fully Tested Conplete Manual and Docu 
mentation. The new version of the Income Tax Pacs are full of error catching codes 
making it impossible to make an error. Follow the simple Step By Step procedure that 
makes tax preparatk>n sirr^le. 

OICOME TAX PAC A (•19.95...CM»etle) 

For Level il 16K Cassette Only 
Does Form 1040 and 1040A 

- Schedule A itemized deductions 

- Schedule B interest and dividerxds 
• Output to video display 

■ Schedule TC tax computation 

INCOME TAX PAC B M9.9S...CMMtte or DMwtte) 

For Level II 1 6K with or without printer .cassette or disk has all features of IrKome Tax 
Pac A HtM works with or without line printer 

Formats Form 1040 arxd 1040A for standard tax forms 

Schedule C incorrw from a persorwilfy owned business 

- Form 2106 empkjyce business expense 

PROPESSIOrtAL INCOME TAX PAC C «99.95..J>lskc!ne 

For Level II 32K with disk arKl printer (optional) 

Has all features of Income Tax Pac B Riu autorrutc merrxjry storage for irKome tax 

preparers. 

- 22 additkirul schedules and forms 

■ Formats forms for individual or tractor feed printing 

MOD n CPA VERSION »199.9S 



OUARAKTEED 



PROFH 



91% 



WINS 

PLACES 

SHOWS 



32% 



AVERAGE PROFIT 
AT ALL TRACKS- 197S 



IHE HORSE SELECTOR II (PLATS) (By Dr Hal Davis *90.00 

lew slmplifled verston of the origiruil Horse Selector The first Horae Selection System 

o actually calculate the estimated odds of each horse. 

^1GHER PROFITS (OVER 1 00%) POSSIBLE TMROOGH SELECTIVE MTTiriG ON: 

• Rates each horse In 10 aecorvls. 

• Easy to follow njles. 

• Can be used with any Apple D Computer. 

• 1 00% money back guarantee (returned for any reason). 

• Uses 4 factors (speed ratir^, track varSant. distance of the present race, distance of 
the last race) 

• Using the above factors, the Horse Selector calculates the estimated odds. BET 
on horses whose actual payoff (from the Tote Board or Morning Lirws) is higher 
than payoff based on estin-wted odds. 

• Using the above factors, the Horse Selector calculates the estirrwited odds. BET 
on any selected horse with an estimated payoff (based on Tote Board or Morning 
Lines) higher than cak:ulated poyofl (based on Hone Selector 11). 

• Source lisHr^ for the TR&flO" , Tl-59, HP-67. HP-4 1 , Apple and BASIC Computers, 

• No computer or cakrulator necessary (although a cakrulator wouU be helpful for 
the simple division used to caknjlate estimated odds). 

HEE DutcMng Tables allows betUr>g on 2 or more horses wtth a guaranteed profit 



NEWDO8/B0 

A New enhanced HEWDOS for T1iS«0'" Model 1 for the 1 980s 

Apparat Inc., anrwunces the most powerful Disk Operabng System for the 
TRS80'" It has been designed for the sophistkiated user and professiorMi programmer 
who demands the ultimate In disk operating systems 

MEWDOS/80 IS not meant to replace the present version of MEWDOS 2 1 
which satisfies most users, but is a carefully planr>ed upward enhancement which 
significantly extends MEWDOS 2. I's capabilities This new member to the Apparat 
MEWDOS' family is upward compatible with present MEWDOS 2 I and is supplied on 
Diskette, complete with enhanced MEWDOS * utility programs and documentation. 
Some of the MEWDOS/80 features are; 

• Mew BASIC commands that supports with variable record lengths up to 4095 
Bytes long 

• Mew BASIC commands that supports with vanable record lengths up to 4095 
Bytes long. 

• Mix or match disk drives. Supports any track count from 18 to 80 Use 35, 40 or 
7? track 5" mini disk drives or 8" disk drives, or any combtnation 

• A security boot up for BASIC or machine code application programs User never 
sees "DOSREADY' or READY" and is unable to BREAK , clear screen, or 
issue any direct BASIC statenwnt including LIST" 

• Mew editng commands that allow program lines to be deleted from one kx:ation 
and moved to another or to alk)w the duplication of a program line with the 
deletion of the original, 

• EnharKed and improved RENUMBER that allows relocation of subroubnes. 

• Powerful program chaining 

• Device har>ging for routing to display and pnnter simultaneously. 

• CDE function: simultaneous stnkjng of the C, D and E keys will allow user to 
enter a mini-DOS to pertonn some DOS commarKis without disturbir^ the 
resident program 

• Upward compatible with MEWDOS 2. 1 and TRSDOS 2.3. 

• Includes Superzap 3.0 and all Apparat 2.1 utilities. 
•149.00 

STOCK MARKET MONITOR 

Galactic Software Ltd 

CASSErre VERSION M9.00 

DISK VERSION t99.00 

1 . The system is designed for the active "trader" not the "long term" investor, as 
the system is technically' onented. 

2. For the TRS80" Model 1, Level II, 16Kormore Available in both disk and tape 
versions 

3 Tracks user selected issues, in a technical system that reflects the issues 
performance against the overall market 

4. Set up data is input by the user from the Standard and Poors stock guide or 
Value Line. 

5 Daily issue data, "high ', "low' , "close" and"voiurr*e" are input from any news- 
paper containing this information. 

6. Daily overall market, volume ar>d ctosing Dow" are also provided from a 
newspaper 

7. Volume and pnce char>ges of an issue, as they compare to volume an price 
changes of the overall market, are the basis of this system's analysis of the given 
issue. 

8. Comparisons of the issue aganst itself are also done This may allow the user 
to spot unusual' activity on this issue 

9 Clear indications are given as to whether the issue is "out performing ' under 
performir^" or "performing " with the market. 

10. Complete video and pnnted output is provided. 

1 1 . This program is intended to be a guide to indications, and is not to be used as a 
sole recommendatran to buy, sell or hold an issue. These decisions are the 
responsibility of the user and his brokerage 






^g 50 N. PA8CACK ROAD 

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EVERYTHING FOR YOUR TRS-80"«»» 

— TRS-ao l7a (radrmarh oT ihr Radio Shark Division ol Tandy rofp«>rBll«n 

BUSINESS PAC 100 







100 Ready-To-Riin 
Business Programs 



(ON CASSETTE OR DISKETTE) Includes 110 Page Users Manual 5 Cassettes (Or Diskettes) 

Inventory Control Payroll Bookkeeping System Stock Calculations 

Checkbook Maintenance....Accounts Recelvable....Accounts Payable 



BUSINESS 100 PROGRAM UST 



1 RULE78 kitere* Apportionmenl by Rule of the 78s 

2 ATHNU I Annuty compuUOon program 

3 DATE Time between dales 

4 DAYYEAR Day of year a parlicular dMe Falb on 

5 LEASEJfiT trteresi rate on lease 

6 BREAKEVTi Breakeven anaiysii 

7 DEPRSL Stratghtbne depreciabon 

8 DEPRSY Som ol the digits depreoawm 

9 DEPRDB Declining balance depfecMtion 

10 DEPKDDB Double declining balance depreciation 

1 1 TAXDEP Cash flow vi depreciation tables 

12 CHECK2 Pnnts NEBS checks ^ong w«h dwty regis«ei 

1 3 CHECKBK 1 Checkbook rrwinlenance program 

14 MORTGAGE A >V>rlgage amortuabon table 

1 5 ^^ULT^^O^^ Computes time ne«Jec] for mor>ey to dcxiWe, triple, etc 

16 S^LVAGE Determines salvage value of an investment 

1 7 RRVAWM Rate of return on irrvestment with vanaWe inflows 

18 RRCONST Rate of return on investment with conslar* inflows 

1 9 EFFECT Eflective mlereM rate of a k>«n 

20 FVAL Future value of an investrrwrit IcompourMJ interest) 

21 fVAL Present value of a future amount 

22 LOANPAY Amount of payment on a loan 

23 REGWTTH Equal withdrawals from investment to leave over 

24 SIMPDI5K Simple discount analysis 

25 DATEVAL Equrvslent G nor)eguivalenl dated values for oMg. 

26 ATifiUDEF Present value of deferred annuities 

27 MARKUP % Markup analysis for Items 

28 SiriKFUND Sinklr>g fund amortiiation program 

29 BOMDVAL Value of a bond 

30 DEPLETE Depletion analysis 

31 BLACKSH Black Scholes options analysis 

32 STOCVALl Expected retum on stock via discounts dividends 

33 WARVAL Vrtue of a warrant 

34 BOMDVAL2 Value of a bond 

35 EPSEST EsbnNate of future eafrur^gs per share for company 

36 BETAALPH Computes alpha and beta vanaMes for stock 

37 SHARPEl ftirtfolio »<lect»on moddi.e what stocks to hoW 

38 OrrWRtTE option writing computations 

39 RTVAL Value of a nght ^, 

40 EXPVAL Expected value arwlysis 

41 BAYES Ba)«sian decisions 

42 VALPWNF Value of perfect information 

43 VALADIMF Value of additiofwl informabon 

44 tnUJTY Deoves utility function 

45 SIMPLEX Linear programming sokAon by simplot method 

46 TRANS Transportation n-wthod for Snear prograrrwning 

47 EOQ Econon«c order quantity nventory model 

48 QUEUE 1 Sir^le server queucing (wMline line) model 

49 CW CoXvofume^irafltanilyws 

50 CONDPROF CondrOonal proft tables 

51 OTTLOSS Opportunity k»s tables 

52 FQUOQ F^bied quantity economic order quarMy model 

NAME DEScnpnofi 

53 FQEOWSH As above but with shortaQes pennMed 

54 FQEOOPB As above but with quantity price brcokx 

55 QUEUECB CorttencfK waiting line analyws 

56 NCFAMAL Piel caiWtow analyti* for simple imwtmer* 

57 PROFIND ProltabWy Irxte d a project 
56 CAPl 0^>. Aaaet Pr Model anatyili o( prpiect 



132 • 80 Microcomputing, October 1980 



59 WACC Weighted average cost of capital 

60 COMPBAL True rale on loan with compensaUnq boi required 

61 DISCBAL True rale on discounted k>an 

62 MERGArtAL Merger analysis computrtions 

63 FHNRAT Financial ratios for a finn 

64 NPV fSet present value of profecl 

65 PRINDLAS Lasptryres pncc index 

66 PRlhDPA Paasche price index 

67 SEASIND Constructs seasonal quantity indices for company 

68 TIMETR Time serws arutysis lineai uend 

69 TIMEMOV Time senes analysis moving average trervd 

70 FUrenr Future pnce estimation with inflation 

71 MAILPAC Maihng list system 

72 LETWRT L.*oer writing system links with MAILPAC 

73 SOf?T3 Sorts list of names 

74 LABEL 1 Shipping latwl makei 

75 LABEL2 name latiel maker 

76 BU5BUD DOME business bookkeeping svstem 

77 TIMECLCK Computes wreks lolal hours from tirr>ec(ock inio 

78 ACCTPAY In memory accounts pat^ble system storage pennined 

79 INWJtCE GeT>eratP invoire on screen and pnni on porwer 

80 !fMVENT2 In n>eny>rv invrntory control system 

81 TELD(R Computerued tetephone directory 

82 TIMUSATS Time use analysii 

83 ASSIGN Use of assignment algonthm for optjn«l (ob assign 

84 ACCTREC In memory accounts receivable system storage ok 

85 TtRMSPAY Compares 3 methods of repayment of kians 

86 PAYNET Computes gross pay required for given net 

87 SELLPR Computes selling prKe for given after tax amount 

88 ARBCOMP Artjttrage computations 

89 DEPRSF Sinking fund depreciaton 

90 UPSZOfiE Finds UPS zones from zip code 

91 ENVELOPE Types envelope including retum address 

92 AUTOEXP Automobile expense analysis 

93 riSFl^ Insurance policy file 

94 PAYROLL2 In menv)r>' payroll system 

95 D1LANAL Dilution analysis 

96 LOAfHAfTD Loan amount a borrower can afford 

97 RENTTOCH Purchase pnce for rental property 
96 SALELEAS Sale teasetiack analysis 

99 RRCOfWBO Investor s rale of return on coovertable bond 

1 00 PORTVAL9 Stock market portfolio storage-valuation program 



G CASSETTE VERSION $ 99.95 
D DISKETTE VERSION $ 99.95 
D MODEL II VERSION $149.95 

ADO $2.00 FOR SHIPPING IN UPS AREAS 
ADO $3.00 FOR C.O.D. OR NON-UPS AREAS 
ADD $4.00 OUTSIDE U.S.A, CANADA li MEXICO 

iCQMRJTHCraiCSi 







so N. PASCACK ROAD 
SPRING VALLEV, NEW YORK 10077 




HOUB 
OA ORDER 
^^ UNE 

425-1535 



iCQinPLITHQMICSr Aimouiiees...MOD-n 



P^.UlTf-*FVIATiCAl aPt^CATCTMS SEF'v'iCE 



The NciMrsletter For Ow^ners Of The 
TRS-M^"* MODEL U MICROCOMPUTER 



f the late-' S°«cracomput«' 

for the TKS ^^ j^^de' " 

TiDS /o^ running v ^^j update 8p£ciAL CHARTER SUBSCRIPTION RATE $1X.00 D (For IS luuM) 

• Latest announcem 

MOD-II PROGRAMS CURRENTLY AVAILABLE 

(1) ELECTRIC PENCIL ( Michael Shrayer Software). . .Complete word processor with extensive editing and printer formatting features.. $275 

(STANDARD CP/M VERSION) $300 (DIABLO, NEC OR QUME CP/M VERSION) .. $325 (STANDARD TRSDOS VERSION).. $350 

(DIABLO, NEC OR QUME TRSDOS VERSION) 

(2) GENERAL LEDGER, ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE. ACCOUNTS PAYABLE, INVENTORY CONTROL AND PAYROLL (Small Business 

Systems Group) . works under TRSDOS can be used one module at a time or as a coordinated system $225 per module $995 for 

the complete system. 

(3) GENERAL LEDGER, ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE, ACCOUNTS PAYABLE, INVENTORY CONTROL AND PAYROLL (Peachtree Software) 

requires CP/M and MICROSOFT BASIC professional business systems turn key operation . . discounts available $1000 per module 

$5000 for the complete system. 

(4) SELECTOR III (Micro-Ap) complete data management system user defined fields and codes manages any list defined by the user 

includes additional modules tor simplified inventory control, accounts receivable and accounts payable requires CBASIC-2 and CP/M 

$295 

(5) GLECTOR (Micro-Ap) add on package to the SELECTOR III general ledger that allows the user to define a customized chart of ac- 
counts $250. 

(«) GSF (Racet Computers) Generalized Subroutine Facility., a series of super fast machine language utilities that can be called from a 

BASIC program (no machine language knowledge required) sorts 1000 items in under 5 seconds allows PEEK and POKE statements . 

move data blocks compress and uncompress data .. .works under TRSDOS... $50. 

(7) DSM (Racet Computes)... Disk Sort Merge. ...sorts and merges large multiple diskette files on a 1 to 4 drive system. . NOT AN IN MEMORY 

SORT can actually alphabetize (or any other type or sort) 4 disk drives worth of data., sorts one complete disk of information m 10 

minutes . information is provided to use DSM with the RS MAILING PROGRAM works under TRSDOS $150 

(t) RSM (Small Systems Software) a machine language monitor and disassembler can be used to see and modify memory or disk sectors . 

containsall the commands found on the Model-t version plus some additional commands for the MOD-II works under TRSDOS $39 95 
(9) CP/M (Lifeboat Associates) an alternative operating system to TRSDOS that allows users to use hundreds of programs currently available 

to CP/M owners This is the only version of CP/M for the MOD-II that comes with an elementary CP/M guide written especially for MOD-II 

owners. ...$170. 

(10) MICROSOFT BASIC (Microsoft), an enhanced version of the MICROSOFT BASIC found on TRSDOS ,. works under CP/M . adds 
commands such as chaining (allows the user to LOAD and RUN a new program without losing the variables currently in memory) long 
variable length file records, WHILE/WEND and others can be used with the BASIC COMPILER to speed up programs (3-10 times faster 
execution) $350 

(11) CBASIC-2 anon-interacliveBASIC used for many programs that run under CP/M requires CP/M allows user to make more efficient 

use of disk files eliminates the useofthemostline number references.. ..required forprograms such as SELECTOR and GLECTOR.. $120. 

(12) MAILING ADDRESS (Peachtree Software) requires CP/M .. keeps track of name and address information and allows the selective 

printing of the information in the form of mailing lists or address labels uniquekey structure and formatting structure allows for a multitude 

of retrieval alternatives. . $790. 

(13) PROPERTY MANAGEMENT (Peachtree Software) requires CP/M keeps track of atl financial records related to property management 

$1500 

(14) FORTRAN-80 (Microsoft). ANSI 66 (except for COMPLEX) plus many extensions... requires CP/M $425 

(15) H ft E COMPUTRONICS, INC. SHARE-A-PROORAM DISKETTE «1 works under TRSDOS a collection of programs written by MOD-II 

owners programs include data base management a word processor mail system mongage calculations checkbook register 

and many others $9 (add $3 postage outside of the United States, Canada and Mexico) FREE if you send us a diskette containing a 

program that can be added to the SHARE-A-PROGRAM DISKETTE 

(16) MEMOREX OR WABASH CERTIFIED DISKETTES $49 95 (per box of 10) 

(17) FLEXI-MATIC DISKETTE STORAGE TRAY Stores 110 diskettes comes complete with index-dividers, dust cover, tilt plates and 
adjustable spacing $55 00 

(IB) WORD-STAR The ultimate word processor a menu driven word processing system thatcanbeused with any printer All standard word 

processing commands are included plus many unique commands only found on WORD STAR requires CP/M $495 

(19) MAIL LIST MERGE An add on package that allows the user to send form letters (created on WORD-STAR) to any compiled mailing list 

(using any CP/M based MAIL program such as the PEACHTREE MAIL PROGRAM) requires CP/M, WORD STAR and any CP/M based 

mail program $150. 

(20) EDITOR ASSEMBLER from Galactic Software Ltd. is the first user oriented Editor Assembler for the MODEL II and was designed to utilize all 
the features of the MODEL II It includes innovative features for ease of coding and debugging and complete documentation (over 120 pages) 

works under TRSDOS $229 

(31) MAIL/FILE SYSTEM from Galactic Software Ltd. stores 2,500 names per disk No sorting time is required since the file is automatically 
sorted by first and last name plus Zip Code on input Retrieve by any combination of 19 user codes Supports an ll digit alphanumenca Zip 
Supports a message line Comes complete with user-oriented documentation (100-page manual) Allows for company name and individual 
of a company and complete phone number (and extensions) works under TRSDOS $199 

rm»-M- II A TRAOf MARK Of TANOV CORTOtATION 

iCQI^PUTRQI^ilCSi ^24 ™" ^^ I'^I'J-^-''-"-'-' 



, _^ ORDER ^^ ORDER LINE 

SPRING V^L^LErNErYORK t0977 "^^^ LINE '^^ (OUTSIDE OF NY. STATE) 

(914) 425-1535 (800) 431-2818 

RMdefServK^-sMpagezie 80 Microcomputing, October 1980 • 133 



UTILITY 



This nifty program screen displays 

your active variable and runs as a USR function to boot! 



Variable Scroll 



Willtam L Colsher 

4328 Nutmeg Lane. Apt. 1 1 1 

Lisle, IL 60532 



If you have ever tried to devel- 
op a long BASIC program on a 
TRS-80, you have probably won- 
dered at some point exactly 
what variable names you have 
already used. Even If you are for- 
tunate enough to have a printer, 
it is often hard to be sure that a 
new variable is really new. 

There are at least two ways 
around this problem. The sim- 
plest is to keep a list of the vari- 
ables as you use them. Unfortu- 
nately, that requires more fore- 
sight than most of us use. Be- 
sides, that piece of paper can 
get lost all too easily. 

The other solution is a pro- 
gram that displays the currently 
active variables on the screen 
any time. That program is the 
topic of this article. 

Variable Locations 

To t)egin, you need to know 
where fTable 1) and how (Table 



2) BASIC stores Its variables. 

I decided to make this pro- 
gram a USR function. 

Using it is quite simple. If you 
take a look at the BASIC Refer- 
ence Manual, you'll find that in 
order to use the USR function, 
you have to POKE a couple of 
bytes In one of the reserved 
areas with the address of the 
USR routine. 

This is ordinarily the case, but 
an assembler is a wonderful 
thing, especially one with an 
ORG statement. The first ORG 
in the program uses the address 
of the place we would have had 
to POKE. The next statement, a 
DEFW that contains the starting 
address of the program, Is as- 
sembled at that location. (If you 
want to assemble this program 
at a different location, remem- 
ber to change both the DEFW 
and the second ORG.) 

Since the POKE is taken care 
of, all you have to do is protect 
an area of memory for the pro- 
gram by entering 32500 in re- 
sponse to "MEMORY SIZE?", 
loading the program with the 
SYSTEM command and return- 
ing to BASIC. Table 3 shows you 



LocaHon Contents 

16633 Thfl addrasB of the start of the scalar area 

16635 The address of the atari ol \hB array area 

16637 The address ot the siarl ol tree rnernory 

Table 1: Part of the BASIC Reserved Area. All the areas are 
contiguous. Thus, the start of the second is also the end of 
the first, etc. 



how. 

You can test the program now 
by DIMensloning a couple of 
variables in the immediate mode 
and assigning values to a cou- 
ple of scalars. Invoke the DISP 
routine by typing PRINT USR(O) 
or X = USR(O). (X is only an exam- 



ple, any variable name can t>e 
used.) 

The screen should clear and 
you will get a display of your 
scalars on one line or more: 
there are sixteen variables per 
line. Below that are the arrays. 

A couple of Improvements 



AM vanabiss are stored in essentially ttte same nianner. The first three tiytas always 
ftlOFB tn« same information: 



Type 


2nd byte 
ol riame 


1 81 byte 
of name 



(Type may be one of the following: 2— Integer, 3— String. 4— Single Precision, 
B— Double Precision.) 

It a varfable has a single character narrw. a zero is placed m the other location 
After If>ese ITiree bytes, scalars have the lolloiving form. 




(Variables are top to bottom: Integer, Single Precision, Double Precision, String.) 
Following la Ihe formal of the array storage ares. The first three bytes are the 
Mme as for scalars. This Is lollowsd by: 



LSBof 

array size 


MSB Of 
array Size 


Number ot 
dimensions 



This IS followed by pairs of t)ytes containing the dimension sizes. This is in turn 
followed by the actual values. 

Table 2: Structure of BASIC Variable Storage. 



134 • 80 Microcomputing. October 1980 




PROFESSIONAL HALF A MILLION TAX RETURNS CAN'T BE WRONG! 

(OR THEY HAD BETTER NOT BE) 

INCOME TAX SYSTEM 

FOR TRS-80* MODEL I OR II 

Our system, which prepared 500,000 1979 returns, features the following: 

1. Full interactive user control, in tax-form language only, line-by-llne. 

2. Screen display of full 1040 and all schedules, prior to printout. 

3. Change of a single amount item automatically changes and re-computes entire 
return. 

4. All printout formats IRS and state approved. 

5. Stores Preparer's Identification for automatic printing at bottom of page 2. 

6. Built-in Validation Check tests entire system, hardware and software. 

7. Special Printer Adjustment routines, Line Length, etc. 

8. Selection of closed or open output formats — for standard Form 1040 or open 
name-box types. 

9. Software control of text position on page. Makes forms-alignment simple. Permits 
use with non-adjustable printers. 

10. Fills in pre-printed Forms or you can use overlays. Your choice. 

11. Automatically computes: Tax - SDI Overpayment - Wages Total from W-2's - 
Earned Income Credit - Income Averaging - Maximum/Minimum Tax - Least 
Tax Method - All Percentage of Income Limitations - All Fixed Limitations - many, 
many more. 

12. Full support through the tax season — no charge. 

13. Inexpensive yearly updates in accordance with tax-law changes. 

14. Modular construction — lets you order only the type and size system you need. 

PRICING STARTS AT $189.95 (1040 & SCHEDULE A) 

25-PAGE DESCRIPTIVE MANUAL $7.50 (Refunded on Order) 

MINIMUM SYSTEM REQUIRED: MODEL I, 32K, 1 DISK DRIVE 

•TRS-80 IS A TRADEMARK OF TANDY CORP. 

CONTRACT SERVICES ASSOCIATES . . 

706 SOUTH EUCLID ANAHEIM, CA 92802 

TELEPHONE (714) 635-4055 

• • • 20 YEARS OF SERVICE • • • 



•ftMd*^ s«wc»-iM p*p» ?36 80 Microcomputing, October 1980 • 135 



come to mind after using this 
program for a little while. The 
variables are displayed in the 
order they were used. Scalers 
come before arrays, but that's 
bulit Into the program. 

It might be wise to sort the 
variables, so that when working 
with a large program it Is easier 
to ctieck a new variable name. A 
secor>d but more difficult en- 
hancement might add a cross- 
reference generator. This would 
display not only the variables, 
but also the line numbers in 
which each is used. ■ 



MEMORY SIZE? 32S0O (carriage 

rvturr^} 

RAOtO SHACK LEVEL II BASIC 

READY 

>€YSTEM (carnage return) 



*?DISP (carriage return) 
The a»tart»k> will flash briefly. 
*7 (carriage return) 
This returns to BASIC. 
?SM ERROR 

READY 



Table 3. Loading and Us- 
ing DISP 



■ana 
■M9a 
aiiaa 

aaiia 
•ai]i 
aiui 
aii4i 

iilSI 
11161 
II17I 

iiiea 
aiiaa 
aa2i» 
aiiia 
aiiia 
aa23a 
■■24a 

»3SI 
t92t» 

i<i7i 

■ ■3SI 

■ ■29^ 

■asaa 

■■311 

a>32a 
aa3ia 
aa]4a 
aaisi 
■■36a 

■ ■371 

■ •38^ 

■ ■19^ 
■I4«l 

■ ■41^ 

■■4 2a 
aa4ia 
aa44a 
aa4sa 
aa4«a 
aa4Ta 
aa4B« 

■ ■491 
■fSl^ 

■■sia 
t$u$ 
aassa 
aasta 
aas7e 
aasaa 
aasga 
■■<■■ 
■asia 
■aE2a 

■ ■«!■ 

■ ■14^ 

■•as a 
fftca 
•atTa 
aataa 
aacaa 
■■7 a a 
aa7ia 
aa7zi 
■■73a 
■a74a 
■a7s^ 
■■7e^ 
aa77a 
aa7aa 
aa7fa 
■aaaa 
aaaia 
aat2a 
aaB3a 

■ ■B4^ 
U6il 

taes^ 
■■■?■ 
aaaaa 
aaata 
aa9at 



(THIS PROGMH PROVIDES AN EASY WAV TO OBTAIN 

lA LIST OF CURRCNTIV ACTIVE VARIABLES IN A 

tLCVEL II BASIC PROCRAK. 

t 

ICALLIHC METHOD: POKE16527 , 126 : POKE16S26 . 244 : PRINT USRO) 

f 

ITHE FOLLOWING ORG AMD DEn* TAKE CARE OF THE POKE 

fTHAT WOULD ORDINARILy HAVE TO BE DCME TO TELL 

(SASIC WHERE THE USR ROUTINE IS. 



ORG 
DEFW 



1652G 

325aa 



32sa^ 

HL, SCREEN 

De,SCREEN+l 

BC,ia23 

ft. ' ' 
(!<L) ,A 



I 

.•CLEAR SCREEN 
ORG 

LD 

LD 

LD 

LD 

LD 

LOIR 
(DISPLAY SCALAR5 
( 

(THERE ARE 2 GENERAL TYPES OF VARIABLES IN LEVEL II 
IBASIC: SCALARS AND ARRAYS. POINTERS TO THE AREAS 
(BASIC USES TO STORE VARIABLES ARE TO BE FOUND IN 
((WE or THE RESERVED AREAS OF RAH. SPECIFICALLV , 
(THE CCMTEKTS OF THESE LOCATIOWS ARE THE POIdTERSt 
(16G33 -> START OF SCALAR AREA 

(16635 -> START OF ARRAY AREA (END OF SCALARS) 
II6637 -> START OF FREE HEHORY (EHD OF ARRAYS) 
I 

I THE FORMAT OF THE SCALAR AREA IS AS FOLLOWS i 
( BYTE COMTEWTS 

I ■ SCALAR TYPE - 1-IHTEGER, 3-STRIHC 

) 4-SIHCLE,t-D0UBLE 

] 1 2HD CHAR or KANE 

I 2 1ST CHAR or NAME 

I 3 IP STRING, LEMGTH, ELSE LSB OF VALUE 

(4-5 IF STRING -> START OP STRING, ELSE MORE VALUE 

]6-l^ VALUE 
I 

I FOR NORE INFORMATION SEE PACES B/S AND 8/9 OF THE 
ILEVEL II BASIC REF. HAN. 

LD HL, (16633) |-> SCALAR AREA 

LD DE, SCREEN )-> TOP OP SCREEN 

(THIS CODE TAKES CARE OF THE CASH WHEN THERE ARE 
(NO SCALARS ACTIVE IN THE BASIC PROGRAM 

PUSH DE 

PUSH HL 

LD DE, (16635) 

SBC HL.OE 

JF 1, ARRAYS 

POP HL 

POP DE 

IFOLLOWIHC CODE GETS THE SCALAR NAHE 
(A CALL TO 'STRCHK' PUTS IN A $ IF NECESSARY 
I 

(HL -> VARIOUS PLACPS IN THE SCALAR AREA 
(DE -> CUBREHT SPOT ON THE SCREeN MHBRt HE'LL 
( BE PUTTIHC SONETHIHC. 

( 

(•NOTE* STRINGS HHICH HAVE HOT BEEN GIVEN A VALUE 
(HILL 'HOT APPEAR* ON THE LIST. 
SHOHSC CALL SHOW IT 

PUSH DE 

LD &,■ 

LD E,(HL1 

ADD HL.DE 

INC HL 

INC HL 

IHC HL 

PUSH HL 

LD DE, (166351 

SBC HL.DE 

JR I, ARRAYS 

POP HL 

POP DE 

JR SHOHSC 

IFOLLCUINC CODE DISPLAYS TOE ARRAY NAMES. 
(THE ARRAY AREA HAS THE FOLLOWING FOXNATi 
(BYTE CONTENTS 
ta-2 SAHE AS FOR SCALARS 

t]-4 SIZE or ARRAY 



aa9ia i i 

■aaia :«-7 

■a93a ; 
■■94a ARRAYS 

■■>£■ 

■ ■>!■ 

aa97^ 

■ ■9S^ 

■ ■99^ 

aiaaa 

aiaia shonar 

aia2a 

•laia 

flia4« 

■lasi 

■laea 

■ 1>7B 

■i^e^ 
■i^sa 
■ii^^ 

■iii^ 

■1121 

■ 113^ 

aii4a 
ansa 

■ 1161 

■ 117* 



NUMBER or DIMENSIONS 
VALUES 



I.D 

LD 

SBC 

JP 

POP 

POP 

CALL 

CALL 

PUSH 

INC 

IHC 

INC 

LD 

IHC 

LD 

IHC 

ADD 

PUSH 

LD 

SBC 

JP 

POP 

POP 

JP 



DE, (166371 

HL, (16635) 

HL,DE 

Z.DONE 

HL 

DE 

LINES 

SHOWIT 

DE 

KL 

HL 

HL 

E,{HL) 

HL 

D, (HLl 

HL 

HL,DE 

KL 

DE, (16637) 

HL,DE 

t,DCME 

HL 

DE 

SHOWAR 



■ END OP ARRAYS POItTTER 

(START or ARRAYS POINTER 

(COMPARE HITR CURROTT LOC 

(IF NO ARRAYS QUIT 

(ELSE CLEAN UP STACK 

I ■ ■ 

(START A HEH LIHE 



■lla^ lAND NOW HE CLEAN UP AMD RETURN TO BASIC 



■119^ DOME 

■i2^a 

■ 121^ 

■ 122^ 

ai23a 

al34a SCREDl 

ai2sa 

B126a 



POP 

POP 

CALL 

LD 

RET 

EQU 



HL 

DE 

LIMES (POINT TO NEXT LINE 

(16416) ,DE (AMD FIX R.S. CURSCW 



3caan 

(THIS CODE CHECKS THE TYPE riELO AKD IF IT IS 

;A 3 HE KNOW THAT TBE VARIABLE IS A STRING. IN 

(THAT CASE WE INSERT A t SO THE USER WILL KNOW 

iTbO. 

P 

(REGISTER B IS USED AS A FLAG TO TELL IP HE HAD 

(TO INCREMENT THE DE PAIR TO ACCOMODATE A 2 CHARACTER 

(VARIABLE HAKE. 

J 

(AT THIS TINE HL POimS TO BYTE lERO DP TBE CURREHT 



ai27a 

■ 121^ 

■ 129^ 

■ 13<^ 

■ 131B 

■ 1321 

■ 133a 

aii4a 

ai35a (VARIABLE snwAce area. 



ai 36 a STRCHK 

ai37a 
aisaa 
ai39a 
ai4*^ 

■141^ DONT 

>143^ 

■ 14la 

ai44a 
ai4sa 

■146a SRIPIT 

ai47a 
ai4sa 
ai49a 
■isai 



LD 

CP 

JF 

LD 

IHC 

LD 

CP 



LD 

LD 

LD 

CP 

RET 

DEC 

RET 



B.a 

t.DCMT 
B,255 

DE 

A, (HL) 

3 

HIrEXIPIT 

Ai 'I' 
IDE), A 
A,B 

a 
1 

DB 



■ISla iTHE rOLLCWING CODE MOVES THE SCREEN POINTER TO A 

■153^ IHEW LINE TO SEPERATE THE SCALARS FROM THE ARRAYS 

■1S3^ pVISUALLY. IT IS ALSO CALLED JUST BEFORE RETURNING 

■154^ |T0 BASIC TO SET THE BASIC CURSOR TO SUITABLE 

■!!&■ (LOCATION. 

■isca ] 

■ 157^ ]AT THIS TIfIB REGISTER DE POINTS TO WHAT MOULD 
aiSSa iBE THE HEXT SCREOt LOCATION TO PUT A VARIABLE NAME 
B159a tIM. SINCE THE SCREEN LIKS ARE OK 64 BYTE BOUMDRIES 

ai6aa (The brute force metbod bblon works nicblt. 



ai6ia 


LIMBS 


LD 


A,E 


ai62a 




CP 


IBH 






JP 


K,D04a 






CP 


aaH 






JP 


H.Doaa 






CP 


aoH 






JP 


H,DOCI 






LD 


E,a 






IHC 


D 






RET 






D04a 


LD 


E,4aH 






RET 






Dosa 


LD 


E,aau 






RET 






Doca 


LD 


B,acaH 






RET 





■177) (FOLLOWIKG CODE HANDLES THE DISPLAY OF VARIABLE 

■ 17BI iNAMES FOR BOTH SCALARS AND ARRAYS. 

■ 17 9a I BOTH TYPES OP VARIULES HAVE THE SAHE PORHAT IN 

aiaaa iThe first three bytes: type, cbar3, cbari. 

aiaia jnote that ir a variable has only a single 

aiBia iCHARACTER NAME CHAR2 CONTAINS A -lEItO* NOT A 





SBOHIT 


IHC HL 






IHC HL 






LD A, (HL) 






LD (DE) ,A 






INC DE 






DEC HL 






LD A, (HL) 






CP a 






JR HI, OK 






LD A, ' ' 




OR 


LD (DEI, A 






DEC HL 






CALL STRCHK 




IPOIHT 


DE TO HEXT SCREEH LOCATION. I WASTE AN EXTSA 




(BYTE 


TO MAKE THE LINES COME OUT EVEN ALL THE TIME, 




(I.E. 


ALWAYS It VARICBLES PER LINE. 






INC QE 






IHC DE 






INC DE 






RET 






END 



Program Listing 



136 • SO kUcrocompuUng, OctotMr 1980 



PROGRAMMING TOOLS FOR YOUR 

TRS-80 



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80 Microcomputing, October 1980 • 137 



UTILITY 



Frustrated by the limitations of INPUT command? Read this. 



Input with Insight 



Jack Decker 

1804 West 18th Street. Lot 155 

Sault Ste. Marie. Ml 49783 



Most TRS-80 users have 
been frustrated by the 
limitations of the INPUT com- 
mand in BASIC. 

The command won't accept 
commas in the input string un- 
less quotation marks are also 
used, and it won't select an ap- 
propriate prompt character tn 
place of the question marK. 
(How many times have you seen 
PRESS ENTER TO CONTINUE? 
in a program?) It also has dif- 
ficulty formatting the input on 
the screen, since hitting the 
enter key always advances the 
cursor to the beginning of the 
next line. 

Construct a String 

The solution is to construct a 
string using the INKEYS func- 
tion. The subroutine in Listing 1 
does just this. It's the shortest 
subroutine I've found that will 
overcome the limitations, and 
yet behave like an INPUT com- 
mand in regard to the use of the 
backspace and shifted back- 
space keys. 

No automatic line feed is 
needed after the enter key is 
pressed, but if you want one you 
can insert a PRINT: statement 
just before the RETURN. In the 



interest of consen/ing memory 
line 60010 is heavily packed. 

To use the subroutine in place 
of an INPUT statement, simply 
GOSUB 60000. On return, string 
variable BS will contain the in- 
put. You use variable A$ within 
the subroutine to hoid individual 
keyboard strokes as they are en- 
tered. No other variables are 
used in this routine. 

For those who may wish to 
customize this routine for their 
own applications, here is a brief 
explanation o1 what is happen- 
ing in the subroutine: 

In line 60000. B$ is set to the 
null string (a string variable with 
no characters in it). PRINT 
CHR$(14); turns on the cursor. 

Lines 60010 and 60020 form a 
loop. When the program falls 
through from line 60010, line 
60020 catches it and sends it 
right back where it came from. 

Line 60010 first tests to see 
that a character has been input. 
If one has (A$>""), it then tests 
to see if that character was the 
enter key. It so, it turns off the 
cursor (PRINT CHR$<15):) and re- 
turns. 

If the character was not the 
enter key, It is tested to see that 
it Is not a control character (IF 
AS>CHR$(31)). This is to keep 
anyone from lousing up the 
whole screen display by acci- 
dentally hitting the wrong key. 

Assuming the character pass- 
es this test, you test the string 



variable to make sure it would 
not contain over 255 characters 
if this character were added to it 
(LEN(B$K255); this causes an 
LS ERROR. 

Here is your opportunity to 
limit the length of the input. If, 
for example, you want to prevent 
any input over 40 characters 
long, change the 255 to 40. You 
could even change the 255 to a 
numeric variable, such as X. and 



then use a statement of the 
form: X = 40:GOSUB 60000. 

Varying the value of X allows 
a different maximum line length 
each time the subroutine is 
called. 

Character Input 

Going back to the character 
that was input, assume that it 
has an ASCII value greater than 
31 and will not cause 6$ to ex- 



60000 nE="" iPHINTCHRS(14 1 ; 

G001E AS=INKi:YS:irAS>"irAS = i:ilRS (131THF:riPBlNTCKRS(lB) ; : 
RETURNELKF:iFAS>CimS (31 ) ANDLKN (ESI '- 25 liTHENPRl NTAS ; :BS = BS 
♦ASELSEIFBS>""IlAS=CHRS(8)THENPBINTASj!BS-LEfTS(BS,Lt:N ( 
B$)-1)ELSEIFA$=CHRS{24)THENPBINTSTRIHGS(LEH(BS) ,8) j:BS- 



60020 GOToenoiP 



Program Listing 1. 



60008 BS="':3-9 

60010 Z-NOTZ:PRlNTCHRS(15 + Z) ; : fORX = lT01 2 : AS= INKEYS : 1 FAS 

>""IFAS-CHRS (13) THENPRINTCHRS(15) ; : RETURNELSE I FAS >CHR S ( 

31)ANDLt;N(BS) < 255THENPRIHTAS; ! BS-BS+ASELSLI FBS> "■ IFAS^^C 

HRS(e)TliENPRIHTAS; : BS-LF,FTS ( BS , LEfJ ( BS ) -1 ) ELSEIFAS = CilRS ( 

24)THENPRINTETBINGS(LE;)[BS) ,B) : !BS="' 

60020 NLXT:GOTO6001O 



Program Listing 2. 



5 CLEAR500 

10 PRINT-NAME: "TAB (12) ; : Y"32 :GOSUB6fl0B0 j PBI NT; NS-BS 

20 PRINT"ADDRESS!'TAB(12) f : Y-32 : G0Sl)B6BBflB ! PRINT ! MS-BS 

30 PRINT"CITY!"TAB(12) j ! Y-22 !GOSUB6B0B0 iCS-BS 

40 PRINTTAB{37| "STATE: " j : Y-2:GQSUB600e0 ! SS-BS 

50 PRINTTAB{49) "ZIP: ";:Y-5 

60 GOSl)B60060: IFLEN (BSX5THENPRINTSTRINGS (LEN (BS) , B) ; sG 

OTO60 

70 PRINT:2S=BS 

100 PBINTsPRIKTHSiPBINTMSiPRIKTCS", "SS" "ZSiPRIHTtGOT 

010 



Program Listing 3. 



1M • 80 Microcomputing, October 1980 



ceed maximum length it added 
to it. The character is then add- 
ed to B$ and printed on the 
screen. 

Suppose it fails these tests? 
You still want to checK for a 
valid backspace or shitted back- 
space code. But first you must 
test string variable 8$ to make 
sure that it has one or more 
characters in it. 

If B$ does indeed contain one 
or more characters, the routine 
tests to see if AS is a backspace: 
(IF A$ = CHR$(8) ) If so. it prints 
it on the screen and deletes 
one character from B$: (8$ = 
LEFT$(8$,LEN(B$)-1. 

If A$ is a shifted backspace: 
(IF A$ = CHR$(24) ). then as 



many backspace characters are 

printed as there are characters 
in B$, and B$ is set to the null 
string. Should the input charac- 
ter fail all tests, it is ignored. 

If you prefer a blinking cursor, 
you can have that and still have 
only three lines in your subrou- 
tine. Listing 2 shoves how. Line 
60010 is very packed, but you 
save much space. 

Variables X and Z are used in 
this subroutine, along with A$ 
and B$. X controls the rate of 
blink. Z will always equal either 
zero or - 1 . since NOT - - 1 
and NOT -1=0, This means 
that CHR$(15 + Z) IS always 
either CHR$(14}, which turns on 
the cursor, or CHR$(15). which 



turns it off. 

Using the Subroutine 

Listing 3 shows one way to 
use this subroutine. Try typing 
this along with the subroutine of 
your choice. Experiment with it 
awhile, and then try replacing 
the 255 in line 60010 with vari- 
able Y- Note that you cannot 
enter more characters than the 
proper amount. 

Entries for city, state and zip 
code are all on the same line of 
the video display. One type of er- 
ror handling is shown in line 60; 
if the zip code entered is less 
than five characters, the pro- 
gram deletes the errant entry 
and forces you to reenter. Ot 



course, you would want a more 

sophisticated error-checking 
routine in any serious program, 
but this demonstration program 
does show the capabilities of 
this subroutine. 

One thing must be said about 
this subroutine— it violates all 
rules of stylish BASIC. If you like 
nice neat listings, then this 
subroutine is not for you. 

For this I make no apologies, 
since I don't know ot any way to 
make this routine list neatly 
without using a lot more mem- 
ory. Part of Its virtue is that its 
short, making heavy use of the 
IF . . . THEN . . . ELSE syntax, 
and any attempt to make it more 
stylish destroys that virtue. ■ 



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•iiMvlatiiil tun ant hImim at war I 

•ACTION aoUNOt AW ORAMICt ■ fAKtNATINO 
•THRie OAHE VARIATIONa • SIX %PW> LCVELS 
•CAIV TO PLAY. CHALLENOIMO TO UASTCR 
• nJIT AGAMtT AltOTHCn KMON OH THE COMPUTEN 
AT KMM DlfFtCULTT LEVELS 

TRS M LZ WK ran camitte \ incTiiucTtoits 

SKNO CMCCK or MOHKV ORDER TOt 



fO MR SMMS 

•MAM n. m54 



Synergistic Sotor Inc 

Mt mmn tiilii— rlii Mid m ■ fmi»tmt4 



FIGHT 
INFLATION 

(USING COLLECTIBLES) 

1. BULLION— COMPUTES 
MELT VALUE FOR 
ALL U,S. COINS 
(LEVEL II-16K).... $12.00 

2. COINS-CATALOGS 
COIN COLLECTION- 

(1 DISK) $20.00 

3. STAMPS-CATALOGS 
STAMP COLLECTION 

(1 DISK) $20.00 

sTaRrS-80 

-"•^^ P.O. BOX 2163 

E.PEORIA, ILLINOIS61611 



somvAai poa ms-ao 



OOO #nter<< 



rpditf < 



cau«ll* >000 OiVM a^ay pT.anu«i soii,. Uh^i .«<-» -vb^* a^-o ■•! 

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cotfHt to' 1& 30 iMVM 1 I h* inc'«m««ii ndutfad Ktin Auto Oviv 11 «« lvii 

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|...iH'i ( vcn ri]jKMHi«flrovif vfd*olap« V<iri miifuctiDfit ft iiti«i p'ogram rpf 

;' r.vmg grjiphiC^ «■ tVK CHHTIv 1^95 

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■■■■^•it, «.€- 1M*1 

(f1t)4BT-l11T 

DEAltl l»40UlFllfc& INVlTf Q 



'Reader Service— see page 226 



80 Microcomputing, October 1980 • 139 



GENERAL 



All you need to read/write on 

both sides of a minifloppy is a paper punch and guts. 



Punch Out Your Disks 



Richard Taylor 

100 Manhaltar} Ave. 1809 

Union City, NJ 07087 



For the price of a standard 
paper punch you can dou- 
ble your present disk storage. 
Just follow the simple steps de- 
tailed in this article and you can 
be reading and writing on both 
sides of your disks. I have 
punched-out over 100 disks and 
only two of them have had de- 
fective second sides. 

To get started you will need a 
pencil, a paper punch that 
catches its own punches, a trac- 
ing of a disk and a smooth piece 
Of paper. The tracing of the disk 
(which we shall call the 
'templet') can be made by Xerox- 
ing a disk, cutting apart an un- 
usable disk, or by making a trac- 
ir>g. 

Try to use a stiff piece of 



paper or glue the copy to a piece 
of cardboard. Cut out the center 
hole, the oblong area tielow it, 
the write protect notch on the 
upper right edge and the small 
hole near the center hole. The 
smooth piece of paper can be 
the backing from a peel-away 
label or something similar. The 
templet shown in the photo- 
graphs was made from a Xerox. 
It happens to have two holes 
punched. This is just a conve- 
nience and is not needed to do 
the Job. 

The Second Hole 

The only thing that prevents a 
Radio Shack disk drive from 
writing to the second side of 
your disks is that it needs a sec- 
ond small hole near the center 
so that it can find the sectors 
correctly. If you rotate your disk 
In its sleeve and watch the small 
hole, you will see an even smal- 
ler hole right In the disk. Soft 



sectored disks have only one of 
these and the disk drive uses a 
lightto"see" when this tiny hole 
passes by. 

Our Job is to punch a second 
hole in the sleeve so that when 
the disk Is flipped over it will 
have a hole that allows the drive 
to see the tiny hole in the disk. 
The placement of the second 
hole does not have to be perfect. 
As long as the tiny hole can be 
seen through the new holes in 
the sleeve, everything will run 
correctly. 

STEP1: With the label of the 
disk in the upper left hand cor- 
ner, place the templet on the 
disk so that the small hole is 
positioned by the lower left side 
of the center hole. Line up all ref- 
erence points. Using a pencil, 
trace the new small hole on the 
disk. Also trace the notch on the 
upper left edge (Photo 2). 

STEP 2: Take the strip of 
smooth paper and Insert it be- 



tween the sleeve and the disk 
(Photo 3). 

STEP 3: Using your thumb, 
make room for the punch by lift- 
ing the sleeve near the center 
hole (Photo 4). 

STEP 4: Insert the punch and 
line it up with the traced hole. 
Punch the hole (Photo 5). 

STEP 5: Insert your finger 
where the punch was and check 
to see if the linear has been 
completely removed. In most 
cases It will not be. With your 
finger, push it up through the 
hole and tear it off (Photo 6). 

STEP 6: Repeat steps 1 
through 5 on the second side of 
the disk. 

STEP 7: Punch the new notch 
near the bottom of the tabel. 
(Photo 7). 

That's all there is to it. Photo 8 
shows you what your new disk 
should look like. Labels can be 
placed in the upper left corner 
with no problems. Any problems 




1 



Photo 1. 
140 • 80 Microcorrjputing, October 1980 




Photo 2. 



SNAPP, INC. 

Number I in software for the Model II 



MODEL II EXTENDED BASIC 

A limily of anhtncsmcnts to the Model It 
BASIC int«rpr«t*r. Pirt of tha pachigi 
onginstcd wtih (he best of APPARAT. INC a 
Ihoughti in imptomanting NEWDOS BASIC 
Tha aytlam is wrtttan entirely in machina 
language tor SUPER FAST execution The 
aKteniions are fully integrated into Modal 11 
BASIC, and require NO user memory, and NO 
uaar disk space. The package is made up of the 
following five modulaa. each of which may be 
purchased separaWy: 

XBASiC - Six single keystroke commands to 
Hat the first, last, previous, next, or current 
program line, or to edit the current lina Tan 
single cfMracter abbreviations for frequently 
used commands: AUTO, CLS, DELETE. EDIT, 
KILL. LIST, MERGE, NEW, LLIST, and 
SYSTEM. $25 

XREF - A powerful cross-reference facility 
with output to display and/or printer Trace a 
variaMe through the code Determine easily if 
a vahabta ia in usa S40 

XDUMP - Parmita tfia programmer to display 
artd/Of print tr>e value of any or all program 
variables Identifies the variable type for all 
variables. Each element ol any array is listed 
separately. $40 

XRENUM - An enhanced program line 
renumberir>g facility which allows specifica- 
tion of an upper limit of the block of lines to be 
renumbered, supports relocation ol renum- 
bered btocfcs of code, and supports duplication 
of blocks of ctxto. $40 

XFIND - PernMts qutck and easy location of 
specified strir>gt or keywords within the 
program text. $30 

SAVE - on the purchaae of the entire package 

SKRUNCH ^^*° 

A SUPER FAST TRSOOS UTiLITV Com- 
preaaea your BASIC programs to an absolute 
minimum Typically saves 30-40S apace, even 
tor programa without REM statements! Also 
reaulta in 7-tO% improvemeflt in axecution 
speed $35 

VERBATIM DISKETTES 

#4443 (MD525-01) — Suitable for Model 1. or 
Modal ili, including double density drives 
Quantity Prtce OuantHy Price 

(BOBaa) Per Bos (Boiea) Per Boa 

1 $27.W 6 $2575 

2 26.75 7 2550 

3 26 50 8 25 25 

4 26.25 9 25 00 

5 2600 10 24 50 

20* 24 00 

«44B5 (FD34-B000) ~ This is the preferred 
diskette for the Model i i . Double density certified 
Quantity Price Quantity Price 

(Boaea) Per Boa (Boiaa) Par Boa 

1 $37.50 6 $36 25 

2 37.25 7 36 00 

3 37 00 S 35 75 

4 36 75 9 35 SO 

5 36.50 10 35 00 

20* 3450 

#3718 (FD34-1X0)-Thissingle density disk- 
ette will work on the Model il, but is NOT 
RECOMMENDED for critical applications 

OuanlHy Prlea OuanUly Price 

(Boaea) Per Boa (Boiee) Per Boi 

1 S29.00 6 $27 75 

2 28 75 7 27 50 

3 28-50 8 2725 

4 2825 9 27» 

5 28.00 10 26.50 

20* 26.00 

We can supply any VERBATIM items at 
similar savings. Ceil or write with your re- 
quirements. 

M aMppIng diarge on MEDIA orders, regard- 
leaa ol atie of order. This charge waived If 
tolhrara la purchaaed on the aama order. 



FRIEND 

FOUn NEW TRSDOS COHHANDSI 
SHOW — A much t>etter mutti-dtsk directory 
display Let's you see only those files you 
want, and includes dale of last update 
MOVE — A much belter file copyir>g com- 
mand. Copy /Move whole groups of files, 
renaming them at the same time, it desired, 
with just 1 commandl 
ERASE — Better than KILL, better than 

PURGE 
PRINT — Print BASIC programs from disk. 
wt\ether saved in ASCII or compressed 
All 4 DOS commands allow last processing of 
one. or complete groups of files, based on 
generic naming and wild card specifications 
Enhanced functions loo numerous to fully 
describe here 
EXAMPLES: 
SHOW PAVVBAS:' 

Directory display of all 7BAS' files on all 
diskettes which begin with PAY 
MOVE PAVVBAS 1 TO =/OLD 3 

Save Current versions of payroll programs 
to drive 3. changing extension to /OLD ' 
MOVE OLDV TO NEW /- 1 

Copy all files on drive which begtn with 
old; regardless of extension, to drive 1. 
changing the fifst 3 letters ot (he filename to 
'NEW,' but retaining the same tile extension 
Save timei 
Reduce frustrationi 
Eliminate ERROR 33' $75 

SPOOLER — Mo(M I and Modtl tl 

Our workhorse' This package, available lor 
Model I. in the TRSDOS/NEWDOS or NEW- 
DOS 80 versions, or for the Model II. greatly 
enhances system performance when running 
typical business applications Many applica- 
tions have been benchmarked to run nearly 
TWICE AS PAST with the SPOOLER installed 
Installs in minutes, and no changes are 
required to your programs Preferred Model II 
versions require NO user memory Optional 
features for the Model II version only 
Serial printer support, and DISK SPOOLING 
suppon The DISK SPOOLING support is 
particularly recommended lor word proces- 
sing applications $too 
SERIAL PRINTER OPTION $50 
DISK SPOOLING OPTION $50 

ITOII 

A helping hand when converting BASIC 
programs from the Model i to the Model II 
Automatically adjusts PRINT @3. and PRINT 
USING to compensate for differences in the 
language Advises you wt>ere adjustments are 
necessary for PEEK. POKE, etc $25 

BUGZAP 

A powerful utility oriented toward the machine 
language programmer Dispiay/Modily/Print/ 
Memory/Disk sectors Use this to help you 
learn mora about the internals of the Model II 

$50 



CALL TOLL FREE NOW 

1 - 800 - 543-4628 

Ohio residents call collect 

(513)891-4496 

Snapp, Inc. ^>» 

8160 Corporate Park Dr. 
Cincinnati, Ohio 45242 

Most products will toon b« avpllabl* for 
th« Modal I. CALL FOR DETAILS! 



HOSTII / TERMII 

Allows remote control' of a Model II from 
arwttwr Model II. or any ASCII terminal It 
terminal is a Model II. accurate screen 
positioning (PRINT @) is fully supporledi 
Requires NO user memoryi This system is 
designed to provide software support to our 
customer locations without ever leaving the 
office. S50 

MASTER / SLAVE 

This software package was designed lo 
support the transferring of tiles from orw 
Model II to another, via direct connection or 
modem/phone line connection ALL kinds of 
files, and baud rates up lo 9600 are fully 
supported Transfer tiles in either direction, 
even with the SLAVE Model II UNATTENDED' 

$150 

ECHO 

Causes all information going to the video 
display to also be routed to the printer Instant 
hard copy Can be turned on and off at will 
from within your program Requires NO user 
memory $35 

ROUTE 

Causes LPRINT data to be sent to the video 
screen' A great help fn writing and debugging 
programs when no printer is available, you 
have a slow printer, or you are juSt m a hurry 
Can be turned on and off from within your 
BASIC program Requires NO user memory 

S25 

SCREEN 

Supports the copying of the full video screen 
to the printer Can be invoked by the operator 
with a keystroke, or from your program with a 
USR call Requires NO user memory $25 

SAVE 

Retrieve the resident BASIC program follow- 
ing an accidental re-booi. an accidental 
SYSTEM, or a system crash DON'T BE 
WITHOUT THIS ONE. YOU NEVER KNOW 
WHEN YOU WILL NEED IT' $35 

SBASIC — Model I and Model II 

Program in a high-level, full structured BASIC 
The BEST of the BASIC pre- processors 
PERFORM named subroutines. CONDITION- 
AL case structures WHILE loops. UNTIL 
loops And much more Forget about line 
numbers Model II version is compiled, and 
SUPER FAST. From Ultimate Computer Systems 
Model 1 $50 
Model II $75 
DOSFIX 

A collection of patches to TRSDOS and 
BASIC Id enhance their usability and function 
Includes our well-known BREAK7E patches to 
keep the break key from being used acciden- 
tally FREE WITH ANY MODEL II SOFT- 
WARE PURCHASE 

TERMS OF SALE: 

Credit card customers add 3S C O D 
customers add $4 Ohio residents add 4'.S 
sales tax Shipments normally made the same 
day we receive your order 

OUR GUARANTEE: 

it your diskette arrives damaged, we will 
replace it without charge II you ever accident- 
ally damage il. we will replace it for a $10 
handling charge For a period ot one year, we 
will provide you with any enhancements or 
updates for a $10 handlir>g charge For a 
period ol one year, if errors are discovered in 
the programs, they will be corrected without 
charge In the event we cannot correct an 
error, you may return the program material for 
a refund 

THE FINE PRINT 

TRS-80 IS a trademark ol Ihe RaOio Shack 
division of Tandy Corporation 
NEWDOS and NEWOOS 80 are trademarks ol 
Apparai Inc 



^ftmmOaf Senfice— ••■ pe(r« 2X 



80 Microcomputing, October 1980 • 141 



with the new side will show up 
immediately just as they would 
with a new disk. There is no need 
to treat this new style any differ- 



ently. All of my disks are double- 
sided and while I was unsure at 
first. I now have no fear of usinQ 
the second side for the most im- 



portant programs and data. In 
the early days there were prob- 
lems involving bulk erasing. 
Now we have 2.2, 2.3, 3.0 and 



NEWOOS. All of these operating 
systems will backup over a disk 
that contains data without re- 
quiring bulk erasing. ■ 





Photo 3. 



Photo 6. 





Photo 4. 



Photo 7. 





Photo 5. 
142 • 80 Microcomputing, October 1980 



Photo 8. 



m ft BELIEUER !! 



i Love it !!. . .It's really a Incredible O/S. It' just great! 
Now I see why people who have seen it say they are now 
believers. I know I am." lance micklus 



cari 


b« 


■:> 1" d u r 


r>» 


K*d dv 


1 V'j 



1> L«r«* iS"> dr.ve sudppi'it. 

2' Double S-ded dr.v* suo^'Or i . 

3> DC'Ub'e Dsr.B.ti- dr.v* fiuRP-M't. 

4' B0 Tra.:K driv* supoort. 

*NOTE all above t> r . ves may be 
Mil M»d on Any onC' system ar<d 
conf L9ur«d at Sysseri t i ine 
any Ela>:hup' 

B' Wirirh*st«-r techno ici^y *. 
support . 

0' BuPPOi ts aviy ':<:-ftib • nat < 
above drive-i up \-> a max. ■:■♦ 2 

d r 1 v^s. 

7' Supports doubie-SP**d processor 
.: I oilk in.:.oi * .cat i ovii.. ' Or.Thbd id *or 

ex amo i e > 

8' FfiSTER' Improved over i jy 

stru'Lture us.ng IGR!^ airnessjns 

te'ihn r nue^ . mp roves i oad i nq t i mes by 
UP to 1400r.. 



:.f the 



Pu rpose out cot spoo i ers 



out Put 
wi thout 



de< 



ar.d 
ar.y 



provi d? 

pro? ram 

user 

«*-atur* 



9' G*nera 
Of a true. 
s I mu I tar<#ous 
#)<ec ut I ori 
I ntervent .or.. 

!•' K*yboaid TyD#-fthe«d 

p#rMits you to enter kevstni'Kes before 
your pro9 rams need them. 

It' User definable keys. *'■ \. ^'£ 

letters. 

12' &u . I t in Graph..: str.ng naokipr 
lets y.:.u er.ter <iraph,.: s^inbois .iito a 
&OSIC program fr.:.™ the keyboard 

through the use of the (Clear) key. 
Th* (Cie«r> hey .5 s i (HO i * h» l d dOMn 
'jUSt i.ke the (Shift) ti*ys' dur,n^ 
other keystrokes and 

V 1 .31 a. . . ^raphi os' 

13 » Dated f I les. Oil f . i e-s are 

accompanied by the dat« .>f the.r last 



ar* 



n- 1 1 e > . 

f I I es 

f they have 

Mer« last 



mid I f I 'lat I on (creatniin or • 

14j Marked fiies. Qii 

a-iC'^mpan .ed by a 'mark' 

been nfr>difi*d Since they 

ba>:ked up. Th.s Permits the BACKUP 

uti I .ty to copy .inly th'OSe f. I»S wh.Ch 

have actually been updated since a 

prev I ous backup. 

15» Fi le transfer bv class. fli lows 
t ransferr I ns of ai i f i les of a similar 
d I rectory c I ass. f i cat i on such as /CMD. 
/BfiS. /PCL. etc. 



VTOS 
4.0 

VTOS 4.0 

Operat in^ System 

Diskette with 
OjX'rator's (kn<ie 

VTOS 4.0 

Muster 

Herereiic*' Manual 

$29.05 

VTOS 4.0 

{"(mihinal ion - 
l.O disk. 
{)|XM-ator*s Gui<le 

and Mastei' 
Refei'ence Manual 

$125.00 



16) Bu>it->n SYSTEM command contains 
I OMer case d i spiay dr iver. screen 
prirt. break key disable. bi.nk.ns 
curs.:.!, d . sh drive steppins rate and 
motor -on de i ay mod i f i cat ■ ons. and 
wore. 

17i User may SVSGEN a custom VTDS 
system cr.n t i 9u rat i on contai n i ns 
Special I/O drivers. device LlNKin* 
and ROUTE, ns. BPOOLms and DEBUG 
tasks. etc. Mhi >:h mi i i be 
automatically loaded dur.ns the BOOT 
process Without reauir.ns a more 
ieri9tiiy flUTO and CMOIN procedure. 

18> Non-BREOKabie OUTO and CHAIN 
commands. 

19 1 W. Id-card DI Rectory. Perm, ts you 
to locate ail files of a certain 
classification such as ' /BAS' . 
Un I f orm I y i nd . cates f . le s i ze . n K 
I IB^ii bytesi resardiess o* dr.v* type. 
"DIR D" Mould 9 1 ve you all your files 
that start w.th "D", 

20' Dynamic f.ie name defaults > n 
APPEND. COPY. and RENAME commands 
aiioM you to spec.fy on t y minimal 

I nformat i.:>n abO'Ul f . le names. 

21 I COPY and APPEND .:omtri«nds eyecute 
UP to 300* faster. 

22' ALLOCate command for 
pre-ai i ocat .on and r.on-rei eas. bi t > ty 
of file space. F.ie space wiii never 
Shr.nk if this ■OPti.:.n used. 

23' MEMORY command for d. recti v 
sett • ns upper memory \ . m . t . 

24) Variable Lensth f.ie support .s 
incorporated Mhich automatically 
blocks Short user data records both 
Ml th r n a sector and »c ross sector 
bound a r .es thereby tak i ns max .mum 
advantage of d . sk f. le space. 

28i No security d.sk needed to make 
backups or to run the system' 

26) THou9h marry 0/5 bear h.s desisn 
and code VTOS 4.0 is the on I y Fu i i y 
Aproved Operat ms System by Randy 
Cook! And it iS FANTASTIC 

27) Endorsed by Scott Rdams and Lance 

Ml CK lUB' 



VTOS ard VTOS 4.0 are registered trademarks of VIRTUAL TECHNOLOGY. INC. - Dallas. Texas 75234 

Available from the following distributors or 
your local computer store, dealer inquiries invited. 

5% Discount Just For Mentioning This A(t„ fValid month of this publication ONLY) 



H 



QUALITY 

SOFTWARE 

DISTRIBUTORS 

11234 Park Central PI Suite C 
Dallas Texas 75230 

(214) 692-1055 
Micronet - 70130,203 
SOURCE - TCC293 



i^Adventute 

^^0t^ INTERNATIONAL ''" 

ADVENTURE INTERNATIONAL 

Box 3435. Longwood. Fta. 32750 
(305) 862-6917 - Voice 
after 8:00 - same number 
as FORUM 80. (SOURCE - TCC957; 



1^ 



SMALL BUSINESS 
SYSTEMS 
GROUP 



Carlisle Rd. 
WesHord. Mass 01886 

(617) 692-3800 - Voice 

(617) 692-3973 ■ FORUM 80 

Micronet - 70310,236 



Prices subject to chanxe without notice. 



INTERFACE 



All relationships have their 

ups and downs, this one is no exception 



Interfacing the 
NEC Spinwriter 



James D. Kunzman 

2221B Pennsylvania Avenue 

Homestead AFB. FL 33039 



Have you ever purchased a 
major peripheral for your 
TRS-80 microcomputer only to 
find that no interface informa- 
tion was provided? 

This happened to me when I 
purchased my NEC Spinwriter. 

After a fruitless call to the dis- 
tributor, I was referred to an 
NEC Field Engineer who provid- 
ed wiring instructions for run- 
ning at 300 baud. He also sug- 
gested that I buy a $3.00 Product 
Description Manual explaining 
the wiring requirements. This 
manual clearly states the inter- 
face requirements tor the RS- 
232-C port. If I had received it 
with the printer, I could have 
saved hours of grief. 

While trying to connect this 
printer. I have discovered a sim- 
ple technique to operate it at 
1200 baud. 

Hardware Problems 

Using the NEC field engi- 
neer's instructions and the soft- 



ware driver published In Radio 
Shack's RS-232-C manual, the 
printer soon came to life— at 
least for a while. 

I wired the Spinwriter accord- 
ing to the diagram in Fig. 1. 
minus the connection from pin 6 



solve the problem. 

After a week, however, it 
failed again, so I returned it to 
Radio Shack. Finally, after fail- 
ing a third time. I took the tward 
to the repair center myself to 
confront the repairman. We de- 



"After failing a third time I 

took the board. . . to confront 

ttte repairman." 



to pin 19, which is not required 
at 300 baud. 

Suddenly the printer started 
printing garbage and made spo- 
radic carriage movements. 
Eventually, it stopped printing 
completely. 

Convinced that the printer 
was not at fault, I sent the ex- 
pansion interface and RS-232C 
to the Radio Shack repair cen- 
ter. The repair center merely re- 
seated the RS-232-C board in the 
interface. This appeared to 



termined that the RS-232-C 
board was warping from heat, 
which caused it to fail. 

Since my board was slightly 
warped, the repair center cheer- 
fully replaced the defective RS- 
232-C board with a new one. The 
baud rate generator runs rather 
warmly, so to keep this replace- 
ment board from warping I 
drilled 3/8-inch holes in the RS- 
232-C compartment door for 
ventilation. To further reduce 
heat problems I also removed 



the power packs from the expan- 
sion interface, cut off their 
cases and mounted them with 
appropriate fuses and switches 
in a small aluminum minibox. 

Everything worked fine until 
the repair warranty period ex- 
pired, then the same problems 
started again. 

I was about to break the invio- 
late Radio Shack seal, when I 
noticed that theexpansion inter- 
face printed circuit (PC) board 
was badly warped. This was 
pulling the center of the RS-232- 
connector down and causing 
the board to lose contact. Votia! 

I tried a little "brogan main- 
tenance." I pried the RS-232-C 
edge card connector with a 
screwdriver to get it seated 
against the board. This seemed 
to do the trick, and although the 
problem recurs every month or 
two, it reseats easily. 

Software Problems 

Hardware problems were not 
my only obstacles in getting the 
Spinwriter to run. I also had nu- 
merous software problems, es- 
pecially when I tried to step up 
beyond 300 baud. 

I was about to write a soft- 
ware driver patch for both the 



144 • 80 Microcomputing. October 1980 



cS^t Last! 
Orchestra-SO — 

A TRS-8a" MUSIC SYNTHESIS SYSTEM 

WRITTEN BY JON BOKELMAN 



Turns Any 16K Level II TRS-60 Into A High Quality Musical Instrument 

^fe Software-' 

A five part machine language program consisting of: 

J Digital synthesizer— produces up to four simultaneous voices in a six-octave range For 
example, you could tiave a trumpet, oboe, clarinet, and organ playing in four-part 
tiarmony or alter any of ttie voices to imitate ottier instruments. 

2 Music ianguage compiier— a simple and easy to use language allows you to enter your 
favorite written music in any key or time signature. Plays all note values from wtiole notes 
to sixty-fourth notes which may be single, double, or triple-dotted and/or played as triplets, 
Supports single and double accidentals, stacatto, pizicatto, two forms of articulation, 
repeats, second endings (v^flth or without retard), and modulation. 

3 Full screen editor— o full function text editor with blinking cursor is provided for easy 
entering and modifying of music programs. Functions include insert/delete characters, 
insert/delete lirte end global character string search, ortd automatic error detection/display. 

4 File manager— provides the orderly storing and retrieval of named program files on tape 
or disk. Ydu can even sequence several songs for automatic loading and playing. 
5initializatlon— this set-up routine allows you to alter the voices, select the standard 
four-voice synthesizer or a special high resolution, three-voice version and choose the 
standard (177 MHz) or the enhanced (2.66 MHz) clock rate. 

^fe Hardware^ 

A single 1 W by 2" PC iDoard plugs into the expansion conr>ector on the TRS- 80 keyboard or the 
screen printer connector on the expansion interface. This board contains the electronics 
required to convert the computer output into a high fidelity audio signal. Just plug in the 
board and connect to the aux/tape/tur>er input of any audio amplifier. No external power 
supply is required. 



In c udes: 

• Tape and disk verslor^s on cossette 

• Completely assembled arxJ tested 
PC board 

• Detailed and complete instruction 
manual 

• Sample music programs 



SFNDCH^CK OR MONEY OR[)K^ TO, 



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80 MicrocompuUng. October 1980 • 145 



Electric Pencil and the KVP soft- 
ware driver I had purchased, 
when I decided to take a look at 
the Radio Shack RS-232-C driver 
software. 

When I read the description of 
the driver routine in Radio 
Shack's manual, it mentioned 
that the software tests the 
DATA SET READY (DSR) for a 
iow and loops each time if not. 
This is definitely not true, as you 
can see if you examine the list- 
ing of the driver on pages 27-28. 
The driver does test the UART 
status. It must in order to avoid 
losing characters. 

While trying to find a way to 
patch all three of my printer driv- 
er routines - KVP. Electric Pen- 
cil and Radio Shacks -I real- 
ized that I could test both the 



DB-25 FHOM 
RS2il-c BOawO 




25 FBOM 
SPINIVBIttH 




1 


) 




5 


1 


I 


i 


« 


i» 


t 













MOTE SPINWRITER REQUIRES AN *Ctii 
HICH ON PINS S.e.aS WHICH I 
GET FROM PIN !0 



Figure 1. 



UART and the printer status line 
at the same time. In other words, 
if either line is active, then the 
driver routine does not transmit. 
After disassembling the driv- 
er routines for all three software 
drivers. I found that each routine 
tests the UART status in exactly 
the same way. 

Success at 1200 Baud 

At this point, I abandoned my 
attempts to patch each piece of 
software and started to concen- 
trate on modifying my RS-232-C 
board to lie a printer status line 
with the UART status line. The 
modifications I made are shown 
in Figs. 1 and 2. 

I connected the printer status 
line (Spinwriter pin 19) to the 
DSR line (pin 6) from the RS-232- 
C board. The printer status line 
is inverted and changed from 
RS-232-C levels to TTL levels by 
U3. The Spinwriter printer Re- 
verse Channel line (line 19} was 
used as the printer status line. 
This line can be set to go either 
high or low when any of the fol- 
lowing occur: 

1. Buffer 7/8 Full 

2. Paper Out 



3. Ribbon End 

4. Check Condition 

5. Cover Open 

6. Parity/Framing Error 
With the Reverse Channel line 

set to go high when any of the 
above occur, pin 11 of U3 can be 
tied directly to the UART status 
line (pin 22 of U6 or pin 4 of U5). 
Although a piece of wire can be 
used for this connection, I used 
3 small switching diode, a 
1N914, which cost all of 11 
cents. The anode should be con- 
nected to U3 pin 11. I used a 
small piece of wire wrap to con- 
nect the cathode to U5 pin 4. 

With this simple modifica- 
tion, the printer driver routines 



test data line 6 for a logic 1, and 
if either the UART is busy or the 
printer status line is high, the 
printer driver stays in a loop. Es- 
sentially, both lines are ORed to- 
gether. 

I now run my NEC Spinwriter 
at 1200 baud. The print speed is 
more than double the 300 baud 
speed, because the internal log- 
ic of the NEC can process multi- 
ple spaces extremely fast. When 
multiple spaces are encoun- 
tered, the print head moves di- 
rectly to the next printable char- 
acter, as soon as it is received 
from the serial line. Overall 
throughput is dramatically in- 
creased. ■ 




• DSR PIN e 

10 SPINWBITER 

PI N 19 



Figure 2. 



brizzerk| presents 



Package #1 $9.95 
BOXING 

It's you against bruiser in the fight of the century! 
you control one boxer on the screen and your 
TRS-SO" CONTROLS Bruiser. But watch out! Bruiser 

GETS BETTER AS THE FIGHT PROGRESSES AND YOU MAY GET 
KNOCKED OUT! WiTH SOUND EFFECTS 

RUSSIAN ROULETTE 

An ANIMATED CARTOON PROGRAM WITH INCREDIBLE 
GRAPHICS. YOULL LOVE IT! 

PLUS A BONUS PROGRAM 



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THE BATHROOM KEY 

A TOUGH BATTLE OF QUICK THINKING! YOU AND YOUR 
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n Pkg. #1 AT $9.95 ($10.60 FOR CA Res.) 
D Pkg. #2 at $9.95 ($10.60 FOR CA Res.) 
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D Enclosed is my check or money order. 
G Charge My n VISA D Mastercharge 

Name 

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146 • 80 Microcomputing. October 1980 



9 



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' handle thousands of files! Includes special XCOPY, DCS, and SZAP utilities for use with hard or soft disks. K 

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.-flM<»*Sw«r*-j««o»ff#^K 80 Microcomputing, October 1980 • 147 



> 



RECREATION 



A pioneering simulation of the tref< to Fort Stinl<endosert. 



Westward Ho! 



Raymond J. Herold 
8363 Shady Grove Circle 
Manassas. VA 22110 



Westward, Ho! simulates 
the westward trek by the 
earliest, and possibly the brav- 
est, of the pioneers. The pro- 
gram does not reflect any partic- 
ular journey or trail, but rather a 
composite of all the varied dan- 
gers and situations the pioneers 
faced. 

To give the program a com- 
petitive flavor, up to four pio- 
neers can play at one time. They 
engage In a race to see who can 
reach their destination first, 
assuming anyone survives! A 
single player attempts to make 
the journey in the fewest num- 
ber of days. The journey is not 
easy, and many decisions you 
make early on affect your suc- 
cess. 

When the game begins, you 
are asked to enter the number of 
players and the name of each. 

Choosing your Supptlas 

Each player picks the sup- 
plies he wants to take on the 
journey. You face the same di- 
lemma as the pioneers: What do 
you take into the unknown? You 
want to t}e prepared for any situ- 
ation, yet each additional item 
adds weight to the wagon. The 



more weight the horses must 
pull, the less distance you go 
each day. 

The longer you are in the wil- 
derness, the greater the odds of 
meeting a tragic end. Since you 
only have the opportunity to se- 
lect supplies once, choose care- 
fully! Keep in mind that the total 
weight you carry decreases as 
you consume food and water. 
Each player starts with a team 
of four horses. 

At the beginning of each play- 
er's turn, a map is drawn detail- 
ing the area he must cover to 
reach his destination. Different 
graphics characters are used to 
symbolize deserts, forests and 
mountains. The remaining areas 
are prairies. Your starting point 
(In the East) and destination (In 
the West) are shown, along with 
an indicator showing your cur- 
rent location. 

When the map is drawn, ap- 
proximately 6-7 secorKls elapse 
t>efore locations are printed. The 
computer uses this time to fig- 
ure out where you are, so tw pa- 
tient. 

Use the map as an aid in se- 
lecting the route you wish to fol- 
low. There are advantages and 
disadvantages to any direction 
you may choose. You use more 
water in the desert, but it is a 
more direct route. If you go 
through the forests, food and 
water aren't as critical, but you 
must cover more ground. When 
you reach the mountains, you 
must find a pass in order to trav- 



el across them. If you are lucky, 
you may stumble across a water 
hole or stream, or even a lone 
settler who may help, but don't 
count on it! And, of course, 
there is danger everywhere. 

After you have examined your 
map, you get a status report. 
This tells you where you are, 
how far you have traveled, how 
much water and food you have 
and your condition and that of 
the horses. Your condition and 
the condition of the horses falls 
into two categories. 



First of all, if you or the horses 
are hungry, thirsty, wounded or 
sick, this will obviously affect 
how tar you can travel. Second- 
ly, it you are seriously sick or 
wounded, say, mauled by a bear, 
you certainly wouldn't be able to 
travel at all. In this instance you 
may lose several days of travel 
while you recuperate. 

Scouting the Area 

You have the option of scout- 
ing the area and finding out 
what is to the north, south, east 



pp 


. Location «print poaltlon 


smi 


Name o( aacti type ol aupply 


QW 


. inlllalty, tni^* ol aach typa ot Bupply: 




Raaumad aa swiichaa tor condttKxi ot ptayan 


S(i.« 


Watght ot aach typa of aupply canlad by aach playar 


TW 


Total weight carried t>y aach playar 


M<«t 


Coolatns coOas tor locations, dynamically soneratad lor 




aach players lum 


X(« 


X coordinate tor each player: value 1 to 40 


Y(« 


Y coordirwta tor each player value 1 lo 24 


N 


Player r>umber aubscnpt 


E.WY,EH.WH .. 


Percent allocation for food and water 


wr 


. Factor tor overall food and water allocatad 


NF(S),NW(s),HW(a) 


. Keep track of number of daya without food, water 


SF(s) 


. Factor for players' overall condition 


HH(S) 


. Factor for horses' overall ccmdition 


ML.MP,PL.FL,DL. 


. Special location settings: mountains. 




Prairie, forest, deeart 


«« 


Number ot days of travel time lost 


C 


. Miles traveled each day 


MW 


Total miles traveled by each player 


NM(a) 


Number ot tioraea for aach player 


0$ 


Dtraction tiavalad 


LS<5) 


Names ol locations 


MS(S) 


Messages to player 


CJ 


CoTKlition nanws (sick, txir^ry, etc.) 


In addition to tr>e above. th« following tranatent variabin are uaad: 


Y Y. WX,XW, YW, U , V,W.2, 1 .TO, B.S0-S9.SV«,SSS.SNSSEI.TWS,TSS.T NS.TES 




Table 1. Program variables. 



148 • 80 Microcomputing, October 1980 



SOFTWARE- TRS-80 - SOFTWARE 




PACKAGE OME INCLUDES: QRAFHIC- 
TREK "lOOO" - Thu full flrjphici, rajl 
lim* qtrm ii lull o' lilt, tHCilinf ictiom 
EM[)lDdlr^g photon toffMcJoai ind phiMri 
<ill in« icrtani Vou muil ictuilly niv>«ila 
Iha aniarDr-M lo Sock nvitn ina gum ipjct 
iltlioni « wall n la a*a>0 kiingon 
lu'P«do*i< Hai iTiiaiai, falaclK mamuiy 
'aadout. djrna^a •■nmii, lonq -jnqa 
i«niofi, aic> Mai J tavaii 'o( Mammnq 
amaaa. u< tipail ptayaiC ■ INVASION 
WOlla Tima )099. Piat:a Eaiin't&oia' 
Svitam Million: At vcnaiai d' Eadn'i 
(oFcai. your loD ii lo Hop irta Wo<9 
invaiion and oailrav in«>i outpuili on 
Mati, vanui, ^tuin, Naptuna. ate' Earlh'i 
Forcai Andraidi Spaca Ftgnian 

Ljiai Cannon - r«aut(ino Blailaii' Worg 
y iircai: noboti — Saucati — Driinlagraloii 
Prolan Oaitiov*'!' Mulli Mval gama Mli 
vou advanca lo j moic complicalad gama 
« v<H> gat ballaFi • STAK WARS 
Manucvar youi vtc* lightai daap inio tna 
iiuciaui 111 tna Daain Slai ' Diop your 
Doinb, tn«n attapa via ir>a only ami. Tnii 
^fapnici ^"it ii laaiiy iun> Way I'M Fwca 
t>a Mitn you' a SfACC TAROIT 
Sni>tii jl anamy Snipi wiin your mnuiai. 
i> inav aiact in a paracnula. captuia tr>am 
cH >i you'ra (.ruai. daiiray inami full 
wapnrti. raai tima itama' • SAUCKRi 
Tnn lait action grapnrct gama nai a lima 
limit' Can you tx ina commandar lo win 
ina diitingurinad crott' Raquiiai lOlit 
Mcond timing to win' Watch ouli 

ONLV 14.M 




PACKAGE TWO INCLUDES: CHECK- 
KRS 2.1 — Finally' A cFigckari piogram 
mat will chalMnga avaryonti Expart ai 
>Mll at imalaur' Uiai 3-ply traa Marcl^ lo 
'ind bait poiiibia mov«. Plcki randomly 
Batwaan aqual movai lo afuira you O' 
na*ar naving idantical gamai. ■ P>OKKR 
^ACK - TAa comeuigr utai piychotogy at 
wall ai logic to try and baat you ai Potiai. 
Caidt ara d'tPlayad uvng TRS-tO't lull 
graphic t. Comouiai ranai, cailt, and 
iomalimai %<i»n loldi' Qraat practtca loi 
your Saturday night PoMai match' (Piiyi S 
card draw], a PSVCHIC - Tall tha 
computar a iitlla aboul yourialf and ha'li 
pradict Ihingi aboul you, you won't 
ealiava' A raai mind bandar! Graal 
amuMmanl (or parlMt. « TANQlK MAN- 
IA - Try and forca your opponanl mio an 
immobila powlion. Bui watch oul. ir>ay'ra 
doing tha lama lo youi Tnii fapnici gan^ 
II tor 2 paopig and hai oaan uiaa to ana 
itupid argumanii. (And occationaHy ilaili 
mam'] a WORD tCRAMBLI - Thii 
gama n (of two or rnoia paopM. Ona 
parton inputi a word to tha computar 
whiM Itia othari look away. Tha computar 
icrambMi tna word, than Map* track ol 
wrong guauPi. 

ONLV 14.n 




PACKAGE THREE INCLUDES: fok- 

TRV — Thil program latt you cfiooi* tha 
KjDtact ai wall ai tha rnood ol tha poam 
you want. Vou giva T RS-flO car lain nouni 
or namai, ihan tha mood, and it doai iria 
lai'i It nai t lOOO-woFd • (ocabuijiy ol 
i>ouni, vaiBi. advactivai and advarbi' a 
EUKCTRIC ARTIST Manual draw. 

araia, mo«« al loaii ai. Aula draw, aiaw 
*nd maiia LHai graphici bill not bylai. 
&4<r«i drawing on lapa or dilk' • QALAC- 
TIC BATTLK Tha Swinaui anamy have 
long langa pnaiari bul cannot iFavai at 
warp ipaad' Vou can. bul only hava ihoFt 
ranga phaMrii Can you biit/kFiaq Ihc 
«namy without gatlinq daitrovad' F- uii 
graphici Faai timai a WORD MANIA 
Cm you guaii tha cumputar'i wo'dt uiir%g 
youi human mtuiliwa and logical ab'iiliai' 
Vou'M na«d lo, lu baat tna computaF- a 
AIR COMMAND Batllc [he Kamika» 
pilati. Raauirai iplil tacund liming. Thii ii 
a FAST Mlion areata gama. 



ONLV 14.ft5 




PACKAGE FOUR INCLUDES: LIFE 
Thii /'.SO machina languaga program uiai 
lull graphic*' 0«aF 100 ganaralionj par 
minula mjka il truly jnimjlaQi Vou mjka 
your ilarting pallarn, iha computar doai 
Iha iBii< i>Fugiam can ba itnpoaa and 
changai mada' Walcn >t grow' ■ SPACE 
LANOCH Trii) tuii graphici umuijiiH 

latt yuu pick whai piaFwt, aiienxo ti 
moiHi you wilh lo lino on' Hat J tkiil 
Wvait irijl maka it (un tor avaiyona a 
OREED II - Multi'Mval gama ii lun and 
challangingi Baat Iha computar ai ihit dice 
gama uimg your knawlaclge ol oddi and 
luck' Computar kaap:: track □( hii 
winningi and youtt. Quick lilt action. 
Thit gama ii not any' • THE PHARAOH 
Rule tha anciani city o' AiaiandFiii 
Buy iir 1811 land. Kaap youi panpia Irom 
ravoilini' Stop tna Fampagmi) lalt. Re- 
OuiFai a iFua poiilicai pariunamy lu 
bacorna goodi • NOBOT HUNTER A 

voup nt ranagacW roboii have eicapaa and 
ara leotiad in an o<a gnoil tawn on Ma<i' 
Vuur job ai "RotMil Huntai" n lo daitroy 
Iha piraia rnachirtai before they kill any 
mora wllMiii Eicilingi Cnaiianging' Full 
graph IE 1 1 



ONLY 14.95 









..! ( ■ ■ rar.'a :iT!«»':*a krtu" - \ 




.-■■ .■■■■.! 


MS -.w:: - : 




■ r' It 


W liSnn ^ ; 




■ K' 'H' 


OK i-ia 1 1 




1 t :f «' "» 


Wt i.iUii ig : 




• iff-iw "wnii 


I« M«M TC 1 





HARDWARE - TRS-80 - HARD WARE 



:,L. :ip.'iv«a«tr.':iiiiiKWD<'-i'f^. 



PACKAGE FIVE INCLUDES: BUPVR 
HONSCRACI - Maka youi ball |u»l iika 
al Iha raal racalrach' ■ horsai race in thii 
loactacuia' graphic diiolay' UP to 9 
paopta can pijy mai rral od<H but nai 
thai aMmant o« chanca you wa in raai ii<ai 
Kaaoi Hack o' evaiyona"! winnmgi ana 
lonai. Tnii n one o( the (aw computer 
umulationi that can actually gat a room □( 
paopM cnaaringi * MAIC MOUSE Tha 
mouia Willi a mind! Tha computar 
ganaratai random maiat ot whatever ma 
you ipaciiy. then laarchai lor a way out) 
Tna lacond lima, ha'll alwayi go lailail 
rouia' A iiug diiolay a( a(l'(Kial inlalli- 
ginca' ' uii graohici, maiai & mouMI' • 
AMOEBA KILLER - Vou command a 
una man lubmanna that hat bean 
ihiuniian la ihe ii/e a< baclaria m thu 
eMCiling graphic advaniure' Iniactad into 
ina pravdant'i b'ooditream, youi miivon 
•I lo dail'oy Iha deadly amoeba infaclion 
•■■agmi hii botfy' • LOOIC Tnii 

popular game ii baiad an Maitarmmd but 
utiiiiai lactici Ihal make il mora exciting 
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maki II lun (or tvaryoria. • SUBMARIN- 
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PACKAQC SEVEN INCLUDES: BACK- 
QAMMON S.O - 2 diflarani >kiii lavaii 
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improve reading ikllli * WT lOt Qroc 
depth chjrgai on moving luDi. Lower 
depthi gat highar poinli m thu lail action 
grapnici gam*. • VAHTZEE Piiy Vam 
z*a wilh tha kOmpuiar. Thu popular game 
If even mare lun and chaltangmg aga>nii 1 
TRS-IO' • WALL STREET - Can you 
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^ ReaMr Sarvwe— Me pa0e as 



80 Microcomputing, October 1960 • 149 



and west. If you are lucky, you 
may even spot a stream or a 
house. You must find a pass to 
get through those mountains. 

At this point, you must decide 
how much food and water you 
will consume, as well as how 
much water and oats you will 
provide for the horses. This is 
done by entering a number from 
to 100, which represents a per- 
cent of the daily allocation. That 
is, 100 percent would be the 
amount you normally eat in one 
day; 50 percent would be half of 
that. While the wilderness is cer- 
tainly no place to be gluttonous, 
the extent to which you ration 
affects your ability and the 
horses' ability to travel. Cutting 
the ration below certain levels 
for a prolonged period of time 
could result In tragedy. 

You are also asked to select 
the direction In which you wish 
to travel. In the mountains, you 
may be unable to travel in a cer- 
tain direction. Also, you would 
be well advised to heed "No 
Trespassing" signs. 

Every now and then you en- 
counter dangers or opportuni- 
ties along the way. In some in- 
stances, you have a choice in 
what happens. In other cases, 
your fate is sealed by how wise- 
ly you chose your supplies be- 
fore the journey began. 

Program Exacutlon 

Table 1 shows the variables 
and their functions. Variables 
with an (s) refer to a subscripted 
item. 

When the program begins ex- 
ecution, the names of the 
supplies are loaded into the 
S${s) variables. The respective 
weights are loaded into G(s). As 
each player picks his supplies. 



the weights are stored in the ap- 
propriate S{s,s) location. After 
all players have picked their sup- 
plies, the G(s) variables are 
cleared, to be used later as indi- 
cators for player and horses 
conditions. The ML, MP, PL, FL, 
and DL variables are loaded at 
the Stan of the program with 
special location addresses. 
These are actual video memory 
addresses and point to such 
items as water holes, streams, 
and mountain passes. 

Miles traveled by each player 
each day is determined by multi- 
plying a percentage of the total 
weight carried by factors for 
water and food consumed by 
you and the horses, your aggre- 
gate condition and the horses' 
aggregate condition and the 
number of horses. The following 
equation is used: 

C=«((143-T(N)y4 + 10)-V/T) 
■NH(N)-(|SF(N) + HM(N))/2) 

The most critical aspect of 
the program is the ability to 
keep track of each player's loca- 
tion on the map. To accomplish 
this, a 40x24 virtual matrix is 
used. The term virtual is used to 
point out the fact that no actual 
memory is allocated to the ma- 
trix. Only the actual coordinates 
of each player's location are 
stored in the X and Y variables. 

To see how this works, visual- 
ize a 40x24 matrix. Each ele- 
ment in the matrix represents 10 
miles. A player's current loca- 
tion might be X = 30, Y = 20. If he 
travels west 30 miles, then the 
formula X = X-(30/10) gives his 
new location of 27,20. Traveling 
east, the distance would be add- 
ed to X; south the distance 
would be added to Y; north the 



distance would be subtracted 
from Y. The area taken by the 
map is 60 characters across and 
12 lines down. Using the follow- 
ing formula correlates our imag- 
inary matrix coordinates to the 
1024 print positions on the video 
monitor. 

PP = INT«int((YlNy2) + b)-6*) 

+ IX(N}* 1 .5) + 64) 
PR1NT«PP,- 

We now know where to print 
the « indicator. But how do we 
know what lies in each direction 
from the current location? By 
adding the value of PPto the be- 
ginning of video memory 
(15360), we have the player's lo- 
cation as an actual video memo- 
ry address. Usng Z as the cur- 



rent video memory location we 
PEEK(Z) for 146 (desert), 170 
(forest) or 188 (mountains). De- 
pending on the location, a one- 
digit code (0,1.2,3) is loaded into 
M(0), which Is the variable for the 
current locaiton. We do the 
same for the six matrix loca- 
tions (60 miles) in each direction 
in the following manner: 

West U|1l mru M|e) < 

East M(7)1h(u U02| - 

Z + 1 ^ + 2.Z 1 3.Z * 4.Z + 5^ +6 

Nortn M(13)thru M(1B1 - 

Z■&^2^2BZ■ 1 92.Z 256.2 3202-3M 

South U(19)thru U(24) - 

Z * 64^ + 12B2 + 192.Z + 2XZ * 320,Z ♦ 384 

The values of M(s) can then be 
examined to determine what is 
in any given direction. ■ 



Program Listing. 



1 ' WESTWARD, HOI 

2 ' COPYRIGHT (C) 1979 RAY HEROLD 

3 ' 

SB CLEAR13e:Din SS ( 20 ) , G ( 20 1 :GOSUB60a0 : FORX- 1T028 ; READS 

SIX) :NEXTXiFORX"lTO20:REAOG(X) iNEXTX 
IBB RAKDOHiDIK S [ 20 , 4) ,M ( 24 ] 
150 CLSiPRlNTe64, ■NUMBER OF PLAYERS 1 - 4 "j : INPUTPj IFP< 

1ORP>4THEN150 
200 FOTX-1TOP!PBINT:PBINT"NAME OF PLAYER NUKBEB'jXj I IMP 

UTNS(X) :X(X)-40:y(X)'14:NH(X)-l:NEXTX 
300 FORN-1TOP:COSIIS1000:NEXTN 
400 FORX-1TO20:G(X) -e:NEXTX 
500 FORN-lTOP:Sl-0: IFSF { N) '9THENNEXTN : GOTOSBB :ELSECOSUB 

S0EIO:GOSIIB2a00:GOSUB3e00:NEXTN:ND<>ND')'l:GOTO5e0 
1000 CLS!PRINTTAB(15)NS{N) ; " - SELECT YCXJR SUPPLIES":PR 

INTTAB( 101 "NUMBER AFTER ITEM INDICATES WEIGHT' :PRI 

NT:FORX-18T02B:C(X)-S{X,N) : NEXTX 
1B10 F0RX"1T01B:PRINTX; "- " jSS (X) ;G(X) ; ; PRINTTAB (30 ) X»l 

0;"- ■;SS(X>10) ;G(XtlO; :NEXTX 
1020 PRINT(ie96, "ENTER ITEM YOU WISH TO TAKE. IF FIN 

ISHED';j INPUTI:IFI<eORI>28THEN102B 
1030 IFI-0RETURN 
1035 IFS( I,N) ■;>0PRINTee96, "YOU ALREADY HAVE ".-SSdllSTR 

INGS{45, " ") ; : FORX-1TO8O0 : NEXTX :GOTO1020 
lB4fl IFI<1BS(I,N1-G(I) :T(N)=T(N)+G(I) :GOTO100O 
1050 L»63-(LEN(SS(I) ) *23) :PRINT@896, "HOW MANY DAYS WORT 

H OF "rSSd) .-STRINGStL," ■):PKINT"(5 TO 25 DAYS) ' ; 

:D-99:INPUTI}:IFD>4ANDD;26E(I,N)-D:T(N)-T(N)tD:GOTO 

I0B0JELSEGOTO1050 
20B0 ' STATUS 

20 B 5 COSUB2200:COSUB2400:GOSIIB26BB 

2006 FORZ-18T02a:IFS(Z,N)«.BS(Z,N)-B:NEXTZ:ELSENEXTZ 
2BB7 CLSiPRINT: PRINTTAB{15) NS(N) ; " 'S CURRENT STATUS "j PR 

INT 
201B PRINT'YOUR LOCATION: "jLS JPRINT'YOO HAVE TRAVELE 

Program continues 



IMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 

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150 • 80 Microcomputing, October 1980 



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microcomputing 



fill out the 
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on page 227 



D"(MI{N) ; "MILES IN" ;NDr "DAXS. " sPBINT'XOUR FOOD SOP 

PLY IS";S(18,N) ; "DAYS.":PRINT"yOi; HAVE" ;S ( 19,N) ; "D 

AYS OP OATS FOR THE HORSES." 
2020 PR1NT"Y00 HAVE A WATER SUPPLY OF" ;S( 2B,N) ; "DAYS. " : 

PRINT"YOU ARE CARRYING";T(N) ; "POUNDS OF SUPPLIES." 

!PRINT"YOU ARE: " ;CDS ( 1 ) ! CD$ ( 2) ; CDS { 3 ) ; CDS ( 4 ) 

2030 PRINT"THE HORSES ARE: " ;HD5 ( 1 ) ; HOS { 2) : PRINTSTRIN 

GS(6 4."-"1 :IFS9-1RETURN 
2050 PRINTea96, "SCOUT THE AREA - Y OR N" , " " ; : INPUTAS : I 

FAS-"Y"GOSUB270e 
2060 GOSUB2300:Wl-E/100:W2-(WY*.2)/iee:W3-(WH*.81/100:W 

4"EH/100!WT-Wl+W2+W3+W4!TH"WT:WT>-WT/3!lFD{N) >eTHEH 

2099 
2070 PRINT"lfflICH DIRECTION WILL YOC GO - N, S, E, W"; 

iINPUTDS:lFD$<>"N"ANDDS<>"S"ANDDS<>"W"ANDDS':>"E"TH 

EN207e 
207 4 C-([ ((14 3-T{N))/41+ie)»WT)'NH(N)*( ( SF ( N) +HH ( N) ) / 2 ) 
2B7 9 IF((DS-"N"ANDS3-l)OB(DS-"S"ANDS4=l)OR(D5-"E"ANDS5= 

1)0R(DS-"W"ANDS6-1)) ANDC>10GO5UB2ie0:GOTO209 9 
20B0 IPDS-"5"GOSUB29B0 

2081 1FDS="N"GOSUB2920 

2082 IFDS-'W'GOSUB2940 

2083 IFDS""E"GOSUB2960 
2085 MI{N)-KI(N)«-C 

2099 T{N)-T(N)-TH:S(18,N1-S(18,N)-W1:S[19,N)-S(19,N)-W4 
:S(20,N)-S(2O,N) -(W3+W2] : RETURN 

2100 ' LOCATION STOP 
2110 IFDS-"S"Y(N)-Y{N)+2 
2120 IFDS-"N"Y(N)-Y(N)-2 
2130 IFDS="W"XlN)-X(N)-.666 
2140 IFDS-'E*X(N)-X(N)'f.666 
2150 MI (NI-HKNj-^lOiRETURN 
2200 ' LOCATION 

2205 IPX(N)<-10BX(N) >410RY (N) <0ORY(N1 >26CLS ; FIIINT@64, 'T 

HERE'S A SIGNPOST UP AHEAD: 
YOU HAVE JUST ENTERED 

THE TWILIGHT ZONE 1 " : X ( N) -40 : Y ( N) -14 : I NPUT'PRESS EN 

TER" ! AS :GOSUB5Bfl0! RETURN 
2210 IFX{N) <10RX(N) >40ORY(N) ^lORYfN) >24THENLS= " YOU ABE 

LOSTl !"!RETURN 
2215 IFM(B)=23L5=MS(5) :RETURN 
232B IFK(B) >4LS-MS (M [ 0] -IB ] ELSELS-L5 (H(0) ) 

2299 RETURN 

2300 ' SUPPLIES 

231B CLS;PRINTe64,"IT'S TIME TO DIWY UP THE GRUB, PARD 

NERi"!PRINT:PRINT"HOW MUCH OF THE DAILY RATION WIL 

L YOU CONSUME (B - 10fl% )": PRINT: Z- {( N-1 ) *5) +1 
2315 IFS(18,N) >0INPUT"FOOD FOR YOU" f E: NFIN) -NF(N) -1 :ELS 

EINPUT'YOU ABE OUT OF FOOD! 1 1 " ; AS:E-0 
2320 IFE<OORE>10BTHEN2315 
2325 IFS(20,N) >flPRINT:INPUT"WATER FOR YOU" ;WY : HW (N) "HW ( 

N1-1:NW(N)-NH(N)-1:ELSEPRINT:INPUT"Y0U ABE OUT OF 

WATER! ! 1";AS:WY-0:WH-0:GOTO2340 
2330 IFWY<BORWYM0BTHEN2325 
2335 PRINT: INPUT'WATER FOR THE HORSES " ;WH : IFWH^OORWH MB 

0THEN2335 
234B IFS(19,N) >flPRINT:INPUT"OATS FOR THE HORSES" j EH: HF( 

N)-HF(N)-1:ELSEPRINT: INPUT"YOU ABE OUT OF OATS III " 

;A$:EH-0 

2345 IFEH<eOREH>ie0THEN2340 

2346 IFE<40NF(N)-NF(N)-»1:G(Z)«1 

2347 IFWY<30NW(N).HW(N)+l!G(Z+l)»l 
23 48 IFEH<4flHF(N)=HF(N)+l!HC(U)-l 
2349 IFWH<30HW(N)=HW(N)+1:HC(U+1)-1 

2359 IFLS<flOBLS>762THEN236B 

23 54 IFM(0}-lORM(0)-llWY-WY*1.3:WH-WH*i.5!EH«=EH*1.2 
2356 IFM(B)''30HM(B)-13EH-EH».6 
2358 IFM(0)-2ORM(B}-12EH-EH*.4 

2360 irNF(N)<0NF(N)-BELSEE<=E*{l+(NF(N)/lB)) 
236 2 IFNW1N)'0HW(N)-0ELSEWY-WY*(1+{NW(N)/10) J 
236 4 IFHW(N] < 0HW (N) -0ELSEWK-WH* (1+(HW (N)/1B ) ) 
2366 IFHF(N)<0HF(N)-0ELSEEH-EH*(l-t'(HF(N]/10}) 

23 99 CLS: RETURN 
2400 ' CONDITION 

2410 FORX-lTD4;CDSiX)-"":NEXTX:Z-({N-l)*5)tl:TT-0:TC-0 

24 30 F0RX-ZT0Z+3:TC-TC+G{Xt :NEXTX : IFTC-0CDS ID -"O.K. ' :G 

OT02499 
2440 PORX-ZTOZ43;B-(X-Z)4^1:IFG(X)>0G(X)-G{X)-1:CDS18)-C 
S(B) ;TT-TT+1:NEXTX:ELSEHEXTX 

2499 SP(K)-l-('IT/4) sRETURN 

2500 W-INT({Z/2]+.5) iRETURN 
2510 H-INT(J*1.5) iRETURN 

2550 CLS:PRINTP64,"YOU MUST FIND "fMSO)!* TO TRAVEL 
IN 

THAT DIBECTION":PRINT!lNPUT"PRESS EWTER" iA$:RETUR 

N 
2600 ' HORSE'S COMD. 

2610 HD5(l)-""!HDS(2)-""!U-({N-l)*2)+liTT-0 
262B IFHC(Ul+HC[U+l)-BHDS{l)-"O.K.";GarO2640 
26 38 FORX-UTOU*l:B-[X-U)+l! IFHC(X) >BHC (X) -HC (X) -IsHDS CB 

)-CS(B) !TT-TT+l:NEXTXiELSENEXTX 
264B HH(N)-l-(TT/4) :RETURN 
270B ' SCOUT AREA 
27B3 CLS!TWS-"":TSS-'"sTNS-"";TES-""!SWS-"":SSS-"":SNS- 

":SES-"":IFS(16,N)-0THENPRIKTsPBINT'YOU AREN'T GO 

NNA DO MUCH SCOUTING AROUND WITHOUT 
FIELD GLASSES, 

TINHORN. NOT TOO SKABTI 1 ': INPUTAS :RETURN 
2705 S3>B:S4>0:S5-0:56-0 

Program conlmuts 




Don'l tM misled by more eipensive imllalions! 

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more fumbling with keyboards— YEA' 

Your Pholo Point peckage comes complete: 

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Requtremenlt: 

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For last real time programming i| is your lowest 
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.f/*»aa»r S»tyK»~sw page 226 



BO Microcomputing, October 1980 • 1S1 



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Tha GREEN SCREEN to eiMkom moMMl to 
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It inganiously mounta In aa c onda without 
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CALL: [S12) E86-581S 
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27 B6 IPM(13]-23A-3iSSS-H$(5] ;G0TO2715 

2717 IFH(13)>4ANDH(13)<>14SS$-H$(I1(13)-1B) :54-l 

2711 IFY{H)>23TS5-WM$:Car02716 

2711 IFH(14)-23A-3:GOT02715 

2712 IFH(14) >4A-M(14)-10EL5EA-H(14) 

2715 TS$-l;(A] 

2716 IFMll)-23A-3:SWS-MS(5) :COT02725 

27 IB IFMd) >4ANDH(l)<>14SW$-NS(Htl]-la) 1S6-I 
272i IFX(N]<2TH$-WH$iGOT0272G 

2721 IFK(2)-23A-3!GOT02725 

2722 IFH[2)>4A-K[2)~10ELSEA-H12} 
2725 TWS-L$|A) 

27 26 IFN(19)-23A-3iSN5-H${5) iGOT027 3S 

27 28 IFM(19)>4ANDH{19)<>14SHS-H5(H(191>1I) iS3-l 

2730 IFY(Nl<2TNS-WMSiGOT02736 

2731 IFM12B)-23A-3jGCTr02735 

2732 IFH|2a) >4A-H ( 20 ) ~lilELSEA-H( 20) 

2735 TN5-L5(A) 

2736 IFH(7)-23A-3;SES-H$(5) :C0TO27 45 

273 B IFM(7) >4ANDH(7] <>14SE$-M$ (M|7 ) -IB] :S5-1 
2741 IFX(N) >39TE5-WK5;G0TO278B 

2741 irH(B)-23A-3:GOT0274S 

2742 IFH(8) >4A-HtB)'lBELSEA-l<l(e) 
274S TE$-L$(A) 

2780 PHINTiPRIWT'TO THE NORTH: ■;TNS!PRIHT" ■;SN5!PR1 
NT'TO THE EAST: 'jTESiPRIHT" " | SES : PRI NT'TO THE 
SOUTH: ";TSS:PRIirr' ' jSSS : PRIWT'TO THE WEST: 'j 
TWS: PRINT- " ;SWS! INPUT"EKTER" ; AS : RETURN 

2980 I-Y(N) !W-Z:YY-0:GOSUB2500:WA-W:Z»(E+IC/181) :K"I;G 
OSUB25BB:HB-W 

2902 FORZ-HA4^1TOWB:W-(Z-WA)+12 

2910 IFN(W)>23GOSUB25S0:GOSUB298e:Y(N)-Y(N)+yy] RETURN 
!ELSEVY-YYt2 

2915 GOSUB4B00:NEXTZiY(N)-K 

2916 IFYM<24ANDK>24Y|N}-24 

2919 RETURN 

2920 Z-Y(N) iYVI-ZiYY-BiGOSUB2500:WA-W;Z-(Z-(C/lB)) ;K-Z;G 
OSUB25B0IHB-W 

2922 FORZ-WA-lTOWBSTEP-l:W-[WA-Z]'flB 

293B IFM(W}-23GOSUB255B:GOSUB298B!Y(N)-Y(N)-YY! RETURN 
!ELSEYY-YY+2: 

2935 GOSUB4000:NEXTZ:Y(N)-K 

2936 IFYW>1ANDK<1Y(N)-1 

2939 RETURN 

2940 J-X(N) :XW-J:WX-B!GOSUB25ie:HA-W:J-(J-(C/lB)) :K-J;G 
O5UB2S10:WB-W 

2942 F0RJ-WA-1T0HBSTEP-1:W-WA-J 

2950 IFK(N}-23GOSUB2550:GOSUB299BiX(N)-X{N)-HX:RETURN 
:ELSEWX-WX-».666 

2955 GOSUB4000:NEXTJ:XIN]-K 

2956 IFXW>lANDK<lXtN)-l 

2959 RETURN 

2960 J-X(N) iXW-J:WX-0:GOSUB2S10:lirA-H;J-(J+(C/ie)) iK-JiG 
OSUB25ie:WB-W 

2962 F0RJ-WA+1T0WB:W-(J-HA]«G 

2970 IFM(W)-23GOSUB2550iGOSUB299B:X(N)-X(K)+WX)RETURN 

tELSEWX-WX+.66e 

2975 COSUB4BB0iKEXTJiX(Nl-K 

2976 IFXW<4BANDK>40X(N)-40 
297 9 RETURN 

2980 C-YY'IBtRETURN 

299B C-WX*15: RETURN 

2999 RETURN 

30BB ' SITUATIONS 

3005 CLS:PRINT 

3007 IFNF(N)>50RNVI(N} >50RKF(N) >50RHWtN) >5PRINTNSIN1 ] ' D 

lED ON THE JOURNEY. 
S.I.P."!PRINT:INPUT"ENTER";AS: 

PC-PC+l:SF(N)«9!lFPC-PTHENPRINT"THE GAME IS OVER. " 

I STOPELSERETURN 
3010 IFNF(N)>3PRlNT"yDU ABE STARVING" :SB-1 
3012 IFNW(N) >3PBINT"Y0U ARE DYING OF THIRST":Sfl-l 
3014 IFHW{N) >3PRINT"THE HORSES ARE DYING OF THIRST":SB- 

1 
3B16 IFHFtNl >3PRINT"THE HORSES ARE STARVING" iS0-l 
3B2B IFS0-lINPUT"ENTER"iA$:S0-0:CLS 

3021 IFD(N) >BTHEND(N)-D(N)-1: RETURN 

3022 IFH(0}-llDRH|0)-12PRINTiPRINT"THERE IS WATER HERE. 

DO YOU WANT TO FILL THE CONTAINERS? Y OR N'jiINP 

UTFSiIFF$-"Y"T(N)-T(N)+(25-S(2B,N) ) :S{2B,N)-25 

3025 IFM(0)-10ANDS{15,N) >0PRINT!PHINT"THE SETTLER'S HER 
E WILL GIVE YOU 5 DAYS WORTH 

OF OATS FOB YOUR GOLD 

DUST. DO YOU ACCEPT Y - N" ( : INPUTFS: IFFS-'Y"S (1 
9,M]-S(19,N)+5:S(15,N)-0:T(N]'T(N)+5 

3030 IFT(N)<65ANDND-2PRINT'OME OF YOUB HORSES STUHBLED 

AND BROKE HIS LEG. 
YOU HAD TO DESTROY HIH.'iPRINT: 

1 NPUT"EHTER "iASiNH(N)-NH(N)-.3i RETURN 
3040 IFRND(151-7AHn(H0)<4ANDIHB)<>lPBINTRS(M(Bl) iPRINTQ 

StELSEGOTO310B 

3045 AS-""iINPUTAStIFAS-"N"RETURN 

3046 IFS(9,N]<1INPUT'Y0U DON'T HAVE ANY AMHO. 
ENTER" rA$ 

I RETURN 
305B V-B: IFS(7 ,N) O0V-8ELSEIFS (B,N} OBV-14 
3055 IFV-0INPUT'yOU DIDN'T BRING A RIFLE OR GUN. 
ENTER" 

Progrtm conrrnuci 



152 • 80 Microcomputing, Octob9r 1930 



3111 
3121 
313B 



328S 



3266 



) AS: RETURN 
3060 IFRHDtV) >6INPUT'Y0U HISSED HIHI 
ENTER * J AS I RETURN : E 

LSEINPUT'YOU GOT HIHI I 
ENTER'iA$:5{ie,N)-S(lB,N)4-4 

:T(N)-T(N)+4!RETURN 

IF(T(N)<8B)V-3ELSEV-5 

IFItHD(V)<>3RETURN 

IFH1BJ>3THEK3199 

V-|4*H(f|)+RND(4} :ONVGOSUB32B0,33IB,33SB,35IB,327B 

,33BB, 3370, 34BB,328B,33BB,335B,345B,32BB,32SB, 3268 

,3400 
3199 RETURN 
32SB PRINT'IT GETS COLD OUT HERE AT NIGHT. " i IFS(3 ,N) >BA 

NDS(4,N} >BPRINT14S(7) (SS[3) i' AND ' t SS { 4) : INPUT'ENT 

ER"iAS:RETURN 
321B JFS{3,N]<1PRINTHS(6I iSS[3) 
3212 IFS(4,N)<1PRINTHS(6) lES(4) 
3215 PRINT'YOO CAUGHT A BAD COLD" : INPUT'ENTER" j ASiG( ( {N 

-11»5)*31-3:RETURN 
325B PRINT"IT'S VERY ROCKY HERE. ' : IFStl ,N) >BPRINTMS (7 ) i 

SSd) iINPUT'ENTEB'jASlBETURN 
3268 PRINTHS(6) iSS(l) iPRINT'YOO TWISTED YOUR ANKLE" i IMP 

UT'ENTEB" I AS 1 G ( ( { N- 1 ) "5 1 +4 ) -3 ! RETURN 
3270 PRINT"YOOH WAGCM HIT A GOPHER BOLE" s IFS 117 ,N) >BPRI 

NTliS{7) ;SS(17) iPRINT'IT TAKES 1 DAY TO REPAIR":D{N 

) -1: INPUT" ENTER"; AS: RETURN iELSEPRINTHS (6) |S$(17) :P 

RINT'IT TAKES 3 DAYS TO REPAIR" :D(N1 -3i INPUT'EHTEB 

'lASiRETURN 
3281 PRINT"YOU ARE APPROACHED BY A BEAR' : IFS(e ,N) >BPRI 

HT'HE TAXES YOUR ';S$(6)t* AND LEAVES' :S{6 , N] -t:T( 

N) -T{N) -3 ; INPUT'ENTER' j AS : RETURN 

IFRND{2)-lAND5(ia,N] >6PRIHT'HE TAKES HALF YOUR FOO 

D AND LEAVES"iV-S(16,N]/2iT(N)-T{N)-ViS(lB,Hl-S{18 

,N]-ViINPUT"ENTER"|AS:RETURM]ELSEPRINT"HE HAULS YO 

U. YOU TAKE 3 DAYS TO RECOVER" ; D { N) -3 iG ({( N-l) 'S 1 

+ 4J-5 

INPUT-ENTER" I AS :RETURN 
330B IFH(0)-lV-lELSEV-2 
3318 PRINT"WATCH OUTl 
YOU ARE BITTEN BY " |BS (V) ; IFS{ 10, 

N) >0PRINTH$|7] iSSIlB) iPRINT"yOU TAKE 2 DAYS TO REC 

OVEF"iG{[(N-l)*5)+3)-3iD(N)-2!lNPUT'ENTER"iAS;RETU 

RN 

3315 PRINT14$|G1 ;SS(1B) :IFSI11,N) >BPRINT"THE WHISKEY HEL 
FS SOHE. 

YOU TAKE 3 DAYS TO RECOVER. " !G( ( (N-l) 'S) ♦ 

3)-4:D{N)-3iELSEPRIMT"YOU TAKE 4 DAYS TO RECOVER": 
D(N)-4 

3316 G[ ( [H-l)*5)+3)"5: INPUT" ENTER" [AS: RETURN 

3358 PRINT"IMDIANSlll"!lFS{14,N)>BPRINT'Y0U OFFER THEH 

■)S5(14) :IFRND(4)<>2PRINT"THEY ACCEPT" : INPUT; AS :S( 

14,N)-0lT(N1-T(N)-4:INPUTA$:RETURN:ELSEPRINT"THEY 

DONT LIKE TTIINKETS. 
TUEY TAKE ONE OF THE HORSES" iN 

H t N) -NH ( N) - . 2 : INPUTAS : RETURN 
3368 IFS(9,N) >0PRINT"THEY TAKE YOUR AHMO' !S{ 9 ,N) -0 ;T(N) 

-T(N)-3:INPUTA5:BETURNiELSEPRINT'YOU FIGHT THEH OF 

F BUT ARE WOONDED"iG({ (N-l)*5)+41"4!lNPUTA5:RETURN 

PRINT"Y0O ARE ATTACKED BY A COYOTE ."; IFS { 5 , N) >0PRI 

NT"YOU USE YOUR KNIFE TO FIGHT HIH OFF. 
YOU ARE SL 

IGHTLY WOUNDED' !G( I (N-l) 'S 1 +4 ) "2 ! INPUTAS : RETURN 
337 5 PRINT'YOU HAKE IT BACK TO THE WAGCW BUT YOU'RE 
SER 

lOUSLY HOUNDED. 
YOU TAKE 3 DAYS TO RECOVER" :D(N} -3 

iGl((N-l)*5)4'4)-6i INPUTAS i RETURN 
3400 PRINT"yOU ARE BESET BY BANDITS" : IFS(1S ,N) >0PRINT-T 

HEY TAKE YOUR GOLD DUST" :S ( 15 ,N) -0 ;T{N) -T{N) -5 ; INP 

UTAS I RETURN 
3411 IPS(11,N)>0PRINT"THEY TAKE YOUR VfHISKEY':S ( 11 ,N) -0 

:T(N)-T(H)-5:INPUTAS:ELSEPRIKT"Y0U FIGHT THEH OFF 

BUT ARE WOUNDED"iG(((N-l)»5)+4)-3:INPUTAS:RETURN 
3428 IFRND(3)-2ANDS(20,N)>fiPRINT'THEY GET DRUNK AND SHO 

OT UP THE HATER TANKS. 
YOU LOSE HALF OF IT.'iV-S(2 

0,N)/2iT|N}-T(N)-V:S|2B,N)-S{2B,N)-V:INPUTA$ 
3425 RETURN 
3450 PRINT"yOUR WAGCM GETS STUCK IN THE HUD" ; IPS(12 ,N) > 

8PRINTflS(7) ]SS|12) iPRINT'YOU LOSE 1 DAY" iD{N) -1 1 IN 

PUTA$iRETURN:ELSEPRINTH${6] )SS(12} 

IFS(13,N) >8PRINT"Y0U HAVE TO CUT DOWN A TREE WITH 

YOUR AXE 
TO HAKE LEVERS. 
IT TAKES 2 DAYS TO GET OU 

T.":D(N)-2!ELSEPRINT"IT TAKES 4 DAYS TO GET OUT"!D 
(N)-4 
3460 INPUTAS I RETURN 
3588 PR1NT"A DUST STORH HITS" : IFS ( 2,N1 >BPRINTHS (7 1 jSS [ 2 

ltPRINT"yOU STOP FOR 1 DAY TO LET IT PASS" iD(N) -1: 

INPUTASiRETURN:ELSEPRINT"THE SAND INJURES YOUR EYE 

S 
YOU TAKE 3 DAYS TO RECOVER YOUR SIGHT' sGI ( (N-l) • 

5)+4)-4!D{N)»3:INPUTAS;RETURN 
3999 RETURN 
4800 IFH(W]-14S9-1:LS-HS{4] ;GOSUB2887:PRINTTAB(20] "— T 

HE MINHER — "-.STOPiEliERETURH 
5800 ' DRAM NAP 

Program continues 



337f 



3455 




_ INTEGRATED 
EYPLUS UTILITY 
PACKAGE 

"Very powerful, underpriced, a must buy!" 
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"Kcyplus is terrifii;. . .an incredible program." 
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"Thank you for your fantastic utility program." 
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"Makes the TRS-80 thai much more versatile." 
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Keyplus is a powerful collcclion of utilities for the TRS-80. 
Routines can be enabled whenever the TRS-80 accesses the 
keyboard. A partial list of utilities includes: 

AUTO REPEAT— Allows you to repeal a key simply by holding 
the key down. This is a must when editing BASIC programs. 

LOWERCASE VIDEO— If your TRS-80 has a hardware modifica- 
tion installed for lowercase video, Keyplus will add the software 
needed to make it work. 

BASIC SHORTHAND— Keyplus generates BASIC key words 
(GOSUB, INPUT, STEP, etc.) in a single key stroke. You have the 
option of having Keyplus print trailing blanks when practical, add- 
ing to the appearance of the listing. 

RESTORE LOST BASIC PROGRAM— Ever NEW a program on- 
ly to realize you did not record it? Two key strokes and you've got il 
back! 

LOWERCASE WITHOUT SHIFT— Keyplus lets you generate 
lowercase from the keyboard without depressing the SHIFT key. 

DIRECT KEYBOARD ENTRY OF GRAPHICS— Type graphic 
strings directly from the keyboard. This is the easy way to create 
BASIC programs with super fast graphics. 

USER DEFINABLE STRINGS— Two user definable strings up to 
32 characters long can be generated in a single key stroke. With this 
feature redundant input docs not have to be retyped. 

KEYBOARD DEBOUNCE— (LV. II, 16K version only) Keyplus 
cures debounce problems completely. 

AUTO INPUT— {Disk version only) Allows you to define a string, 
save the string onto disk, and then recall the string, fooling the com- 
puter into thinking the string is being typed from keyboard. This is 
extremely powerful. For example, you can enter BASIC, set mem- 
ory size, reserve file buffers, turn off interrupts, run a program, re- 
spond to questions asked by the program, etc., automatically from 
power up or from the DOS READY prompt. 

SAVE KEYPLUS— (Disk version only) You can use this routine to 
allow Keyplus to be initialized with any combination of routines 
enabled or disabled. In addition, your user definable strings can be 
saved to disk! 

Disk Keyplus comes on cassette with both the 32K and 48K ver- 
sions recorded twice. The documentation gives detailed informa- 
tion on loading Keyplus to diskette. 

TRS-80 is a registered trade mark of Tandy Corp. 

m^ SJW, inc., PC Box 438, Huntingdon Valley. Pa. 19006 

^" To order phone (215) 947-2037. 

Circleonc: Lv.2 16K S14.95 Disk 32-48K S19.95 

Circle one: VISA MASTERCARD Check Money Order 

Pa. residents add ft sales tax. 
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' R««d*r Stnictst* page 226 



80 Microcomputing, October 1960 • 1S3 




ZIP UP TO 
7 S PEE PS! 



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MHZ)t Our NEW spsadup board enables programs to run 50% slower (han 
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Software speed control with switch override option allows speed changes 
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ASSEMBLED AND TESTED S37.5Q 

VIDEO I. Provides black characters and graphics on an all white screen for 
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Boi 343*1 - L onqwoofJ Fl.i 327SO 
(30S) 862 6917 



5512 
5514 
5516 



5524 
5526 



5532 
5534 
5536 



5010 IFS2-0COSUB580D:S2>1 

5020 CLS:PRINTTAB(25)"MAP FOR • ; NS (N) : PRINTSTBINGS (63 , C 
HRS(143}) ; :FORX=127T0896STEP64:PRINTex,CHRS(191); : 
NEXTX 
5B30 F0RX-64TO8 32STEP6 4:PRINTgX,CHRS(191) ; : NEXTX : PRl NT : 
PRINTSTRINGS(64,CHRS(143) ) ; 

Y=B:Z-0:B-6:FORX=494TO8B6STEP6 4:Y-V+l!lFY=3THENZ=l 
IFY-40RY-5Z=5:B=11 
IFY-60RY-7Z=6: B= 8 
IFY>7Y-4 

PRINT^X-Z, STRINGS (B,C1[RS (146) ) J 
507 NEXTX;FORX-6 48TOB40STEP64!Z"fl:B-8:PRINTeX,STBINGS( 
8,CHfiS(146) ) ; :NEXTX 

y-0lZ = fl:B=7iFORX-nBTO6ieSTEP6 4!Y = Y+l: irY=2T»ENZ = 2 
IFY-3Z-3:B-10 
IFY-4Z-5:B=12 
IFY.5Z»6:B-6 
IFY-6Z-5JB--4 

PRINTgX-Z, STRINGS (B,CHRS( 170)) ; 
5105 NEXTX:Z-5:FORX-194T0514ETEP6 4 iPRINTPX, STRINGS (Z,CH 
RSdTfl)) riZ-Z+l:NEXTX:FORX-57BTO66BSTEP64!B=3!Z'0i 
PBlNTeX,STRINGSl3,CHRS{170)) ; jNEXTX 
Y-0:Z-B:B-7:FOBX-14 5TO86BSTEP64:y-V+l 
IFY>3Z-Z + l:IFy>8THENB=13ELSEB-=9 
PRINTextZ, STRINGS (B, CURS (188)) ; 
513B NEXTX: 

516B PRINTe567, "START •" j :PRlNTe769, "• END"; 
520B PP-INT{(INT({Y(N)/2)+.5)*64)+(X(Nl *1.5)t64) ;G0SUH5 

50B 
5210 PRINTe7 47, "DESERT"; : PRrNTe296, "FOREST"; : PBINT066 5, 
"MOUNTAINS"; ! PRINT0985 ("PRESS ANY KEY " j : 1 FPP>0PRI N 
Tepp, "<< "j 
5299 IFINKEYS-""THEN5299ELSERETURN 
550B FORW-BT024:M(W]'=B:NEXTW 
551B F0RW-aTO6!Z=(1536fl+PP)-W 
IFPEEK(Z)-J46M(W)-1 
IFPEEK(Z) •=X70M(W} -2 
IFPEEK(Z)-188M(W).3 
5518 WZ-0;COSUB570O:NEXTW 
5520 FORW-1TO6:Z={15360*PP)+W 
5522 IFPEEK{Z}=146K(W+6)-l 

IFPEEK(Z)-170H(Wt6)=2 
IFPEEK(Z).188M(W+6)=3 
5528 WZ-6:GOSUB5700rNi;XTW 
55 30 PORW-lT06:Z=(15 36fl+PP)+lW*6 4) 
IFPEEK(Z)=146H(W+12)^1 
IFPEEKIZI =nflM{W+12)»2 
1FPEEK(Z)-188M(W+12)=3 
5538 WZ=12:GOSUB5700:NEXTW 
5540 F0RW-lT06:Z-(1536fl*PP)-(W*64) 
554 2 IFPEEK(Z)-146f1CW*18)=l 

5544 IFPEEK(Zl-17 0«(Wtle)-2 

5546 IFPEEK(Z)>=18aM(W+18)=3 
5546 WZ-18:GOSl)B5700:NEXTW:RETl]RN 
5700 FORWW-OTOIB 

IFZ-MP(WW)M(W+WZ)"13 
IFZ-HL(WW) M(W'fWZ)>23 
5720 NEXTWW 
5725 F0RWW-1T04 

IFZ-PL(WW)H(W+WZ).10 
IFZ-DL(WW)M(W+WZ1=11 
1FZ-FL(WW)M[W+WZ)-12 
1FZ-STTHENM(W+WZ)=14 
5745 NEXTWWiRETURN 

5800 ML (1).15509:KI,( 21-1557 3: ML (3) -15637 :ML{ 4) =15703!ML 
(5)=15768:ML(6)=15833:ML(7)=15898:NL(8)"15 96 3:ML(9 
)-16B32:HL(lB)-16 097:ML(0)-16162:MP(l)-16 227:HP(2) 
-15701:HPO)-15702:HF(4]<^16 02B:MP(5)-16 029:HP(6)-=1 
6030:HP(7)-16031 
5805 HP(81-156 3 8+(RND(5)"6 5) :ST=16129 
5B1B PL (1) -15565+ (RHD(41*65) : PL ( 2) =15566+ (RND(4) '65) : PL 

(3)«15580+(RND(4) *65) :PL(4) =15583+ (RND( 4) •65} 
5820 DL(1) -157 28+ [RND[4) •6 4) :DL ( 2) -15917+ (KND( 4) '64) :DL 

(3)=I5944+(RND(4}*65) : DL ( 4 ) =15945+ ( RND ( 4 ) '64 ) 
58 30 FL{1)-15466+(RHD(5)^65) :FL( 2) -15466+ (RMD( 5) '63) : FL 

(3)=15559+(RND(5)*65) :FL(4)-15560+(RND(5) •65} 
5890 RETURN 
6000 ' INITIALIZE 

606 LS (0) -"PRAIRIE" !LS[1) -"DESERT" ! LS ( 2) -"FOREST " ;LS(3 

) -"MOUNTAINS" !MS(0)-"A LITTLE BOUSE ON THE PRAIRIE 

":MS(1)-"A WATER HOLtl" :MS ( 2) = "A STREAM" :MS 13) -"A M 

OUNTAIN PASS" 

6065 MS{5)-"AN IMPASSABLE CL IFF" : C$ ( 1 )- 'HUNGRY, ": CS ( 2) - 

-THIRSTY, ";CS(3) = "SICK, ":CS (4) -"WOUNDED," 
6070 WMS-"A SIGN. IT SAYS; 
•• NO TRESSPASSING! ••■:MS(4 

)="A small T0WN";LS(4) •HS(4) 
6080 RS (0)-"THERE'S A PRAIRIE DOG UP AHEAD . " :RS { 2 ) -"THE 
RE'S A SQUIRRELL UP IN A TREE .": RS (3 )- "THERE ' S A R 
ABBIT IN THE BUSHES ." jQS- "DO YOU WANT TO SHOOT IT 
FOR FOOD y - N7":MS{5)="YOU SHOULD HAVE BROUGHT " 
!MS(7)="G00D THING YOU BROUGHT " 
6090 BS(1)-" A SC0RPI0N":BS(2)-" A RATTLESNAKE" 
6 999 RETURN 

7000 DATA"BOOTS", "A BANDANA", "BLANKETS" , "LCMJG JOHNS", "A 
KNIFE*, "ROCK CANDY", "A RIFLE" , "A REVOLVER" , "AMMUN 
ITION", "MEDICAL SU PPLIES " , "WH lEKEY " , "ROPE " , "AN AXE 
',"A BOX OF TRINKETS", "GOLD DUST", "FIELD GLASSES", 
"SPARE WAGON PARTS" 
7050 □ATA"F0OD FOR YOU", "OATS FOB THE HORSES", "WATER" , 4 
, 1,3, 1,3, 3, 7, 5, 3, 5, 5, 2, 4, 4, 5, 4, 15, 0,B,B 



5710 
5715 



5730 

5735 
57 4B 
5742 



154 • 80 Microcomputing. October 1980 



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MPI 88T Impact Matrix Printer 

Quality, Full-Page Printout 

For Your TRS 80 Computer! 

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• T)ipe ol Pnniing Impact bidirectional 7x7 dot matrix* Print (tite 100 
character! per tecond (mjmmum) • Thrupui BO ctiancicn per second 
(mmimum) • Ch4rici«r Set Full upper and lower case 9i character 

ASCtI let. loftwirejelecublesmgle or double wide chars aierfoni;* Character 
Height 0.10 in (0 2S(m)» Pr.nt Format 8.0m. (!0 Jem) line length. 80 characters 
per line at lOCPI, Mcharactersperlineat I2CPI. I20characteriperline 
at IS CPI, 1 32 characters per line at 16 S CPI • Paper Feed: 10 lines pet 
second, stepper motor controlled User selectable pressure roller or 
tractor feed • Line Spacing 6 or B lines per inch, user selectable 

• Media Roll paper: 8 S in (21.6 cm) wide by S In ( 12 7cm)diameicr 
single p\y or pressure sensitive multiple copy paper, 0.012 in. (3 mm| 
maiimum thickness Fan Fold paper; I m. ( 10 I cm) to 9 Sin (24 I cm| 
sprocket (mrludmg sprocket margins), 0.01 2 inc (3 mm) 
maximum thickness Cut Sheet paper: Maximum width. ! 5 in 

(24 I cm) • Ribbon Continuous loop canndge, 20 yds. 5 tn 

1 1.27 cm) wide blick ribbon. S million character line # Input 

Power ll5f230VAC.:i. 10%. 50^60 HZ* Data Input Parallel: 

Centronics compatible 7-bn ASCII. TTL levels with strobe. ■ 

acknowledge returned to indicate data was received Serial: -^ 

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80 Microcomputing, October 1980 • 155 



SCIENCE 



An exciting laboratory application for the people's computer. 



DVM Interface for the 80 



Karl J. Casper 
Harry R. Freedman 
Department of Physics 
Cleveland State University 
Cleveland, OH 44115 



For recording scientific mea- 
surements, the TRS-80 is lit- 
tle better than a hand-held cal- 
culator if all of the data is en- 
tered through the keyboard. The 
80 becomes a scientific instru- 
ment only when data can be 
read from a port. But in some 
cases, this data moves so swift- 
ly that it cannot be read by a 
BASIC program. 

An example of this is the in- 
formation recorded by a digital 
voltmeter. The settling time- 
the time for the voltmeter to sta- 
bilize at a particular reading — is 
usually in the range of 0.3 to 1.0 
seconds, which can conceivably 
be read in BASIC. But the digits 
in digital voltmeters are often 
strobed at rates of 500 Hz or 
greater -the appearance of a 
continuous display is only a 
consequence ol the persistence 
of human vision. 

No BASIC program can read 
information into the computer 
at this rate. Rather, a machine 
language program is required, 



preferably one that can be easily 
linked to a BASIC program. 
When this linking is possible, 
the experimenter can write flexi- 
ble programs in a high level lan- 
guage (o analyze and display 
the data recorded through the 
machine language program. 

In the past few years, single- 
chip peripheral interface adapt- 
ers have been developed, such 
as the 8255, which we have used 
to interface a Keithley Model 
179 digital voltmeter to the 
TRS-80. The circuit attached to 
the TRS-80 requires only two ad- 
ditional chips and a third chip is 
mounted inside the Keithley 
DVM, All the connections are 
made by cable to the edge card 
connector on the rear of the 80's 
keyboard. 

This same circuit can be used 
to interface any other relay- 
driven devices to the TRS-80 
with suitable programming in- 
structions. You can use it to 
monitor an air conditioner or in a 
security system to shut off and 
turn on lights, automatically. 

The Interface 

Digital voltmeters not only 
come in all shapes and sizes; 
the digital information is dis- 
played with different numbers of 
digits and by different decoding 
schemes. In liquid crystal dis- 
plays, for example, all segments 



of a seven-segment display are 
continuously available from the 
conversion circuit, A total of 35 
to 40 lines, depending on the 
decimal point display, may be 
physically connected to the 
display circuit. Decoding this in- 
formation with a TRS-80 re- 
quires a multiplex circuit that 
reads each digit in succession, 
a straightforward task, but with 
more wiring than we wanted. 

The Keithley Model 179digital 
voltmeter, like many voltmeters 
using light emitting diodes, 
strobes each digit into the dis- 
play circuit. The lighted output 
is not continuous: Each digit is 
illuminated in turn for two milli- 
seconds, then turned off for 
eight milliseconds. Each digit is 
illuminated in turn while the 
other digits are off. 

Multiplexing a display in this 
way not only saves power, but 
the digital information is ideal 
for reading directly into the 
TRS-80. The time period of two 
milliseconds is more than long 
enough to read the data and 
store it in a memory location. 
Moreover, the information is in 
BCD form; the conversion to 
ASCII is trivial. 

Photo 1 shows the front panel 
of the Keithley DVM, The voltage 
is measured in ranges from 0,2 
volts to 2000 volts, the current in 
ranges from 0.2 mA to 2 amps, 



and the resistance from 2000 
ohms to 20 megohms. The sign 
is automatically displayed. 

This model DVM has no exter- 
nal connector to the TRS-80, We 
installed a 25-pin connector on 
the back of the DVM and used 
cables between it and the inter- 
face box. Inside we added a 
board with one integrated cir- 
cuit to wire from the range 
switches to the connector. Al- 
though this is simple, it does 
void the Keithly warranty. 

Basically, the 8255 peripheral 
interface adapter (PI A) has three 
ports -any of which may be 
used as Inputs and outputs- 
and three modes of operation. In 
the first mode, called mode 0, 
each of the three eight-bit ports, 
A, B and C, can be programmed 
for either input or output by writ- 
ing the appropriate control word 
to the PIA, There is no hand- 
shaking and any port can be 
switched between input and 
output functions by writing a dif- 
ferent control word to the PIA, 

Mode 1 permits input/output 
data to be transferred to or from 
a specific port with handshak- 
ing. For example, a device may 
strobe the PIA informing it that 
the device has data to be read. 
The microcomputer, which is 
programmed to poll Port C look- 
ing for a strobe, reads the data 
into the input buffer of either 



156 • 80 Microcomputing, October 1980 



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80 Microcomputing, October 1980 • 157 



Port A or Port B. The PIA can 
then output the data to another 
external device in a similar lash- 
ion. 

Mode 2 permits bi-directional 
communication with a periph- 
eral device. Port C is used to 
determine the direction ol data 
flow in tjoth Ports A and B. 

Initially, we connected the in- 
terface for mode operation. 
However, this required a sepa- 
rate flip-flop which latched the 
TRS-80 into a Wait slate until 
the data strobes arrived. There 
was nothing wrong with this as 
long as the data strobes were 
physically present to bring the 
TRS-80 out of this Wait condi- 
tion. 

We worried that the memory 
might not be refreshed, but 
Radio Shack kindly informed us 
that the 2-80 memory refresh cy- 
cle continued even in this state. 
The Z-80 simply executes NOPs 
during Wait to activate the re- 
fresh register. 

However, ol the eight difler- 
enl TRS-80's we connected to 
this interlace, one unit appar- 
ently did not relresh during 
Wait, but did perform all other 
functions correctly. 

Since it is unlikely that most 
users will have checked the Wait 
function, and since the addi- 
tional llip-f lop can be eliminated 
in mode 1, we abandoned mode 
operation. 

Though the techniques we 
use do not take full advantage of 
handshaking, the TRS-BO is 



committed to reading the DVM 
as quickly as possible once the 
subroutine is accessed and is 
not allowed to perform any other 
function. It constantly polls Port 
C lor the strobe marking the 
next digit to be read. Alter read- 
ing and strobing this data (ap- 
proximately 50 microsecornls). 
the TRS-80 returns to polling 
Porte. 

TtM S255 Circuit 

The complete interface circuit 
wiring diagram is shown in Fig. 
1. The 8255, designated as IC2, 
is used in mode 1 operation. 

Ports A and B are both inputs 



and Port C directs the interlace. 
The PIA is addressed by the 
TRS-80 whenever the instruction 
OUT 240 through OUT 243 is 
used. This address is decoded 
by the eight input NAND gate. 
ICI, and the address lines AO 
and A1 . 

Port A reads the digital data in 
BCD form. Since this informa- 
tion is desired in ASCII, the two 
high order bits PA4 and PA5 are 
connected directly to +5 volts. 
Thus, the number lour is read as 
34, which is decoded in ASCII as 
4. 

Port B reads all of the residual 
information about the sign ot 



the number and the range. As 
we will see. it is important to 
know if the DVM is measuring 
resistance. Pin PB1 reads this 
information. 

It is also important to know il 
the DVM is connected to the in- 
terface circuit. Pin PBO mea- 
sures the DC supply voltage to 
determine not only if it is con- 
nected, but also if it is turned on. 
II neither of these conditions is 
fulfilled, the program returns im- 
mediately to BASIC. 

Of the three ports. Port C has 
the most work to do. Since the 
data from the DVM is stored in a 
string, it is necessary to deter- 



+/L/on/ / 




Fig. 1. Interface wiring diagram. The additior^al 5-volt power supply needed for the 8255 is not shown. 



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mine the arrival of the first digit. 
The digit strobes are differen- 
tiated by RC circuits which are 
physically wired inside the DVM. 
Each circuit is an input for a 
diode OR circuit which then ap- 
plies a signal to STB(B] at the ar- 
rival of a digit strobe -not nec- 
essarily the first one. 

The first digit strobe is also 
connected to STA(A). Since this 
strobe is differentiated, this pin 
returns almost immediately to a 
logic 1 state, and. about 0.3 
microseconds later, IBF(A} will 
be set to logic 1. If both IBF(A) 
and INTE(A) are high, then 
INTR(A) will be set to a logic 1 
state. The computer can check 
the level of INTR(A} to determine 
when the first digit strobe ar- 
rives. 

The actual execution of the 
main program takes less than 
100 microseconds, and the re- 
maining digits can be read in 
turn by checking INTR(B). 

The PIA IC2, the eight-input 
NAND gate ICl, and the inverter 
IC3 are mounted in a minibox 
with a separate power supply as 
shown in Photo 2. About 60 mA 
total current is required by these 
chips, and neither the TRS-80 
nor the Keithley DVM have that 
much to spare. A separate +b 
volt power supply was used. 

The interface box is attached 
by ribbon cables to the rear of 
the TRS-80 and to the Keithley 
DVM to a 40 pin jack that we 
mounted on the rear of the volt- 
meter. In this way, the adapter 
can be used tor interfacing other 
equipment to the TRS-80. 

When operating the three PIA 
ports as input, it Is advisable to 
return the pins to ground 
through a resistor as is shown 
for pins PB4-PB7. We chose the 
270O0 ohm resistors because we 
had so many of them in our 
stock, but somewhat smaller or 
larger resistors would work just 
as well. 

The decimal is not read as in- 
put data by Port A. The informa- 
tion is obtained through each 
range switch input on Port B. 
Moreover, we assume that the 
user knows whether volts, 
amps, or ohms are being mea- 
sured. The wiring and the pro- 
gram are simplified by that as- 
sumption. 

If the voltmeter is set to ohms. 



then PB1 will be set high, but 

that particular piece of informa- 
tion is determined only to place 
the decimal point correctly, The 
sign is determined by the logical 
value at pin PB2. If it is positive. 
then that point must register a 
logical 1. 

Finally, pin PBO determines 
that the digital voltmeter is 
turned on by checking its power 
supply. If the power is oft, the 
program returns to BASIC with a 
reading of 0. This pin is con- 
tinually polled during the exe- 
cution of the program. It the five- 
volt power supply is off, no 
strobes appear and the program 
finds itself in an endless loop. 

Using a PIA simplifies the cir- 
cuit enormously. Only four inte- 
grated circuits are actually 
needed, and the software con- 
trol subroutine is concise and 
easily written. 

The PIA is controlled through 
Port 243. This is not real port. 
but selects thecontrol word that 
defines the mode of the PIA 
ports (Fig. 2). 

Selecting Ports A and B as in- 
put and both upper and lower 
halves of Port C as an output 
when the chip is operating in 
mode 1 means that the control 
word should be 10110110 or 
B6H. This mode continues until 
changed by writing a different 
control word to 243. 

Imbedding the Subroutine 

The machine language sub- 
routine can be imbedded in the 
BASIC program by using string 
packing techniques. These were 
described among others by 
Mike Schmidt and Leo Christ- 
opherson in the May/June and 
July/Aug.. 1979 issues of 80- 
U.S. and by James Garon in the 
July, 1979 issue of the Orange 
Country Users Group Newslet- 
ter. 

The machine code is literally 
stored as bytes in a character 
string in a BASIC statement. 
The starting address of this 
string is then passed on to the 
USR subroutine. Calling USR, 
accesses the machine language 
program. 

The first step in the process is 
the creation of a program which 
will store the machine code as 
bytes in a string. The following 
statement defines a string vari- 



160 • 80 Microcomputing, October 1980 



able which must contain as 
many bytes as the machine Ian 
guage program: 



9000 ASi 



The line number 9000 is arbi- 
trarily chosen, but to append 
this program to another, the line 
number should be larger than 
the other numbers in the BASIC 
program. The machine language 
subroutine is POKEd into the ad- 
dresses corresponding to the 
bytes in the string. Each of the 
bytes represented by an aster- 
isk or a numt>er is replaced by 
one byte of the machine lan- 
guage program. 

The input butter, which inter- 
prets each line of a BASIC pro- 
gram before storing the line in 
memory, is only 255 bytes long. 
Therefore the machine lan- 
guage subroutine must not ex- 
ceed 255 bytes, less the number 
of bytes needed for the line num- 
ber and the characters A$ = " 
and the closing quotation marl<. 

The next step in the process 
picks up the beginning address 
of the string. The following 



CONTROL WORD 



Statements are needed: 



9010 A1 = PEEK lVAnPTR(A$) ■»■ 1) 
9020 A2 = PeEK(VARPTH(A$) + ) 
9030 A3 = A2-256 + Al 



These statements set A1 
equal to the least significant 
byte of the starting address of 
the string, A2 equal to the most 
significant byte of the address 
of the string, and A3 equal to the 
starting address of the string in 
decimal form. 

The USR function in Level II 
BASIC looks for the least signifi- 
cant byte of the starting address 
of the machine language sub- 
routine at location 16526 and 
the most significant byte of the 
address at 16527. The following 
statement passes the beginning 
address of the string to these 
locations: 

0040 POKE 1SS2e,A1 : POKE 16S27,A2 

Before storing these state- 
ments as a subroutine, the char- 
acters In the string must be re- 
placed with the machine lan- 
guage program. After assem- 




GROUP B 



PORT C (LOWER! 

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MODE SELECTION 
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GROUP A 



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0-OUTPUT 



PORT A 
I- INPUT 
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MODE SELECTION 
00 -MODE 
0! - MODE I 
IX -MODE 2 



MODE SET FLAG 
I - ACTIVE 



Fig. 2. Control word format for operation of 8255 peripheral Interface 
adapter (Courtesy Intel Corp.). 



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80 Microcomputing, October 1980 • 161 



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^90 



bling the program using the 
Editor/Assembler, the machine 
language ccxle is written in data 
statements in decimal form: 

10010 DATA 217.221.229.245.175.40.1.1,1,1, 

1,1,1.1.1.1,79,6.5.221 
10020 DATA 42,142,64,221,54.7.45,62.147, 

211, 

243,62,128,211,242,219.242,6?, 

175,211 

plus as many additional data 
statements as are necessary. 
Any number of bytes, up to ap- 
proximately 250, can be entered 
into a single data statement, but 
editing a data statement con- 
taining more than 20 bytes is in- 
convenient and time consum- 
ing. In general, the actual num- 
ber of bytes in a data statement 
and the format seems to vary 
widely according to individual 
preferences. The one used here 
is easy tor us to edit and modify. 
After writing N bytes into data 
statements, the following steps 
read them into the string: 

10100 RESTORE 
lOUO FOR I = OTO Nl 
10120 READ D : POKE A3 + I.D 
101 X NEXT I 

The complete program for 
reading the DVM subroutine into 
a string is stiown in Program 
Listing 1. The first statement 
sets aside enough bytes for 
storing the string. This state- 
ment must exist in the BASIC 
program where this subroutine 
will be used. 

When storing this subroutine 
on tape, only five steps, 9000 
through 9040. will tie retained. 
All other statements In the pro- 
gram in the listing may be delet- 
ed. The subroutine may form 
part of a general library of sub- 
routines that are appended to a 
BASIC program. The symbols 
A1-A3 and A$ are arbitrary and 
may be changed and the line 
numbers may be renumbered at 
any time. Statement 9000 con- 
tains the machine language 
subroutine which is called by 
the statement X = USR(O). Any 
numt>er of subroutines may be 
included in a program. It is only 
necessary to POKE the starting 
address of the subroutine into 
locations 16526 and 16527 each 
time that you wish to change the 
subroutine called by the USR 
function. 

Even if the subroutine de- 



1S2 " 80 Microcomputing, October 1980 




Photo 1. Front panel of Keilhley digital voltmeter. 



scribed here is ihe only one 
used inaprogrann, it is desirable 
to access it in the following way: 

2000 FOR N=0 TO 99 
2010 GOSUB 9000 
2020 X = USR(0) 
2030 NEXT N 

The Important step is line 
2010. It any BASIC statement is 
inserted into the program at any 
time, the BASIC interpreter 
automatically reallocates mem- 
ory storage of the rest of the 
BASIC program including the 
string containing the subrou- 
tine. The validity of the address- 
es that have been so carefully 
POKEd into locations 16526 and 
16527 IS lost. To restore that 
validity, the beginning address 
must be rePOKEd into those 
memory locations. Although it 
adds some time to the program, 
lines 2010 and 2020 should al- 
ways be coupled in writing 
BASIC programs. 

Subroutines from Disk 

If the program is to be used 
with Disk BASIC, then, as Garon 
has pointed out, it is necessary 
to replace line 9040 with 9040 
DEFUSRO = A3. 

The subroutine can then be 
called with the statement X = 
USRO(O). Subroutines stored in 
Disk BASIC are even more easily 
appended to BASIC programs. 
The greater storage capacity 
and speed of the disk simplify 
programming, and line renum- 
bering is a utility usually avail- 
able in most disk operating sys- 
tems. The procedure is quite 
similar to that used in large 
computers when accessing 
library subroutines. 

After the data statements are 
read and the code POKEd into 
the string, line 9000 now has 
bytes in the string that BASIC in- 



terprets in several ways. For ex- 
ample, suppose that line 9000 
originally set aside 10 bytes for 
a subroutine consisting of the 
following: 49.50.51.52.53,54.55. 
56.57.58. This subroutine does 
nothing, but after POKEing the 
bytes into the string, line 9000 
would look like this: 9000 A$ = 
■•123456789:'. These are the 
ASCII equivalents of the bytes in 
the string. 

The Level II BASIC interpreter 
checks each byte in a BASIC 
statement to determine if it is: 

A) A control code; 

8) An ASCII character; 

C) A token; 

The second edition of the 
Level II BASIC reference manual 
provides more information 
about this procedure on pages 
C/2 and 3. and page Bl. When 
the interpreter sees a byte be- 
tween 21 H and 5FH, it interprets 
that byte as an ASCII character 
in the way shown in this illustra- 
tion. 

One byte in this group must 
be avoided, 22H. This is inter- 
preted as the ASCII character 
and signifies the end of the 
string. 

For bytes between BOH and 
FAH. and for the byte FFH, the 
interpreter sees that bit 7 is set 
and understands that the byte is 
a token lor one of the BASIC 
functions. This results in less 
memory tieing needed in Level II 
for storing a BASIC program and 
gives an interesting appearance 
to the string. 

Unfortunately, the second 
edition of the Level II manual 
overlooks the token for BOH 
(128D) which is END and the 
token for 255 which is ISA. If the 
data statement in the example 
contains the code 229.213.195. 



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lems rnay require me use ol BaO'O Stiacti mS-DOS Radio Shack 
equipment jul>teci lo ine wiii anO *rinn o' Radio Shacli 

ORDERING INFORMATION 

Weaccf>pl Visa and Maslercharge We will shipC O D cerlilied Chech 
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Tha Comparty cannot b« Itabta lot pictorial w typogtapMcal tnaccuracMa. 



30 Microcomputing. October 1980 • 163 



Cliant Wit«-Up System* 

The Clisnl Wnte-Up System allows for ihe quick preparation oi finan- 
cial records (General Ledger, Balance sheet. Income Slatemenl) for a 
client . 

One lime entry oi general ledger and payroll accumulation by 
employee. 

Calculates and accrues employer taxes lor Social Security, Federal 
and State U/C taxes. User furrushes the taxable wages and roles and 
the computer sets up the liabibty and expense. 

Allows up to ten repetitive entries for depreciation and amortization of 
prepaid expenses, which are entered into the Client Master File and 
automatically updated monthly. 

General ledger account and employee names are displayed when 
keyed by the user. 

Can consolidate individual master files into one profit and loss state- 
ment, and one balance sheet. 

All constants such as tax rales, taxable wages, etc. are user furnished 
in the Client Master file 
Rapotti 

Thai Balance Comparative LS and B/S 

General Ledger 941, W-2 

Income Statement S1500.00 

Balance Sheet 



Tim* Analysia System* 

Accurate accounting oi the billing of time and services rendered is the 
goal of the Time Analysis System (TAS). 

Activity file can be custom tailored by the organization to fit individual 
business applications. 

Employee time is categonzed into different activities. 
Activities are entered into the client file and re0ect the activity per- 
formed, and the time spent by the employee. 

Rates are assigned to each employee and are used to bill the employ- 
ee's time 

Rate and activity amounts to be billed are computed and maintained 
as a Vlfork- In -Progress amount. 

All or part of the Work -In- Progress amount is transferred into an 
accounts receivable amount at the end of the month. 
Siotemenis ore pnnied reflecting the accounts receivable amount 
owed by the clients. 
Reports 

Activity File Client Activity Ledger 

Employee File Statements 

Employee Activity Report $200.00 

Client File 

Asset Depreciation System* 

The goal oi the Asset Depreciation System IADS) is to keep accurate 
records of a clients assets and subsequent depreciations. 
Depreciation of a given asset is computed by one of five standard 
methods: Straight Line, Sum-of-ihe- Years- Digits. Double Declining 
Balance. l.SODeclming Balance, and 1.25D«clming Balance. 
Dates used with the purchase of the asset are rounded to the nearest 
month start. 

An asset, at the end ot useful life, is terminated by one oi four methods 
oi disposal. 

ADS houses a general ledger chart of accounts so that the accoun- 
tants own general ledger may be easily cress- referenced with the 
ADS. 

The asset cost and accumulated depreaations are grouped by the 
ADS general ledger. 
Report* 

Fixed Asset Ledger COA listing 

Asset {depreciation Equipment File Listing 

Schedule $200.00 

* Hardware Requlrenieatm or 

MOD Qw( 64K RAM MOD I w. 32K RAM 

132 Column Line Printer 3 5V«' Disk Drives 



HMCT 



The Complete ^13 
Computer Company 



Houston Miao-Computer Technologies, inc. 

5313 Bisaonnal Bai«r«, Tmas 77401 713/661-2206 



219,241,211,243.217,209,201, 
then the resulting string would 
appear as: 



9000 A*^PEEK = ERniNPCDBLOHLENA 
BS(KEYS- 



all of which are tokens for this 
particular machine code. 

Real problems begin when 
the interpreter encounters the 
bytes FB, FC, FD and particular- 
ly FE. All of these have a 
destructive appearance when 
the program is listed although 
the machine code remains in- 
tact with FB, FC and FD. For 
most scientific programs it is 
better to work around opcodes 
using these bytes, thereby mak- 
ing it simpler to debug and 
modify the programs. For these 
bytes and the following, the ef- 
fects can be observed by POKE- 
ing the following bytes into line 
9000: 

10000 DATA 49 58.51.52,CC.53.CC,54.CC, 
55 

For CC, simply substitute the 
desired bytes, and after POKE- 
ing, list line 9000. 

Similar problems occur when 
the interpreter encounters bytes 
below 20H. From the Level II 
manual, these bytes are used for 
control codes for I/O functions. 
Trouble starts with byte 0. The 
BASIC interpreter, seeing this 
byte, thinks that it has reached 
the end of a line and that the 



next byte is the beginning of a 
new line. Machine code contain- 
ing this byte must be avoided at 
all times. 

The next byte 01 causes no 
problems, since the BASIC inter- 
preter simply ignores it in dis- 
playing the string, although the 
machine code is stored in the 
correct memory locations. For 
example, if the data statement 
contains Ihe bytes: 

10000 DATA 49,50.51.52.1.53.1.54.1.55 

then after reading this into the 
string line 9000 will have the ap- 
pearance: 9000 A$ = "1234567" 

The 01 byte has been ignored 
and it appears that the string on- 
ly has seven characters. But 
when the memory locations cor- 
responding to the string are ex- 
amined, all of the bytes are 
found m the right places. 

The use of bytes seen as con- 
trol codes can be summarized 
as in Table 1, All bytes are 
shown in decimal form. 

Machine Language Subroutine 

In constructing the machine 
language routine with the 
TRS-80 Editor/Assembler, we 
followed several principles. 
First, the subroutine is to be im- 
bedded in the BASIC program 
which dynamically reallocates it 
to different portions of memory 
and obviates setting aside any 
specific portion of memory. 




Photo 2. Minibox containing complete interface circuit- Box is larger 
than necessary tor future interfaces. 



164 • SO Microcomputing, October 1980 



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• • • A PERCOM BULLETIN • • • 

Adapter for TRS-80* computer eliminates disic read errors 



Garland, Texas — Harold 
Mauch. president of Percom 
Data Company, announced 
that the company is marketing 
a simple plug-in adapter for 
TRS-80' computers that cor- 
rects a design deficiency in 
the disk controller circuit. 

The problem, which 
causes disk read errors, has 
been traced to Tandy's re- 
liance on a circuit internal to 
the FD1771 controller IC to 
perform the function of 
separating clock and data 
pulses. 

As explained in the 
Backarounder. use of the in- 
ternal chip circuit for reliable 
data-ck>ck separation is a de- 
sign shortcut which the man- 
ufacturer of the controller IC 
warns against. 

The Percom solution, a 
PC card adapter called the 
SEPARATORS", eliminates 
the problem by substitutir>g £tn 
explicit data separator cirojit 



^^^ 




UATA rlN 



Percom adapter fixes TRS-BO' computar disk controller. 

— one which has been used The SEPARATORS" is 

reliably in Percom disk con- installed without modifying the 

trolters since 1977 — for the host system. The user merely 

intemeil IC separator circuit. removes the FD1771 IC from 



the host controller, installs the 
IC in the DIP socket oti the 
SEPARATORS" card, and 
plugs the adapter into the va- 
cated socket of the host corv 
troller. 

Percom cautions that 
opening the Expansk)n Inter- 
face of the TRS-80' comput- 
er, which is required to install 
the SEPARATOR'", may void 
the computers limited 90-day 
warranty. 

The SEPARATOR'", 
which sells for $29.95. may 
be purchased from Percom 
dealers or ordered direct from 
the factory. The Percom toll- 
free order number is 1- 
800-527-1592. 

Payment for mail orders 

may be made by certified 
check, cashier's check or 
money order, or charged to a 
Master Card or VISA account. 
Texas residents must add 5% 
sales tax. 



Percom Mini-Disk Drives 
Store IMore, Cost Less. 

Percom mini-disk drives store nx>re data, are 
more reliable, yet a 40-track Percom drive 
costs $100.00 test than a 35-track Tarxty 
drive. 

You can store over 1 02 Kbytes per disk 

on Percom TFD-100'" 40-track drives, over 

197 Kbytes per disk on TFD-200'' 77-track 

(Mves. A patch — supplied free on minidiskette — upgrades 

TRSDOS' for operation with the newer 40- and 77-track drives. 

Both TFD-100'" and TFD-200^" models are available in 

one-, two- and three-drive configurations. 

Prices start at $399 for a single-drive TFD-1 00'", $675 for a 
single-drive TFD-200'". Drives are supplied with heavy-duty 
power supplies. Metal enclosure is finished in compatible silver 
enamel. 

See your nearby Percom dealer or order direct by calling 
toll-free 1-800-527-1592. 




Five-Inch Disks Store IMore 
Than Eight-Inch Disks! 



Garland. Texas — June 25. 
1980 — Percom Data Company 
has begun production of a 
double-densi^ disk controller 
adapter for TRS-80' Model I com- 
puters. 

Harold Mauch, presklent of 
Percom, made ttiat anrxxxx»ment 
here today, saying that data stor- 
age capacity using the adapter and 
double-densrty disk operating sys- 
tem — which IS included — can be 
increased to as much as 354 
Kbytes per minidiskette. 

By comparison, the maximum 
storage for larger eight-inch disk 
systems used with ffie "mS-80" 



Model I computer is about 290 
Kbytes. 

Mauch sakj the PC card adap- 
ter, which plugs into the controller 
chip socket of the computer Ex- 
pansnn Interface, works equaity 
well for either single-density or 
double-density storage, arxJ users 
may continue to run programs 
under TRSDOS'. OS-SO* and 
ottier single-density operating sys- 
tems with the adapter installed. 

Price, for the plug-in adapter, 
the TTISOOS'-like double-density 
DOS arxj a utility for converting 
files arxj prD9rams from single- to 
double-density kxmat is $219.95. 



BACKGROUNDER 
ORG ERRORI TRACK LOCKED OUT! 

by the Techrvcal Staff 
Percom Data Company 



This problem started while 
we were studyirra an anrK}yir>g 
problem with tfie TRS-eO' com- 
puter. Disk drives sold by Percom 
are realigned arvJ tested befoiB 
shipment. We noticed, however, 
that some disk drives wouM pass 
the Percom inspection but just 
would not work reliably on the 
inner tracks wHfi a TRS-80' com- 
puter. ThMe drives were within 
the manufacturers specfficabons. 
arKJ woukJ furKtkxi perfectly on 
other disk systems Percom marv 
ufactures — "perfectly" here 
meaning more than 50 million 
bytes read without error! 

The disk read data separa- 
Mom arrangement in the TRS-80' 
computer Expansion Interlace 
uses an internal data separator of 
tt» FD1771 disk formatter/con- 
troller IC. Use of the FD1771 in- 
ternal data separator is not 
recommerxJed by Western Digital, 
the IC manufacturer. The follow- 
ing note appears on page 17 of 
the FD1771 data sheet: 

Internal data separation 
may work tor some appli- 
cattons. However, for ap- 
plications requihng high 
data recovery retiabilily. 
WDC recomrnerxls exter- 
nal data separation be 
used. 



We suspected the data 
separator because the problem 
was most severe on disk inner 
tracks where storage density is 
highest and data separatton is 
rrxjst critical. 

To prove our point, a techni- 
cian breadboarded a standard 
Percom data separator circuit, 
arxl configured it to plug directly 
into the FD1771 IC socket of the 
TRS-eO' computer controller 

When connected to the 
TRS-80* computer, a trouble- 
sorrie drive functioned perfectly! 
We ran a BACKUP utility many 
times and never got a track lock- 
out. Before we added the external 
data separator orcuft to the com- 
puter, this same drive would al- 
ways tock out tracks, and would 
have ditfteutty reading from the 
inner (higher number) tracks. 

The Percom data separator 
circuit fixes ttw mini-disk control- 
ler of the TRS-80' computer. The 

type of drives twiru used is ir- 
relevant; the circuit eliminates 
disk read errors resulting from Itw 
iruibility of tf>e Tandy controller 
design to reliably seoarate dock 
and data signals when reading 
high density inner tracks. 



PnCES AND SPECtnCATONS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WTTXX/T NOTICE 

PERCOM DATACOMPATIY, IMC. 211 n. Kirby Street Garland. Texas 75042 (214) 272-3421 

■ tvlHTtwk o> ftrocni OMs Cavfmnf, kv. 't mi mimi k ol Tantf ftado Shacfc CavonlMjn wtwh ha* no rvlMcnhfi to F^racm Dtta Cawtnf 



166 • 80 Microcomputing. October 1980 



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Program Listing 1 The BASIC 


program listmg. Lines 2000 to 


2050 are a sample program in 


which the voltmeter reading is 


passed to the variable X. 





Therefore, absolute jumps and 
loads to specific memory loca- 
tions are not used: alt jumps and 
loads are relative with one 
significant exception. 

The memory location 408EH 
holds the starting address of the 
subroutine and is loaded into 
the IX index register. Since a 
displacement may be added to 
the index register, it is possible 



to set aside space For storing 
the bytes from the digital volt- 
meter reading within the string 
itself. 

Second, as mentioned before, 
some machine codes were 
avoided. The subroutine is in- 
tended to be added to a number 
of different BASIC programs 
which need input data from a 
digital voltmeter. If it produces a 



string that is difficult to read 

when displayed or printed, then 
it is correspondingly difficult to 
integrate into programs written 
in BASIC Such a subroutine will 
have little value for any scien- 
tific worl^. 

Avoiding these codes poses 
some difficulties in creating 
subroutines, but we restrict sub- 
routines created m this way to 
only common ones which are 
called many times in the exe- 
cution of a single program Over- 
coming the difficulties has its 
rewards, 

The machine language sub- 
routine IS shown in Program 
Listing 2. The listing shows that 
memory location 72FIH has 
been chosen as the origin of the 
program. This selection is com- 
pletely arbitrary, but some origin 
must be specified with the 
TRS-80 Editor/Assembler. This 
address is never used in the 
subroutine. It. after assembly, it 
or other addresses near it 
should appear m the code, the 
program contains, incorrectly, 
absolute jumps or loads. 



Steps 100-140. The entry is de- 
fined as DVM and, since all of 
the registers are used, all are ini- 
tially pushed into the stack or 
exchanged with the alternate 
registers. In general, the HL reg- 
ister must be saved since it 
points to the current cursor 
position This register must be 
restored just before returning to 
the BASIC program. 

Steps 150-210. Step 150 loads 
zero into the A register and sets 
the zero flag The former is es- 
sential for storing a zero byte in 
step 190 in the C register. The 
latter enables us to use the com- 
mand JRZ,NEXT which has the 
opcode 28 09 rather than JR 
NEXT which has the opcode 18 
09, 

The ASCII representation for 
28H IS (. but 18H IS a control 
code which backspaces the cur- 
sor and IS one that will be avoid- 
ed where convenient. 

Step 170 sets aside space for 
storing the decoded digits from 
the voltmeter. While only eight 
bytes are really needed, the con- 
trol code for eight is one that is 




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Expand the capabilities of your 779 line printer to 
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^297 



'Rtaamr Service— se* page 226 



80 Microcomputing, Octotjer 1980 • 167 




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also avoided. When the data 

statement is written with these 
bytes, the code 01 is entered in 
each ot the nine locations, as 
can be seen in the data state- 
ment 10000 shown in Fig. 2, 

Step 180 loads the number of 
digits that will be read trom the 
voltmeter into register B, while 
step 190 loads 00 into register C. 
U only four numbers were to be 
read, then register B would be 
loaded with 04. 

Step 200 stores the starting 
address of the program into the 
index register IX. Whenever USR 
subroutine is called, the operat- 
ing system immediately checks 
memory location 408EH for the 
beginning address of the sub- 
routine. This is the only absolute 
memory location used in the 
program and it is loaded into the 
index register to determine the 
start of the buffer storage 
string. 

Based on the number of bytes 
that have already been written 
into the program, the first byte 
of the storage string occurs at 
IX-^7. This byte must contain 
the sign of the voltage, initially 
set negative by step 210. 

Steps 220-350. The peripheral 
interface adapter must now be 
initialized. Fig. 2 shows the con- 
trol word that must be used to 
define operation in mode 1, The 
control word used in step 280 is 
190D, bit pattern 1011 1110. This 
sets Port A in mode 1 input and 
Port B in mode 1 input. This con- 
trol word also has bit 4 high, 
thereby setting PC6 and PC7 of 
Port C as input. 

In mode 1, the other lines of 
Port C are committed to the 
INTR, IBF and STB functions. 
Therefore, it is Immaterial 
whether bit of the control word 
is high or low. 

Steps 310-320 enable the 
INTE flip-flop for Port A and 
steps 330-340 enable the INTE 
flip-flop for Port B m agreement 
with the bit SET/RESET control 
word shown in Fig. 2. These in- 
lerrupt-enable flip-flops remain 
enabled during the entire 
subroutine. 

Step 350 is a precaution to en- 
sure that the interrupt request 
line of Port B has been reset to 
zero. No other initialization is 
needed. 

Steps 360-390 These steps 



check to see that the voltmeter 
IS actually turned on. Since the 
subroutine loops until strobes 
arrive from the digital voltmeter, 
the power must be on if the com- 
puter is not to loop forever. The 
initialization procedure set the 
PC6 line of Port C as an input, 
and this point is connected to 
the 4-5 volt power from the 
digital voltmeter. The port is 
read, and the bit compared in 
step 380. If zero, the subroutine 
jumps to DVG at the end of the 
program, restores the registers, 
and returns to BASIC, 

Steps 400-430. The initializa- 
tion procedure has set the inter- 
rupt enable flip-flop ot Port B 
high. A differentiated negative- 
going pulse signaling that the 
voltmeter is displaying the first 
digit, is connected to PC2, the 
strobe input for Port B. Once 
this point sees this logical 
pulse, data is loaded into Ports 
A and B and, 300 nsec later, IBF 
is set to a logical 1, 

Since STB is differentiated, it 
returns to a logical 1 very quick- 
ly. When STB, IBF, and INTE are 
all high, then INTR of Port B is 
set to a logical 1. 

In these steps, line PCO on 
Port A which contains the logi- 
cal information about INTR(B) is 
continually checked. After it is 
set to a logical 1. the program 
continues. 

Steps 440-500 When the pro- 
gram has reached this point, the 
digits are read in proper order, 
but it is necessary to read the 
sign and to insert the decimal 
point at the correct place in the 
string. Although a different 
order for the subroutine could 
have been chosen, the 2 milli- 
second spacing of the digit 
strobes leaves more than 
enough time for the program to 
check the decimal point before 
reading each digit. 

To understand the way in 
which the decimal point is read, 
notice the way in which the 
Keithley voltmeter displays its 
digital information for volts. 
amperes and ohms as shown in 
Table 2. 

The simplest way of returning 
information to the BASIC pro- 
gram is in volts, milliamperes 
and kilohms. If the voltmeter is, 
reading volts and milliamperes, 
the decimal point must be 



166 • 80 Microcomputing, October 19B0 



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-fle.iOnf Service— see piigc 226 



80 Microcomputing, October 1980 • 169 




THE BOOK 

ACCESSING THE TRS-aO* ROM 




K you ever 60 
Assembly 
language 
programming, 
or you Just want 
to know more 
about your 
TRS-80ROM, 
"THEB0OK" 
Is for you. 



Volume I will give you access to over fifty ma- 
chine language subroutines in the Radio Shack 
Level II BASIC. It includes information on the nu- 
meric data formats and a commented listing of the 
ROM routines. 

"THE B(2K9K. Volume I", encompasses all arith- 
metic functions and mathematical operations. 
There are separate routines for integers, single 
precision, and double precision numbers and the 
data format for each of these numt)er types is 
explained. The routines that perform ASCII to bin- 
ary and binary to ASCII conversion are identified 
and explained to provide you a means of data I/O. 

A fully commented listing provides the details on 
the step-by-step execution of these ROM rou- 
tines. Although a complete disassembly is not 
provided in order to avoid copyright infringement, 
you can obtain a complete disassembly using the 
disassembler program listed in "THE B(?OK." 
Volume I also includes a complete, detailed mem- 
ory map of the entire machine and a symbol table 
noting over 500 addresses. 

"THE B0{9K" will save you hour upon hour of 
assembler program development time. Don't start 
programming without it. 

Order your copy of "THE B0<^K\ today! 



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n Please send me Volume I of THE B00K 
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moved three places to the left 
whenever the meter is set to the 
0.3, or 200 microamperes, range. 
For this range, the decimal point 
must be inserted into the string 
immediately after the sign byte. 
However, from Photo 1 the 0.3 
volt range on the DVM also cor- 
responds to the 2000 ohm range. 
From Table 2 it can be seen that 
the decimal point tor the ohms 
range must be moved one place 
to the right and inserted as the 
second, not the first byte, after 
the sign byte in the string. 

Storing In Port B 

All of the information about 
the decimal point is stored in 
Port B by forcing one of the pins 
B<4) through B<7) high when the 
respective 0.2 volt through 200 
volt range switch is closed. It is 
not necessary to connect the 
1KV/1AMP/20MEGOHM range 
switch to the B port. If none of 
the other range switches have 
been closed, then this range 
must be the one that is selected. 



The pin that corresponds to 
the closing of this switch is B(0) 
which is connected to the DVM 
power supply and Is, therefore, 
always high. 

Inserting the decimal point at 
the correct place in the string re- 
quires that we check the various 
bits of Port 8, read and stored in 
register D in steps 450-460. If the 
voltmeter is set on ohms, pin 
B{1) is also high. Since an addi- 
tional shift of the D register to 
the left is needed when reading 
ohms (step 490), setting this pin 
high correctly sets the decimal 
point for the 20 megohm range. 
An important part of this routine 
is step 490. 

While the steps through step 
730 load in the decimal points 
correctly for volts and mil- 
liamps, the last decimal point. 
loaded when the voltmeter is set 
to the 20 megohm range, re- 
quires the additional set of 
steps labeled DVOHM to load it 
into the string. The C register is 
set to zero if the decimal point is 




17 



9 
10 



1422 
23 



24 
25 



26 



29 



30-31 
32 



AvoiO The ifiterprelB' thinks il has reached the end ot the hne. 
No effect. They will not appear when the string is displayed 
Backspaces and erases character, but stores correct machir>e code 
When used Mith the example program, the string is displayed as 9000 
XS = "1237' The chatacters four, five and six have tieen erased. 
Same as the code 1-7 

This control code activatBS th« lino feed with a carriage relurr^ (see 
control code 2fi). Wh«n used with ttie example program, the string ap 
pears as 

9000X13-1234 

5 

6 

7" 
These move the carnage to the lop ul the page and have the same ef- 
(eel as 10. They cause no problem eacept m prinlir>g 
These are identical to 17 

This converts the display format lo 32 charactersflme, allhougri it does 
not appear in the slnng It is or>e of the codes we avoid 
This character backspaces tfK cursor and has the same eMect as H. 
This advances the cursor Wrien used with the example program, the 
siring appears as 9000 XS = '1234 5 6 7" 

This code IS similar to 10. giving a linefeed. Dot unlike 10. there is no 
carriage return. When used wilh the example program, the siring ap- 
pears as: 
9000 XJ- 1234 
5 
6 
7' 
We avoid this, allf>ough the Dytes are stored correctly This control 
code gives an upward linefeed m contrast to 26 which is a dowriward 
linefeed The lisimg t>ecomes gathled and difficult lo work with. 
Avoid Atlhough the bytes are stored correcify, this code honws the 
Cursor creating a listing which is nearly impossible to read 
Triis code 'S only halt bad When used with the example program, the 
line number partially disappears and the string appears as 7'00 
X$ = "1234. The BASIC interpreter SUM thinks that this is line 9000 and 
places It in the program correctly, but depending on its place m the pro 
gram, this code may create atatemenis that are difficult to renumber or 
manipulate, particularly if more than one subroutine is used 
These are the same as 1-7. 

This IS the control code (or space When used with the example pro- 
gram, the strmg appears as. 9000 XS= "1234 56 7 . This code causes 
no problems 

Table 1. Control Code Summary. 



170 • 80 Microcomputing, October 1980 








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^Reader Service— see page 226 



80 Microcomputing, October 1980 • 171 




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72 • 80 Microcomputing, October 1980 



ScBnned bylra Gnldklang - www.trs-BD.cnm 



000.00 


.2V/200 a 


0.0000 


2VI2 ma 


00.000 


20V/20 ma 


000.00 


200V/200 ma 


0000.0 


IkV/i amp 


00000 


2 Kofnm 


00.000 


ZO kohm 


ooox 


200hohm 


ooooo 


2 Megohm 


00 000 


20 Megohm 


Table 2. 


Decimal Point 


Display. 



loaded into one o( the first tour 
positions. It is the logical reg- 
ister to use to signal that the 
voltmeter is set to zero. 

In step 500, the accumulator 
is loaded into the C register. If 
the voltmeter is set to ohms, 
then bit 1 must be high, and it 
will be used in the sequence 
labeled DVOHPyl. 

Steps 510-550. Having set the 
decimal point correctly for the 
possibility of ohms, the program 
now determines the sign of the 
number by checking bit 3 or Port 
B (step 510). If this bit is low, the 
negative number originally load- 
ed Into the string is left there. If 
bit 3 is high, this byte in the 
string is replaced with 2BH, 
which is interpreted as the 
ASCII character ■*-. 

Steps 550-600. In this portion 
of the subroutine, the decimal 
point is placed correctly in the 
string. The process of checking 
the various bits of Port B is done 
by checking bit 4 of the D reg- 
ister. If it is high, then the deci- 
mal point is read into the string. 
If it is not high, a digit is read in- 
to the string and the register is 
rotated to the right. The next 
time that a digit strobe occurs, 
bit 4 is again checked to see if 
the decimal point should be 
read into the string. Since bit 
of Port B is wired high, a decimal 
point must eventually t>e insert- 
ed into the string. 

As an example, suppose that 
the voltmeter is set on the 20 
volt range. Bit 6 of Port B and 
also in the D register is high, and 
the stored string must read 
-f XX. XXX. 

The first time around, the pro- 
gram checks bit 4 of the D reg- 
ister and finds that it is zero. The 
first digit is read into the string 
and the D register rotates to the 
right one place so that bit 5 is 

-- Reader Sertice~see page 226 



72F1 


88188 


OW 72F1H 




72F1 


eeiie ovn 


EQU S 


THIS PROGftftI REflW fl DIGITft VCLTftTER 


?2F1 » 


88128 


EXX 


SftVE SfGISTERS 


72F2 DDES 


88138 


PUSH IX 




72F4 F5 


88148 


PUSH ff 




/a-b flF 


88158 


XOP fl 


SET fl = 8 


72f 6 iMW 


88168 


JR Z,P€XT 


JW OVER BUFFER fKfl 


tMKf 


88178 BIFFER 


DEFS 9 


BUFFER STORES NUWtR STRING 


7381 (Wff 


88188 ICXT 


LD B,85 


Om^ISON NUfKR FOR OIGITS 


7383 4F 


88198 


LD Cfl 


STORE 6 IN REGISTER C 


7384 DD2H8t:4e 86286 


LD IX. (488EH} 


STfKTING flOORESS OF PROGRfiH 


/i88 00368720 88218 


LD (IX+7),2DH . 


LOflO - SIGN INTO FIRST BVTE OF STRING 


738C 


(«??8 CTRL 


EOU $ 


CONTROL MORDS FOR aEflRS fltO ENRBLES 




88238 




T>C 8255 IS BEING OPERATED IN HOOE 1 




88248 




INPUT fl IS PORT 248 




88258 




IHHuT ? IS PORT 241 




88268 




irPUT C IS PORT 242 




88278 




CONTRa HCRD IS 243 


/S»: 3EBE 


88288 


LD (11980 


Tt€S£ T;« STEPS INITIALIZE THE Plfl 




88798 




SETTING fl t B PORTS RS I100E 1 IffUTS. 


/M. 03F3 


88388 


OUT C243D),fl 


BITS 6 4 7 OF PORT C flS I«>UTS 


7318 3E89 


88318 


LD R,89 


Tf€SE TUO STEPS ENflH F INTE 


7312 D3F3 


88328 


OUT (243D),fi 


OF PORT ft 


7314 2£85 


88338 


LD fl85 


THESE TUO STEPS ENflfiU INTE 


7316 D3F3 


88348 


Oil (243D).fl 


OF PORT B 


7318 DBFl 


88358 


IN Fl (2410) 


THIS INSURES THAT PORT B IMTR IS LOH 


731fl 


88368 OVON 


EQU $ 


CHECK TO SEE IF ovn IS Tl»€D ON 


731fl DeF2 


88378 


IN fl (2420) 


REf€ PORT C 


731C C877 


88388 


BIT 6.R 


BIT 6 IS COWECTED TO WH POWER SIFR.V 


731E 2852 


88398 


JR 2,0VG 


IF DVH IS OFF, RETURN TO BRSIC 


7328 


88488 DVIOOP 


EOU t 


ROUTI* TO LOOP UNTIL FIRST DIGIT ARRIVES 


7320 DeF2 


88418 


IN fl (2420) 


BIT 6 ON PORT C GOES HIGH 


7322 C847 


88428 


BIT e,fl 


*€N FIRST DIGIT fKRIVES 


7324 28f fl 


88438 


JR iOVLOOP 


LOOP UNTIL IT ARRIVES 


7326 


88448 DVfl 


EQU i 


CftCK TO SEE IF nC DVH IS SET TO OrttS 


7326 DBFl 


88458 


IN fl (241D) 


READ PORT 6 


7328 57 


88468 


LD D.R 


STORE PORT B IN REGISTER 


7329 C84F 


88478 


BIT Lfl 


ARE C READING OWS? 


vmzm 


88488 


JR Z.DVB 


IF NOT, SKIP TIC ICXT SIU' 


713D (VK> 


88498 


K.C 


IF OmS. ADJUST M. DECIMAL POINT 


732F 4f 


88588 


U) Cfl 


IF cms. BIT 1 IN C REGISTER UILL BE SET HIGH 


7338 


88518 DVB 


EQU % 


ROUTIIC TO DCCK FOR * SIGN 


7338 C857 


«fi?e 


BIT 2,fl 


IS IT + 7 


7332 2885 


88538 


Jft iDVC 


IF ICGflTIrt, GO TO DVC 


7334 3F?fl 


WW^O 


LD R.2eH 


IF POSITIVL FIRST LOflD ♦ INTO WaiHJLflTOR 


7336 [107787 


88Vi8 


LD (IX*7),fl 


AM) TfCN INTO TfC FIRST BVTE OF TK STRING 


7339 


WWW DVC 


EOU t 


ROUTIIC TO READ DECINAL POINT 


7339 rfifi? 


88578 


BIT 4,0 


C^CK FOR DECIMAL POINT 


7338 2889 


wem 


JR Z.DVD 


IF NOT THERE, SKIP ICXT J STEPS 


7330 0023 


88598 


INC IX 


POINT IX+7 fIT TIC ICXT BVTE IN TJC STRING 


733F D036872E flflfiW 


LD (IX+7).2EH 


LORD DECINAL POINT INTO STRING 


7343 flF 


88618 


X»f4 


.SET fl = 8 


7344 57 


WiKPi 


LD 0,8 


ZERO D AM) C IN TICSE TW SILf^ 


7345 4f 


88638 


U) Cfl 


TO AVOID STORING ANV OTICR DECIMAL POINTS 


7346 


88648 DVD 


EOU > 


.ROUTIIC TO READ DIGITS INTO STRING 


7346 nfWfi 


HVTiA 


RfiC 


FliEPARE TO CHECK DECIMAL POINT ICXT TIIC 


7348 [)023 


IXJUOv 


INC IX 


POINT IX+7 RT TIC ICXT BVTE IN T>€ STRING 


734fl DBFe 


88678 


IN n (2480) 


;READ DIGIT 


73C 007787 


68688 


LD CIX*7),fl 


; STORE IT 


734F 


fl8fi98 WE 


EOU i 


LUIPS IWTIL ICXT DIGIT ARRIVES 


734F DeF2 


88788 


IN R, (2420) 


i READ PORT C 


7351 t*5f 


88718 


BIT 3,fl 


CJCOC INTR OF fl TO SEE IF DIGIT HRS «-l-N LORDED 


7353 28Ff1 


68726 


JR 2,DVE 


i IF NOT, LOOP IWTIL IT DOES 


7355 ieE2 


88738 


DJN2 0VC 


,ONCE IT DOES RETURN TO OVC AM) REfV IT 


7357 


88748 DVOm 


eou$ 


.THIS ADOS OECIHflL POINT IF DVfl IS SET TO 28 fCGOWS 

Program conimues 



80 Microcomputing, October 1980 • 173 



7IS9 2m 86760 


JRiDVLST 


THJ4KIIL SKIP THE NEXT STEP 


/Ha D023 88778 


INC IX 


POINT IX+7 AT fCXT BVTE IN STRING 


73SD DD26e72e 88788 


LD CIX*7).2£H 


LOflO DECIHflL POINT INTO STRING 


7361 88798 OVIST 


EQU t 


ROUTINE TO REf€ IN COWR RT END OF STRING 


7361 DD22 mm 


INC IX 


POINT IX+7 RT T« LflST BVTE IN TW STRING 


TIG I»36e72C 88818 


LD (IX+7).2CH 


LAST BVTE IN STRING NUST BE fl COMHR 


7367 mva DVF 


EQU t 


CHWGE STRING TO SINGLE PRECISION HMkH 


7367 DDES 88838 


PUSH IX 




7369 El 88848 


POP HL 


POINT fl RT T* START OF TJC STRING 


736fl 3£e3 mt^ 


U) F183 


TEa TRS-88 THRT IT IS R STRING 


736C i2HK48 (WVM 


LD (40flFH).fl 


BV LOflDING 03 INTO 40(fH 


736F CDfnr 88878 


CALL eE6CH 


CALL SINGLE PRECISION CONVERSION SUbRUUTINE 


7372 mm DVG 


EQU t 


TIME TO RblURN TO BRSIC 


7372 Fi mm 


POP flF 


RESTORE REGISTERS 


7171 DDEl 88988 
7375 09 88910 


PCP IX 
EXX 




1 






7376 C9 08920 

72F1 08938 

mm TOTRL ERRORS 

BU-hU; 72F8 08170 

CTRL 738C 88228 

DVfl 7326 88440 

DVB 7330 80518 88488 


RET 

END ovn 




The instruction DJNZ DVC 
not oniy executes this jump, but 
aiso decrements the B register. 
Once this register reaches zero, 
ali of the digits have been read 
and the program proceeds to 


DVC 7339 06568 08530 08730 




step 740. 


DVD 7346 08640 08f>R8 






Steps 740-780, if the DVM was 


OVE 734F 08698 88728 






set to 20 megohms, then the 


DVF 7367 «K20 






decimal point has not yet been 


DVG 7372 (WR88 08390 






loaded into the string. Bit 1 of 


OVLOOP 7320 08486 88438 






the C register will still be high 


DVLST 7361 00798 88760 






since step 640 was never exe- 


DVn 72F1 00110 00930 






cuted. This is checked in steps 


DVOfl 7357 88740 






750 and 760 and, if necessary, 


DVQN 731fl 08360 






the decimal point is loaded into 


(EXT 7381 88188 88168 


Program L 


i sting 2 


the string in steps 770 and 780. 
Steps 790-810. The string 



now high. 

The second time around, the 
program again finds bit 4 low 
and reads the second digit into 
the string while rotating the D 
register to the right once more. 

After this rotation, bit 4 in the 
D register is high and the pro- 
gram reads it into its proper 
place in the stored string. After 
reading the decimal point into 
the string, the index register is 
Incremented so that the next 
digit does not replace the deci- 
mal point. Then steps 600-630 
set the D and C registers to zero 
to avoid the possibility of read- 
ing any other decimal point into 
the string. 

Steps 640-730. Before reading 
the digits, the D register is 
rotated to the right to set up the 
next check for the decimal 
point. The index register is incre- 
mented in step 660 and the first 
digit is finally loaded into the 
String in steps 670 and 680. Port 
Acontains the four-bit BCD digit 
from the voltmeter in bits A(0) to 
A(3). 



Since the digit must be stored 
in the string as an ASCII charac- 
ter, the upper four bits must con- 
tain 0011. That is, for example, 
the ASCII character 34H corre- 
sponds to the number 4. 

Fig. 1 shows that this has 
been accomplished by handwir- 
ing bits A{4) and A(5} to + 5 volts 
and bits A(6) and A(7) to ground. 
The remaining digits are ac- 
cessed after the first digit in se- 
quence. The strobe read by 
STB{B) occurs only lor the first 
digit. 

The differentiated strobe 
puises from the remaining digits 
are ORed using the simple diode 
OR gate, D1-D5. The output of 
this gate is read at STB(A). 

Steps 700-730 check bit 3 of 
Port C to determine if INTR(A) 
has been set high and loop until 
it is. Once this interrupt request 
has been set high, it signifies 
that the data from the next digit 
has been loaded into Port A. The 
program jumps back to DVC to 
check the decimal point and 
read the digit. 



must be terminated with either a 
zero or a comma. Since the ap- 
pearance of in the string 
causes the BASIC interpreter to 
think that the end of the line has 
been reached, the comma, 2CH, 
is stored in the string in step 720 
as the last byte. 

Steps 820-870. The BASIC pro- 
gram can make little use of this 
string of characters that has 
been stored in the string. More- 
over, Radio Shack does not real- 
ly tell you how to return the 
value of the reading to the pro- 
gram. It would be possible to ob- 
tain the value by finding the ad- 
dress of the stored siring using 
VARPTR and then PEEKing at 
the addresses to obtain the 
value. 

But, astonishingly, the single 
(or double) precision conversion 
subroutine located in the op- 
erating system does all the 
work. Since only five digits are 
involved here, single precision is 
sufficient. It is first necessary to 
point the HL register to the start 
of the string in steps 830 and 
840. Then, the subroutine needs 



to know that this is a string, not 
an integer or double or single 
precision number, and steps 850 
and 860 load the number 03 into 
memory location 40AFH for this 
purpose. Step 870 calls the rou- 
tine at 0E6CH in ROM which 
converts the string into a single 
precision number. Were it nec- 
essary to convert this string into 
a double precision number, the 
program would call 0E65H. The 
remainder of the subroutine 
restores the registers and re- 
turns to the main BASIC pro- 
gram. 

If the subroutine has been 
called by the statement X = 
USR(O), then X will equal the 
single precision value of the 
number read by the voltmeter. 
The BASIC program needs only 
to know that the readings are in 
volts, milliamperes and kilohms. 
Reading the Level II manual 
gives no hint that a single pre- 
cision number can be returned 
in this way. If anything, the im- 
plication is that only integers 
can be returned. Nevertheless, a 
single precision floating point 
number is returned. 

Using the Program 

There are two major advan- 
tages to the interface as con- 
structed here. The first is that 
the TRS-80 truly becomes a 
scientific instrument capable of 
storing and analyzing data, 
while allowing programs to be 
written in a high level language. 

By imbedding the subroutine 
into BASIC, the major portion of 
the program can be written in 
BASIC which has all of the vir- 
tues of a high level language in 
the ease of displaying data, writ- 
ing strings, and creating pro- 
grams. 

The second advantage is re- 
lated to the first. By writing the 
subroutine as a string in a 
BASIC statement and storing 
the entire program on disk or 
tape, it may be accessed at any 
time for use by another program 
that you may be writing. 

A library of subroutines such 
as the one described here may 
be prepared not only for reading 
data from digital voltmeters, but 
also for reading analog-to- 
digital converters, executing 
visual displays or even perform- 
ing mathematical iterations. ■ 



174 " 80 Microcomputing, October 1980 



WE WILL NOT BE UNDERSOLD 




16K MEMORY UPGRADE KITS 2torS85 $45 

for TRS-80V Apple II. (specify): Jumptrs S2.50 

PRINTERS NEC Splnwriter 

Letter Quality High Sp«ed Printer 

Includes TRS-80* interface software, quick 
change print fonts, 55 cps. bidirectional, 
high resolution ploiling, graphing, propor- 
tional spacing: R.O. $2579 
R.O. with Tractor Feed S2679 KSR with Tractor Feed $2995 
779 CENTRONICS TRACTOR FEED PRINTER $969 

Same as Radio Shack line printer I 
737 CENTRONICS FRICTION & PIN FEED PRINTER $799 

9x7 malriK 
730 CENTRONICS FRICTION A PIN FEED PRINTER $629 

7x7 mairiK Same as Radio Shack line printer II 
PI CENTRONICS PRINTER $269 

Same as Radio Shack quick printer 
PAPER TIGER (tP440) 

Includes 2K buffer and graphics option 
TI-810 Faster than Radio Shack line printer Ml 

Parallel and serial w/TRS-80' interface software 

with upper and lower case and paper tray $1599 

OKIOATA UicrolineSO Friction and pin teed $559 

Tractor Feed. Iriction. and pin feed $679 

EATON LRC 7000 + 64 columns, plain paper $299 

ANADEX DP-9S00 $1359 DP-8000 $825 

DISK OPERATING SYSTEMS 

PATCHPAK #4 by Percom Data $ 8.95 

CP/M' for fviodei I, Zenith $145 • for Model II. Altos $169.00 

NEWDOS Plus 40 track $ 99.00 

NEWDOS60 $135.00 

ACCESSORIES 

HEAD CLEANING DISKETTE: Cleans drive Read/Write head in 
30 seconds Diskettes absorb loose oxide particles, fingerprints, 
and other foreign particles that might hinder the performance of 
the drive head Lasts at least 3 months with daily use. Specify 
S'^-orB" $20ea/$45for3 

FLOPPY SAVER: Protection for center holes of 5'* " floppy disks. 
Only 1 needed per diskette. Kit contains centering post, pressure 
tool, tough 7-mil mylar reinforcing rings. Installation tools and 
rings for 25 diskettes $1 1.95 

Re-orders of rings only $ 7.95 
EXTERNAL DATA SEPARATOR: Eliminates data separation prot> 
lems (crc). Improves reliability. This plug in unit comes fully 
assembled and tested. $29.95 

RS232 $84 00 

DISK-DRIVE EXTENDER CABLES: Fits all mini-disk drives 

$16.95 
SIX (6) PRONG ISOLATOR S54.00 

AC FILTER/6 PRONG POWER STRIP $39.00 

DISK DRIVE CABLES: 2 drive $29.00 4 drive $35.00 

DUST COVERS: TRSaO'Apple $ 7.95 

PLASTIC DISKETTE HOLDER $ 8.00 

RF MODULATOR: Adapts video to TV $35.00 

TRS-80 & OTHER MYSTERIES $18.95 



DISK DRIVES 



$314 



CAT MODEM Originate and answer same as 

Radio Shack Telephone Interface II 
LEEDEX MONITOR Video 100 
ZENITH Color Monitor 
SANYO Model VM 4509 Monitor 



$148 

$119 
$379 

$179 



^^^^^^^ 40 track. 102K Bytes. Fully assembled and 

^^V ^^H tested. Ready to plug-in and run the moment 

^^t ^^H you receive it. Can be intermixed wrth each 

^m~ ^^H other and Radio Shack drive on same cable 

^^H TRS-BO* compatible silver enclosure. 90 day 

'^^^^H warranty One year on power supply External 

card edge included. 

FOR TRS-80* 

CCMOO 

CCI2B0 

CCI-800 

For Zenith Z89 

CGI 189 5'*". 40 Track (102K Bytes) add-on drive 

Z-87 Dual 5 ''4 ' add-on drive system 

DISKETTES — Box of 10(5%')- with plastic library case 
8 'double density for Model II (box of 10) 



5% -. 40 Track (102K Bytes) for Model I 
5". '. 80 Track (204K Bytes) for Model I 
6' Drive for Model II (Vi Meg Bytes) 



$314 

$549 

$795 

$394 
$995 

$24 
$38 



"39 COMPLETE SYSTEMS 



ALTOS 64K. OD. SS. 2-Driv8. 1MB 

TRS-80* Model II-64K 

TRS-80* LEVEL II 16K with keypad 

TRS-80* Expansion Interface 

APPLE 16K 

HEWLETT PACKARD HP-85 

ZENITH Z89, 48K all-in-one computer 

ZENITH Z19 

TELEVIDEO 912B $745 

ATARI 400 $489 

APF M1000 $99 

MATTEL INTELLIVISION 



$3995 

$3499 

$689 

S249 

$989 

$2999 

$2555 

$740 

920B $769 

ATARI 800 $769 

IM 1 $499 

$249 



SOFTWARE FOR THE TRS-80* ^n 



INTELLIQENT TERMINAL SYSTEM ST«Mi BY 
LANCt WKLUt. EiaDWi j TRS W lo *cl « ■ <H1 
uo '•"n<nai on any ilanoard t>ma inaiiiw nvtimonr 
ProiNin a TRS ao' wH" conlio< ii*v. ESC Kv*. 
Rapaat n«>. flue Out K«f Bmti K«f 'uH upp*< tr<a 
»»••' CM* sui>(>0'i tfivciabi* [Hinia' oulpul V«] 
ptfitr*" »i»<-t«t>i«vanvT>ii».ii" 'alai till 

CCAOAIA UAMAOCUENT iVSTEM AutOTUI* you- 
nKumMion pmc am nB (•••• "m can cfMM a M* ly 
OMWrn •MomMtion. aucwy ma «miI|i Md. dMMa 
or nMMi '■coiM. — raw a Ma, Map a Ma in oRlar of 
tha taiua <n anj haH. and pnni racoRM and iMala rn 
if^ Oat'itO aKiua^a or from |uM a pan of a lila 
t^xn;"** i?« ■ PS ac and on« »■*» tr*M 

ftAMSTSTEMS 

MSIOW" tndaaM SMuwHiW Accm* MnriM 
I AUI) to ma TNS to UodM i A inuat Mr anyona wm 
mg Buainaaa pfwama CMmnaM oaMad <*ak ipao 
fforri (tract cacvd pfocaaanQ SpliI aacondaccaM to 
anv taxa Accau OM* MCOM ■MUM))' tmMUm) 
nwnanc M( ag Pft NN.apoodiO'MaMnlMvin 
(•candns **• •MudnM AOWnoa^r ■•OOMi w »ni 
(■dw AcoH i« 10 MM Mm am DragitiTi - ftmm 



mn M wraid OMT muncM IMW Macttme wnguioi 
ptocMtinfl liwn row bMiC pioai>m L>lil.i> [KagFam 
lo ctmv*! dKWI hiaa to IWSEO-BD format M M 

rULlV INTtdACTIVt ACCOUNTIMO MCKAOI 
ISAM (iNSEOSn bMM McluM Oanvai ladgai 
Accounn PayabW Accounl* %Mn«bM tro Ptfou 
SyaMm nm "iMrM Men* o> ' O0'0r»n«ta« Oil M 
uMn oonon BmM on Ovboma accounling mdWiM 
Rmiww JTK. Tf««l I or 3 dmM N<« CA 

Ommtlattm 
MtaoMi 
MaPayaMi 



BOM 

MVfNTOMTRiqiMMBItTRSn 1 »»• Itlf 

MMMIT-tt CMiMatOrm BASK xa USA Soiti dan 
Opm- [Ml FUM "Iklk' K> Diak ton l-mut-XO 
racorOa m 3b aaca. MOO ••corda m B nnuiaa. 3800 
nogrOB m O wimaa Mactwia languaga pfBCMIMiQ 
Up lo 3B ion tmt* McanangiOaacananB Uwiiv H 
BuMd MS*C rtsgr*^ ^'^ unoo' NEWDOS mb M 



CP/M BASED SOFTWARE for 
Zenith. Altos. Radio Shack. Apple '^'■" 



Z« •OFTCARO FOR Am£ Tom krr to Utf* aofl 

■«• npwiaNix Qa) »m BaM of tnfh wxUa. Apptai 
asm and cmi no P^fWacMmnDgmtOD 
Sucvoru Apow Hnguagp c*d «U W Apcia pan^iar 
iiMtOflfirM' 



ft Cemaawami 



CO-TIUICT WKM k A conw«incalan PkMo* 
■••MCA anMMa mcrerampuMi ua«r( lo conwrufVUM 
bom iMri Laiga Mam t u mM and a«ia> irn ciixw" 
PiMrt Emmm Cdmmindi mriw * iNafi^ « nunr 
*OP ^ d lw ni «Am* oonvvM^tftfion bpNiOTn com 
puMn • naoMavv ReHdrMMrnwiaiiiiodaanMtana 



uaar to aBr« an dau f'or" a laaaion on Mli Com 
pWMiy CM cortipwMa UiMipla eomm,««cMion 
|K«ooaii •upporMd AHa k) itarwlai kw m bow 
aMd ci wna ■nmoui protocol wMm Via offar macnm* 
dOM not itnort «<* p>aMGO< irtanaria OM 
SCREEN hatpSai^o cod* prOMdM IMO 



■■■^mvi-iav ■■ Hi^«-viBv«i v^v i«iw ■■■»■■ ■■iva 

p or i w ing •yWom Wr un ■>«> atandan) HrmnM* 
tatformMbnopatWrndOortKnaan FacMiM for tail 
nagnaw papa'xnWW MRfk tantv ana tnMiacorw 
Uaar can pmi on* Oockman vTMa aanuWandouart 
•d»ng a BKond Edit f«CMM« inctuda flUCM aawch 

vid nqiKd ifcoai W Ra lo ovwi Win tiM aucn 
■noM. OK nwu"M C«rT HinwMi itwi »ii»aMMiia 
cine poarnonin p tm 



I7S4* 



DEALER {NATIONAL/INTERNATIONAL) INQUIRIES INVITED Send for FREE Catalogue 



The CPU SHOP. 

TO ORDER CALL TOLL FREE 1-800-343-6522 

Massachusens re^idenu call (617)242-3361 

For detailed technical information, call 617/242-3361 

HoufS 10AM-6PM(EST)M.F{Sat.till5) 

*TRS-80 IS a Tandy Corporation Trademark ' Digital Research 



5 Dexter Row. Oepl. M10M 
Charlestown. Massachusetts 02129 

Massachusetts residents add 

S% sales tax 

Quantities on some items are limited 



iii,)\i'" ' n.ii ji- 



HOME 



A residential heating and insulation analysis. 



Cold Comfort 



Dan Keen 

Dan Laughlin 

Rd 1, Box 432 

Stale Highway 83 

Cape May Courthouse, NJ0B210 

Armed with a few facts about 
your home, this program lor 
the Level II will determine how 
much money you spend a year 
on heating, what the size of your 
heater should t>e, how much you 



can save If you add more Insula- 
tion and how many years until 
the cost of the additional Insula- 
tion pays for Itself. It Is a simple 
program with fairly accurate re- 
sults. 

Using the Program 

First the programs ask the 
delta temperature in Fahrenheit 
for your area, which is the aver- 
age maximum difference t>e- 



tween inside and outside tem- 
peratures. 
Next, you are asked to input 



therms. To arrive at this figure 
you must use the chart which is 
displayed on the screen and in- 



RRST ANNUAL COST - 51BO0.27 

NEW ANNUAL COST = $1701 74 

ANNUAL SAVINGS = S96 52 

WHAT WAS THE COST OF ADDITIONAL INSULATION"" 300 00 

IT WILL TAKE 3 045 YEARS TQ PAYBACK THE COST 



Sample Listing 2. 



ENTER TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE (IN DEGREES FAHRENHEm? 60 

ENTER THERMS (FROM CHARTl FOR YEAR IN 100,000 BTUS? 2 

ENTER FLOOR AREA (IN SO FT )? 1200 

ENTER FLOOR R? 11 

MAXIMUM HEAT LOAD FOR FLOOR IS S545.40 BTU'STHOUR. 

ANNUAL HEAT LOAD FOR FLOOR IS 218 182 THERMS/YEAR, 

ENTER CEILING AREA (IN SO. FT.)? 1200 

ENTER CEILING R7 19 

MAXIMUM HEAT LOAD FOR CEILING IS 37B9.47 BTU'S/HOUR. 

ANNUAL HEAT LOAD FOR CEILING IS 128.316 THERMS/YEAH. 

ENTER WALL AREA (IN SO. FT.)7 1220 

ENTER WALL R? 11 

MAXIMUM HEAT LOAD FOR WALL IS 6654.55 BTU'S/HOUR. 

ANNUAL HEAT LOAD FOR WALL IS 221 818 THERMS/YEAR 

ENTERWINDOW AREAONSQ. FT.)? 120 

ENTER WINDOW R? 1 

MAXIMUM HEAT LOAD FOR WINDOWS IN 7200 BTU'S/HOUR. 

ANNUAL HEAT LOAD FOR W1N(X)WS IS 240 THERMSTYEAR. 

ENTER DOOR AREA (IN SO FT )? 40 

ENTER DOOR R? 2 

MAXtMUM HEAT LOAD FOR DOOR IS 42 BTU'SfHOUa 

ANNUAL HEAT LOAD FOR DOOR IS 140 THERMSTTEAR 

TOTAL HEAT LOSS = 27B28.4 BTU-S(H(XJR. 

TOTAL ANNUAL HEAT LOSS = 9X 947 THERMS/YEAR 

HIT ENTER TO FIND ANNUAL COSTS? 

WHAT TYPE OF FUEL DO YOU HAVE' (OJIL (EjLECTHIC (G)AS E 

COST OF KWH OF ELECTRIC? 066 

ANNUAL COST = (1800.27 

HfT ENTER TO DETERMINE PAYBACK TIME IF MORE INSULATION IS ADDEC 



Sample Listing 1. 



Program Listing 1, 

e CLSiffiM^ mauTiNG iieuiTiof profit tmv/s 

lee wwDfTER wmwxa DiFFERoa m degres FflwettiDM 

UB ClS:FWNT'OffD( WtS (fROfl CHfiRT) FOR ^ IN 166. M BTU'S'. : 

115G05lfi26W 

U6PRIWrKl"i:IlftlTTH 

US OS 

126 IIWr'BfTER FLOOR flttft (IN Sa FT. )'.ft 

136 Ilf>Ur*EKT£R aOGR R Mi 

l4G0SlfilM6 

156 PRiMrmdMn ffitr lord far aooR -'-.^ ■ ms/\m. * 

179 K14l:rtt^ 

m PRifrr:imT'onER (£iling fm m sd ft. )*;a 

196 UrUT'ENTER CEILING R VR 
266fi09fil666 

216 PRINT'rHdlU ffitnOflO FOR CEILING =Mt ' BTU'SWIjR ' 

Prov»m continutt 



176 • 80 Microcomputing, October 1980 



INTERACTIVE 
HCTION 

The Literature of the Future — 
Here Tbday 

If you like fiction you 11 lorv 
Interactitv Fiction — tales told on a 
computer, so that you. the reader, 
become a character in the story! 

For TRS-m icitb DISK and iJK 
(TRS-W is a trademark of Tandy Curp) 



Six Wcro-Stofies 

A ^iHHi itilriHluctiiifi til InteraitUe Fictum 
Heaime u fitiamUtl tvi'i»>n. ti W-llspy. and 
more Sl'i iKi 

His Majesty 's Ship "impetuous" 

)oii nrv the aiptain u/'a ship-of-tbi' liiiv hi 
thf filiirifius tUi\s iifft^btitiasail SJflOO 

Tu-o Heads of lite Coin 

hill tirv cnufriintfit iiilh ti psyibiilogivtd 
niysler\- that taxes yimr iriiugitiatiim In the 
utnnist SJII (Kl 



ISTERACriVE FICTION 

BOX (lOi 

/wmMsscA 'm.i' 

(Calif residents add 6 "-,. tiix) 



^429 



$25C? QJ 




Our iOitO 
INTERFACE 
lets you connact 
your Radio Shack 
TRS ID Ittodel 1 
to the IBM Electronic Typewriter Mod SO. (0 or 75, 
Atlde from yielding the belt baking printout* and 
lilting* you'll ever iM. our lyiteir let* you center 
titlai, ixiderllna ward* i phrasai, juillfy numerical 
column*, Indent text ind mora from your own pro 
gram* and nioit other*. Right juitlfled proportion- 
ally (paced typeietting li aven poiilble with the 
IBM50! The moH co*l affective word proceeior 
ever. [thi» »d 1* an example) t?iB»* 



SOFTWARE also available for any TRSBO: 

5UPERDIR - dlipleys ■ menu like directory In DOS 
from which you can RUN or KILL any program, dli- 
play updated FREE ipace E print the dilplay, all 
with ilngle key command*. In feit acting ZSO coda, 
only $14. » IDOSl, 

INMOD] - aailly used ZIO ayitem progrim thai cin 
give any BASIC program profaiilonal keyboard 
entry. Blinking cursor, upper /lower cats, user 
defined Input length, repeat key* t tingle key- 
itroke control codas. Make* INKEYS obsolata; 

saves 1000 bytes over BASIC equivalent: for the 
rankail amateur' $14. 9S IL2 or DOS) . 
INMOD3 Plus - »ame but works with Percom "Speak 2 
Me": each character is spoken as entered' S19.95 

' • • INTROOUCINC our new MXU FIRMWARE 
Interlace and Modules. Software now In hardwire 
form; utitiie* the unused IK lower mem. Write or 
call. VISA CMC. Dealers encouraged! 

MEDIAHI^ 

PC Box 1775 

Unluersal City, CA. 91601 

211-»7S-««9 

Mlcronell 70]«0.12l 



THE BOOKKEEPERS 



FOR INFO CALL (603)-447-2745 



Full Charge Bookkeeper-48K, 3 DRIVE, w/ALPHA $199.95 

Intermediate Bookkeeper— 48K, 2DRIVE & Printer $189.95 

Cheap Bookkeeper-32K. 2DRIVE & Printer $175.00 

All Above Are Daily Jouriial—C L Systems 

Hex Code Converter, Loan Payment Finder, & 

Amortization Table, 16K, IDRIVE & Printer-ALL 3 $29.95 

STURDIVANT & DUNN, INC. ^62 

BOX 277. 124 WASHINGTON ST.. CONWAY. NH. 03818 



Please note: Our CRT SCREENS have been purchased by thousands 
of individuals, ttie Department of the Navy, several government agen- 
cies, and dozens of the country s top corporations and universities. 

• G[ve /our CRT the luminous green characters found on the very expensive 
computer systems 

■ Add a orofessiona! look to your system and your programs 

■ Dramatically improved contrast for easier reading and improved graphics 

We manufacture an optically correct 1/8" plexiglas" screen that mounts easily 
Over the CRT on your video monitor This is a Quality accessory that enables your 
TRS-80' monitor to produce the luminous green characters idenitcal to those 
found on expensive terminals For business applications thts means enhanced 
appearance and reduced eye strain for the hobbyist graphics are brighter and 
bolder The screen may be easily removed- no modification to monitor 



Screen for Model I $19.95 

A Screen for Model II . $24 95 

J, VISA Maslercharge 

National Tncor inc / 3335 Greenleaf Blvd . Kalamazoo Ml 49008 / 6 1 6- 375-75 1 9 



We shio within 
24 hours 
30-da'; money 
back Quaraniee 



INTELLIGENT 
TERMINAL 

Um vour TRS-8C* as a dloi-up termlr^ol on any 
itondard rimeshore svslem. Includes control 
kavs. Print CDmmond lists data on printer. 
Store commond writes doto to disk file. Write 
command reads disk file ond outputs to RS133 
Interfoce U9.9S 

ADOmONM SOFTWARE AVARABU: 



ACCOUNTS RECBV ABU 



$49S 



Maximum 9000 custorrwrs with up to 3000 Irons- 
actions per customer per billing period, in- 
cludes customer status reports, post due 
billings, mall list, etc. Reports may be run at 
onv time os often as desired. Higti-quallFv, pro- 
fessional software. 



GBeALLSOa 



M9S 



For medium sized business. Designed and 
proven impossible to unbalance books. IRS ou- 
dllable. Up to 9 deportments. Hloh-ouaiitv, pro- 
le ssionol set I wore. 



W95 

Some hlBh-quol- 

$9.95 

Basic, no-lriiis program, Eosv to use. Lists ail 
(or range of) addresses. Prints A lines by 3D 
chars on stondord 3i/i" x 1S/1&" label. 



PAYMU. 

For up to 120 people per veor. 

ity, professiorral sottwore. 

MAIUST 



UNILOGIC ^423 
P.O. Box 160 
PARIS, KY 40361 

(606) 9t7-367B 
(606) M7-4310 

(33K TRS-U' with disk drive required.) 
•TRS-M Is trode mork of Tandy Corp. 



If you're serious 

about the stock market, 

you need 

Tickertec" 




Watch 48 to 400 of your favorite 
stocks without a15 minute delay. 

Tickertec'" is a computer pfoofor^^ 'hat dis 
ploys the NYSE or AMEX tickertope on yovi 
TI^S-SO"" Model I Of both eichonges as an 
option on thte Model li Vou see evefy trade 
OS it IS reported by the exchonge ond track 
the lost len trodes. tickertope reported 
volume, and high and low limits on the 
stocks you ore watching Tickertec pro- 
gram prices start at SI, 000 00 with many 
optional feotures available including hard 
copy and portfolio management systems 
Progfoms moy be purchased for cash [i e 
hard dollars) or payment con be arranged 
in the form of discounted brokeroge com- 
missions (i e Soft Dollar Software"") Ex- 
change fees ore extro Call (or FREE bro- 
chure TOLL-FREE at (600)223-6642; m New 
Vork coll (212) 6B7-0705; or circle the 
reader sen/Ice number 

MaxUlc& .„. 

C Miiipuiiy Inc. 

6 East 43rd Street. N.Y.. N.Y 10017 



- Reader Service— see page 2K 



80 Microcomputing, October 1980 " 177 



22e PRIMT'flfNR ICAT LOH) FOR CEILING ^'M' WUSMSk ' 

m mm-.mn'om ufu ffiEDdN s& n. )■;» 

2» Uft/T-OfTER mi R Mt 

270 mNTfrnirUI etr lord FCR taiS =Mt' BTU'S/HDUR VPRHfrfMUl IERT LOH) for WU =■;!»' W9S 

2MfO=ti:f)>m 

290 PRINT ilMH/T'OfTER NIWOM AREA (IN SA FT. )';» 

JW nrUT-EKTER NIMXW R*;R 

316 GOSlfi 1668 

326 fVINT'rnxiHlfl t£flT LORD FOR UlfOGUS *'jHr' BTU'S/NOUi "FKUfT'fNML ICRT LOM) FOR MIICOHS ='ifH' 

33eiM=H:fH=flH 

346 reiKT:IfWT'ENTER DOOR flREfl (IN Sa FT. )';R.IWVT'E»TER WMR R-iR 

3S6 005161666 

M PRINT-ffKIKJH fCRT LOflD FOR DOOR =';Hi ' m'S/mSi 'iPRINT'llNR ICftT LORD FOR DOOR =MK ' WTS 

ABR' 

37eK5<44:fe^ 

386 IHfl*H2*H3+tti*t6:fltHtt*fl2*fl3'HH*fl5 

m PRINT'TOTflL ICflT LOSS =*jH; ' BTU'&WIt 'iPRINT'TDTd MIR ICfiT LOSS ='M' l\mS/m. ' 

410 PRIMTiimfT-HIT ENTER TO FIM) MUL COSTS'-W 

426 (1S:PRIHT1«T T\f£ OF FIEL W VOU HfM?' 

438 PRm*<0>IL 

435 PRINT'<EX£CTRIC 

448 ffIMT'<tL"« 

442 PRINT03LCJ«(i43); ;F0R(HT0256:ICXT:PRINT63t ' '; FOR9=lT0256;»a 

456Z$=II*EV$,IFZI="G0T0442 

455 IF Z$='0' GOTO S66 

45f IF ZI='E' GOTO b60 

4y IF Zf='6' GOTO 786 

4S9G0T0428 

460 (VCGOTO660. £06,706 

900 a5:I(WF'C05T OF 12 Fia OIL PER GftiOK';C 

518 flC=fltW>. ?1 

520 PRINT-flWUflL COST='.i ,PRINTLISINGm.flC:GCiTOe00 

606 aS:Itft/T'COST OF <* OF ELECTRIC =',C 

610ffi>ftM>29.3 

628 PRINT-flMR COST='; .PRINneiNGW;fX:.&OTOe08 

?00 dSJIfUT'COST FOR 0» OeiC FOOT 6HS =';C 

718 f)O«iC*108 

728 PRINTfNUL COSJ^'i :FRINTUSINGm;fC 

800 PRINT-HIT ENTER TO DeTERKIK PfifflflCJC Tiff IF Wfi£ INSUiiTION f€0EI)':I(WT2l 

005E<*1:IF£=>3£» 

806 IFE=2n£NGOT0838 

818 05:2^ 

820 IFE=]£OTQi00 

038 OSiffiMTIRST fVMR CBST ='; :PRINT16ING«»;Z2 

848 ffilNTICU fma COST =V :PRINTUSINGW>flC 

850 IFflOZaVirNEU COST IS NDRE! DON'T DO IT!-;QD 

068 }f>U-itnm'im(i saving =';:PRiNTlSINa»iNC 

878 f>RINT;»fVT*IHrr MRS T)C COST CT fiDOITIONfL INSUJtTIONMU 

890 Pfr^I/IC 

908 PRIMTMT WLi TBtE 'jPft' ^BKS TO FWiWCX HC COST. • 

Program continues 



put the efficiency of your heater 
and the number of degree days. 
Your meter man shouid have 
both of these figures. 

Locate the number of degree 
days on the Y-axis of the chart. 
Now move to the right untii you 
hit the curve with the percent ef- 
ficiency of your heater. Note the 
number on the X-axis {from 1 to 
8) and use it to ENTER THERMS. 

The area and thermai resis- 
tance (R) of the floors, waiis, 
windows, doors and ceiiings are 
entered. Typicai R vaiues are: 1 1 
for 3V2-inch standard fiberglass 
insulation; 19 for 6-inch stan- 
dard fiberglass insulation; two 
for storm or insulated windows 
and doors. Exact values should 
be obtained from local building 
suppliers. 

To account for cracks and 
openings that allow warm air to 
escape, heat load is calculated 
using 10 percent for the infiltra- 
tion factor. It is assumed that 
this is a standard house of aver- 
age quality construction, with 
evenly dispersed windows and 
no solar aid. The heat load fig- 
ure represents how much heat 
you must put into the home to 
maintain the delta temperature 
inside. 

To find the annual heating 
cost, you are asked what kind of 
heat you have. Type O. E or G. 
but do not hit ENTER. Respond 
to COST OF FUEL in dollars, 
such as .85 rather then 85c per 
gallon. 

fo computer the money saved 
by adding insulation and the 
number of years for the invest- 
ment to pay for itself, the pro- 
gram will again ask you areas 
and R values. This time you will 
enter adjusted R numbers at the 
locations where you want to add 
extra insulation. 

Modification 

A sample run follows. The 
chart is not shown which ap- 
pears in the program at ENTER 
THERMS. 

In Sample Listing 2 the com- 
puter again asks for areas and 
thermal resistances for ceiling, 

floors, etc. This time let's 
change the Rvalue in the ceiling 
to 30 to represent an addition of 
insulation. ■ 



178 ■ 80 Microcomputing, October 1930 



FROM PROGRAM MA 

HI-RESOLUTION GRAPHICS FOR THE TRS-80 




LOWER CASE 

TheaO-GRAFIX board includn 

Iwo teti ot lower cue character! 

ai no addiiional coit. 




DEMONSTRATION PROGRAMS 

Tha 80-GRAFIX board ii lupplied 
wilh a Character Generator loflware 
and iffveral demonsuation programi. 




REAL TIME GRAPHIC GAMES 

With the 80-GRAFIX board you can 

write exciting real-time j^mei uiing 

BASIC. 





FINALLY, AT LAST. .. 

HI- RESOLUTION GRAPHICS ii available for your 
TRS-80 computer lyittm. The BO-GRAFIX board from 
PROGRAMMA Inter national. Ir>c. gives your TRS-80 high 
reiolution capability that ii greater ihar^ the Commodore 
CBM/PET or even the revered APPLE 1 1 

80-GRAFIX givei the TRS-80 an effective screen ol 
384X192 piKels, versus the normal 127X192 for the 
TRS^BO, 80X50 for the CBM/PET. or the 280X192 ot an 
APPLE II. As in added feature, 80GRAFIX offers you 
lower case characters at no additional cost. Of course, you 
;an alio create your own set of up to 64 original characters 
using The supplied Character Generator software. 

The 80-GRAFIX board ii simple to install (note that this 
voids your Radio Shack warranty), and programming is 
done through BASIC. BO-GRAFIX opens up a whole new 
reairn of software development and eKCitement never 
dreamed of for the TRS-80! 




EASY INSTALLATION 

The 80-GRAFIX board is simple to 
initall arKl fits inside the TRS-80 case. 



INVERSE VIDEO 

The 80-GRAFIX board allows you lo 

do inverse video to high-li^i your 

screen displays. 



i.ii;:r.i:!ni;i 






CHARACTER GENERATOR 

The suDpiied character generator 

software allows you to create your 

own character set of up to 

G4 original characters 




GRAPHICS GALORE 

The 80 GRAFIX board and 

the supplied Character Generator 

allow you to become an artist. 




ELECTRONIC DESIGN 

TheBaGRAFIX tward has unlimited 

application m Electronic design 

>r>d Education. 




BO-GRAFIX HI RESOLUTION 

Finally, the only means lo protect 

your computer investment is to order 

an 30 GRAFIX board TODAYI 



Available exclusively through PROGRAMMA at the cost of $149.95 

Please check with us for availability prior to ordering 

VISA and WASTE RCHARGE accepted 

TRS-80 is a registered trademark of the Tandy Corp. ^21 




EXCITEMENT & FUN 

Open up a new realm ol software 

development with the 80 GRAFIX 

board. 



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Los Angeles, CA 90010 

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2M0 F(«X^07:FORV=13T(H4:SET(X,Y).ICXTV.X 

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2838 PRINTK68,G*; :PR;NT«i24.l)l; f*JNfaMGl. PftJNT*45i6li .PRINT^6.GI; PRMftSB- lil; 

2848 PRI(fr8M4,Gf; :PftINT978&ljl, :ffiINT»?72,6f. :F1}lMT0^lj». 

2858 PRINr89b& '1 2 3 4 5 6^8'. 

286eLi=2» 

2e?8)ff=l8 

2868 F(!RIMT018;K]NTHi.)OC :U=U.+«4:)ft=)«-l:NEXT 

2898 SUa7.48):Sn(]a«):Sn(39,3?> 5n(48.35J:Sn(4LJ8>:IT(42,J8J:Snt42,3*) SE^^ 

,36):KXr 

2188 F()IK=48m:Sn(X,35):lCXT:f(IR)(=52T()55:SncX,34);l£XT ffi^^^ 'IBX'i 

2U8 X=18 : V=40 : FORW TO? : SET(X, y ) . SET(X*L V ) : X=X+2 : y=V-l : ICXT 

2128 FflRX=38T01<:Sra34>:l€XT SET(34,i]) iUt35,i3>:Sai3&52J:bETa7-32):F()tt=M^ 

2138SET(44,29):Sn(4S29):F()RX=4aM9:Sn(X,28):«ff:Sn(58.2?):Sr(5t27):F(l(W=ST()57.Sn^^ 

2148 X=?6:^24 

2158F()RIMr(>12:Sr(X,V):X=X+l:V=V-l.f€XTSET(35.24);SETa4.25)SET(3a26),SET(3i26):SET(3L2?):Sn(» 

1(27.38) SET(2fc}8):SET(25,32):Sn{24,32).SET(2Zj3);SET(2t34):SET(2«,35):PRIHT8218*'6a!% 

a»X=34:V=13 Fa!HT04 SET(X.V) SETaV+l>:X=X-l:Y=Vt2;tfXT:X=il:y=22:FflHMT0l5:S^^^ 

2178 Sn<2&li> X=28:Y=14;FflRe=ir()e:SnaY);X=X-l V=V4l:ICXr X=a y=21:F0(»=lTW 

a88X=26:Y=13.FOR(Wr06:SET(X,y);X=X-l:Y=Y*l.»ea:X=15:V^28:FflRWTW8:SP(X,V) 

2158 PRIKTW8L 'OEGfiEE I *flT£R'. :PRINT854R 'DflVS t OTiCIEMCV; :PRINTI6e9, 'IM ['; :P!UWK7i'1888'S I'i : 

2m PRHW744,STRIW«22,?4)i ;PRIMrW8a *WIS (188.888) BTU'S', .PRIWTWT^' PER SO R PER VtflRV 

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• 14^ characters per second 
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• Reliable heavy duty Selectric 
mechanism 

• RS-232C Interface 

• Documentation included 

• 60 day warninty - parts and 
labor 

• Hi^ quality Selectric printing 
Off-line use as typewriter 

• Optional tractor feed available 

• 15 inch carriage width 



Also works with Ex- 
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for fast loading of pro- 
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DATA-TRANS 1000 

1 . We accept Visa, Master 
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F.O.B. San Jose, CA 

3. Deliveries are immediate 




Desk and table top models also available. 
For orders and information 

DATA-TRANS 

2154 0TboleSt. ^274 
UnitE 

SanJose,CA 95131 
Phone: (408) 263-9246 



180 " 80 Microcomputing, October 1990 



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80 Microcomputing, October 1980 • 181 



CONSTRUCTION 



An inexpensive tiardware mod 

for those wtio want both Level I and li capability. 



Two BASICS 

Are Better Than One 



Allen W. Erickson 
13868 Far Hills Lane 
Dallas, TX 75240 



If you arecontemptattng an up- 
grade of your TRS-80 Level I to 
Level II BASIC, you're probably 
also wondering what to do 
about all the Level I programs 
you've accumulated or written. 

If you already own a TRS-flO 
Level II, you may be wondering 
how you can run Level I pro- 
grams on your machine. A quick 
look through 80 Microcomput- 
ing and other personal comput- 
ing magazines reveals a great 
many Level I programs that have 
not yet been converted to Level 
II and perhaps never will. 

You can rewrite the programs 
yourself, but that's too much 
work. Besides, you may not have 



the source listings. And it's not 
very practical to change the 
Level I and Level II ROM chips 
every time you change program- 
ming languages. 

The Switch Between 

The obvious solution to these 
problems is to have both Level I 
and Level II BASIC installed in 
your machine, with some means 
to switch between them. Such 
modifications have been pub- 
lished before, but in every case 
I've seen, the mod required print- 
ed circuit trace cutting, piggy- 
back components, wire unsol- 
dering and resoldering, etc. 

The modification described 
here requires absolutely no 
alterations to the CPU t)oard 
and, if you have the single-chip 
BASIC I ROlvl, less than five 
dollars in parts. 

A note of caution: This mod 
will work only with the single- 
chip BASIC I ROM and CPU 
boards with separate chip se- 
lect lines to pin 20 of the two 
ROM sockets (Z33 and Z34}. 
Some early TRS-SOs may not 
have separate lines. If in doubt, 
check with your dealer. 

If you are upgrading your 
Level I machine to Level II, be 
sure to keep the Level I BASIC 
ROf*^. If you already have a Level 
II machine or your Level I ROM 



has two chips, you will have to 
acquire the single-chip ROM. My 
dealer quoted a price of $29.95 
for the chip. 

If you are familiar with digital 
logic, the following paragraphs 
will help you understand the 
logic behind the modification. I 
also highly recommend that you 
get a copy of the TRS-dO Tech- 
nical Reference Handbook 
(Radio Shack Catalog No. 26- 
2104). It's well worth the $10 for 
anyone interested in the hard- 
ware side of microcomputing 
and do-it-yourself maintenance. 

Theory 

Most of the ROM and RAM ad- 
dresses and peripheral devices 
in the TRS-80 are selected by 
memory mapping. That is, each 
device is assigned addresses in 
the 65K range of possible mem- 
ory addresses for the Z-80 CPU. 
For example, the Level I ROM 
occupies address spaces OOOOH 
through OFFFH. Level II ROM 
occupies OOOOH through 
2FFFH. RAM is allocated to 
4000H through FFFFH. 

Addresses 3000H through 
3FFFH are used to map TRS-80 
peripherals, including the dis- 
play (3C00H through 3FFFH) 
and keyboard (3800H through 
38FFH). There's a lot of unused 
address space in this range and, 



someday, I'm going to figure out 
a use tor it. 

In order to select the appropri- 
ate 4K segments of address 
space, the TRS-80 uses a three 
line to eight line decoder (Z21 in 
Fig. 1) to translate the most sig- 
nificant hex digit of the address 
(bits A12-A15). The 3 translation 
is used on the CPU board for pe- 
ripheral device selection. The re- 
maining seven translations are 
fed to a 16-pin DIP socket (X3), 
which is used for memory map- 
ping. 

Plugged into socket X3 is a 
programmable DIP shunt. The 
DIP shunt is nothing but short- 
ing bars between pins 1 and 16, 
2 and 15, etc. To program the 
DIP shunt, you merely break the 
appropriate shorting bars, re- 
sulting in an open circuit. 

The "outputs" of the DIP 
shunt are ROM A', ROM B* and 
RAM* (the * is Radio Shack's 
way of indicating a logical NOT 
or active-low condition). ROM 
A* is used as a chip select line 
to ROM socket Z33 and ROM B* 
as a chip select line to ROM 
socket Z34. 

RAM * is used to select the on- 
board RAM sockets and covers 
the address range 4000H 
through 7FFFH. Memory ad- 
dresses 8000H and at>ove are 
off-board (i.e., in the expansion 



182 • 00 Microcomputing, October 1980 




TRS-80*- CONDENSE 

TO Ultlnite in BASIC 

Conprtssion Utillttss ^ 

" RilNSi 1.3 Niw Avallihli " ^T 



Write BASIC programs using single statement lines tor ease 
of maintenance 

Write BASIC programs with unlimited remarks and comments 
to improve program readability and documentation 

— AND STILL GET — 
OPTIMUM USE Of MEMORY — FASTER PROGRAM 
EXECUTION 

Compresses programs up to 70% of original size 

Improves execution time by as mucti as 30% 

Creates multiple-statement program lines 

Blank compression 

Remark and comment deletion 

Renumbers GOTO. GOSUB. THEN. ELSE, and RESUME 

statements which reference deleted line numbers 

PLUS THESE NEW USER REQUESTED OPTIONS 

- Retention of low numbered remark statements 

- Checkpoint / Restart Facilities 
■ Phase 1 work file 



Mirill I $21.95 

(Diskette) 



Modil II tZ4.95 

(Diskette) 



INTERNATIONAL SOFTWARE ASSOCIATES 

P.O. Box 14805 .167 
Owihi. Ni. 6B124 



Tandy Corporation* 



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Simuiek s Mii rti-Spi-iul mi rcasi-s i ttmpuifr 
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n Speeds up your TRS-80 from 1 77MZ !o .^ htftv 2 66 MZ' 
21 Shuts down during disk or cassette I O to end lost pro 

gronis, then turns back on aulomaliftillv when disk or 

Cdsselie I is finished (Provided, of course, it was on to 

begin witfil 
3) Connects to keyboard LED and blinks when unit is 

ofwrating Stops blmkiny when turned nlf 
41 Comes wilh illustrated instruclions (Some soldering 

required) 
51 Average person can install in 10-20 minutes! 

6) All work IS done m hardware' Absolutely no software 
drivers neededl 

7) Operates with any TRS KO. (except Mcxfel II) works with 
TRSDOS, NEWD05 or any other operating system or 
software Works with RS 232 and telephone modems' 

81 Comes i ompletely assembled and ready to install 
All wires are stripped, switth installed' 

There arc no hidden extra costs to you! 
9) May be turned on or off at any lime' Even during program 

execution! 
101 Money back guarantee!! 



.jrdet "2000 Micro SiX'ed Mcxi 

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.^RaaMt Sarvtce—set page 226 



80 Microcomputing, October 1980 • 183 



OKIDAIA PRINTER 

The Best Frinlt-r in ihc World f<»r the TRS-8()! 
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7) Si4>porrs TRSSO Graphcs-' See 
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8) Connects directly to TRS80 with 
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9) Friction & pintced, use toH paper, 
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10) 6 or 8 lines per inch 

11) SO and 132 columns 

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interlace). Note in Fig. 1 ttiat 
A15' AND RAS* (row address 
select) are used to enable all on- 
board memory translations. 

ROM A* (pins 7 and 6 of X3) is 
used in a Level II machine to 
select the outrigger circuit 
board containing ttte Level II 
BAStC ROM chips. 

II you follow the wiring of the 
Dtp shunt in Fig. 1, you will see 
that ROM A* is low (active) for 
translations of 0. 1 or 2. ROM B* 
IS also low in this configuration, 
but not necessary for Level II 
ROM selection. 

By now, you can probably see 
the necessary changes taking 
form. It the single-chip Level I 
BASIC ROM is in socket Z34. 
and we can somehow change 
the programming of the DIP 
shunt translation to ROM A* 
or ROM B* at will, we have all 
the necessary ingredients. 

We don't have to worry about 
the 1 and 2 translations, since 
they will always select ROM A* 
(I.e., Level II ROM), and the Level 
I ROM will never reference ad- 
dresses in that range. 

Modification 

Assuming that you have the 
single-chip BASIC I ROM, the 
only other parts you will need 
are a SPOT switch, a 16-pin DIP 
header (Radio Shack Catalog 
No. 276-1980) and three pieces 
of flexible hook-up wire six to 
eight inches long. Any SPOT 
switch, such as a good sub- 
miniature toggle switch (Radio 
Shack Catalog No. 27&«13). will 
do. I used a three-strand ribbon 
cable for the wire. 

Fig. 2 illustrates the wiring of 
the DIP header and switch. The 



procedure is as follows: 
1. Cut three six to eight-Inch 
pieces of hook-up wire or ribbon 
cable. Trim V* Inch of insulation 
from each end and tin the leads. 
2- Connect one lead (center of 
the ribbon cable) t>etween pin 10 
of the DIP header and the center 
pole of the SPOT switch. Solder 
both ends. 

3. Connect one lead between pin 
6 of the DIP header and one of 
the remaining SPDT switch 
poles. This IS the Level I posi- 
tion. Solder both ends. 

4. Connect the last lead twtween 
pin 9 of the DIP header and the 
remaining SPDT switch pole. 
This is the Level II position. 
Solder the switch end only. 

5- Connect a wire jumper be- 
tween pins 8 and 9 of the DIP 
header. Solder twth ends. 

6. Connect a wire jumper be- 
tween pins 7 and 11 ot the DIP 
header. Solder both ends. 

7. Connect a wire jumper be- 
tween pins 2 and 15 ot the DIP 
header. Solder both ends. 

8. If you have a 16K machine (or 
larger), connect wire jumpers 
twtween pins 3 and 14. 4 and 1 3. 
and Sand 12. Solder all ends. 

This completes wiring of the 
DIP header and switch assem- 
bly. Now, on to the Installation: 

9. Disconnect all cables to the 
keyboard unit and lay it upside- 
down on a nonmarring surface. 
Remove the six Phillips screws 
in the bottom. 

10. Holding the case top and 
bottom together, turn it over and 
carefully lift off the top. Be care- 
ful of the power-on LEO. 

11. Carefully raise the keyboard 
assembly and fold it back. Do 
not strain the interconnecting 



«IZ ■ 
■ IS- 
AM- 



Ill 
T4LSI3S 



S^ 



■»0M ■• 1ZJ3) 

'"□M e* 121*1 
raw' 



Fig. 1. Memory Mapping in the TRS-80 Level II. 



184 • 80 Microcomputing, October 1930 



4 MHz TRS60* 

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DIMENSIONS: 13" 13%" H 23^"^ 

COLOR: Grey 

POWER REQUIREMENTS: 1 20 VAC 



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for the TPS-BO from Micro- Mega 



The Original GREEN-SCREEN 




The eye-pleasing Green-Screen fits over the front of your 
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Don't confuse the Original Green-Screen with a piece of thin 
film stuck to the face of your video tube, such as that adver- 
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frame perfectly matched to the color and texture of the 
TRS-80 Video Display. It is attached with adhesive strips 
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The full frame design of the Original Green-Screen "squares 
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THE GREEN-SCREEN $13.95 

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HI-RESOLUTION 
GRAPHICS FOR TRS-BO* 



INTRODUCING: 



E/RAM 




E'HAM Graphics is a unique hardware/software package, which will integrate high- 
speed high resolution graphics into any Level II TRS-SO system E/RAM hardware is a 
fully plug-CQmpatible box. which installs in minutes and requires absaluteiy na 
modifications Id the TRS-BO system E/BAM soltware is a compact, felocatable set of 
utilities which provides the user with easily accessible graphics lunclions For instance 
the user pakes the end point coordinates at a line into certain locations. iIdbs a USR call, 
andanoptimizeddot-rasler I me IS automatically drawn on the screen at very highspeed 
(less than 10 milii-seconds (or a medium length line) 

E/RAM does not reQuire the purchase of an additional monitor CRT The high-resulutinn 
graphics video is syncronized with the TRS-BO video and appears on the screen with the 
nprmal THS-80 display. Aiphanumerics. TflS-80 graphics, and E/RAM high-resniutmn 
graphics may be displayed simullaneausly ar individually 

E/RAMhardwarecontainsitsown6144byIe video memory, which provides a true 256)1 
192 matrix ot Indtpindint graphic elements |E/RAM is HOT a programmable character 
generator type graptiics system Character generator systems have serious limitations 
in full screen graphics applications ) 

E/RAM will operate with or without an expansion interface, and with any standard 
memory configuration (4k through 4flkl 

E/RAM is litt "E/RAM ' is an acronym for Extended Random Access Memory, a very 
short description of the Patent-Pending method of I/O employed by this device, which 
gives It memory-mapped speed without inlerfering with the memory space used by the 
TRS-80. 



The installation ot E/RAM will not affect 
normal operation ot the TRS-80 High 
resolution ON/OFF is under program 01 
manual control (a switch is provided) An 
expansion card edge connector is provided 
so that other peripherals may be used on 
the TRS-SO bus. 



':^ 



E/RAM software package is compact (less than 1000 bylesl. fast, easy to use. and very 
tiexible A relocating loader is provided The user can delete unneeded routines it more 
memory space is required Lines can Redrawn astastas 13 per second using BASIC USR 
calls and as fast as 200 per second using assembly language programs 

Routmas usable through USR of BASIC, and ol course an assembler CALL are 

INIT - Sets up display 

PLOT - Rots a point 

READ - Reads a point from the screen 

SLACK - Sets drawing mode to black (olf) 

WHITE - Sets drawing mode to on 

CLEAR - Clears the high-resolution graphics screen 

LINE - Draws a line 

As an example, atter the utilities package is loaded and you desire to draw a line, the 
lollowing seQuence of BASIC instructions could Oe executed 

U=USR(0) Return the communications area 

POKE U'l.XO Provide the beginnino % coordinate 

POKE U-3,V0 Provide the beginning V coordinate 

POKE U*5,X1 Provide the ending % coordinate 

POKE li'7.V1 Provide the ending Y coordinate 

V^USR(4) Draw the line (Current speed is 

approximately 13 vectors/second) 

The complete E/RAM package is available tor only $349.95. and includes case, power 
supply, cables, software cassette, and complete documentation 

To order, or lor further details, write or call 



VERN STREET PRODUCTS 

114 West Taft 

Sapjipa, Oklahoma 74066 

Phone: (918) 224-5347 



We handle a lull line 
ol Radio snack products 



Dealer inquiries are invited 

Terms COQ Welcome, check, money order. Master Charge, or Visa 

Delivery Stock to 60 days 

E/RAM was designed, and is manufactured by KEYLINE COMPUTER PRODUCTS. INC 

13 East 6lh Street. M/C 200. Tulsa. Oklahoma 74119 

'TRS-80 is a registered trademark ol Radio Shack, a Tandy Corporation 



'Reader Service— see page 226 



80 fi^icrocomputing. October 1980 • 185 



^b I KS HO ( O.MFA 1 lltl 1 DISK DKIV 1 S V>b 
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• These MPI's have doors thai close and keep dust out' 

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• These drives are one ol the fastest on the rnarkel 5 milisei ornis 
ucrsiis Rad") Sh.K.U's 40 niiliscironds' 

• These drives c lime i umplele ivilh power supply and case and are tpatty 
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or you may purchase our cable 

• Dual drive is sami' ,is twii drives but uses only one diskette' Save money 
on expensive diskettes' ll maybe used as drive and 1, 1 and 2 or 2 and 3' 
This IS a fantdstK buy' 

• SAVE $1 Ifi (Smqie ilrive) or $451 [DuliI drive) 
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WE SHIP FAST' ORDER YOUR DRIVE TODAY!!! 

Order" 

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8001 MPl Dual Drive 549.00 

8002 4 Drive CaWe 39,95 

8003 2 Dnve CaWe 24.95 

8005 TRSDOS Manual and TRSDOS 2,3 19.95 

8006 NF.W[X>S' lin. ludes edin.r assembler that 
i*orks wilh lape or disk, disassembler, super?ap, 
has* variable relereriie, lenomher, disk ; ommands 
trom basic, screen to printer tomm.ind, 

and much nx)re 99.95 

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8010 ni,k holders diokl ten ,,',vh. 2,99 

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THE 

sormaRE 

PmECTORY 

A Comprehensive Guide to Programs 

Now, you can have access to hundxeds of 
computer programs, qrulcklr and easily. 

The Software Directory lists available programs 
lor major home and small business computers, including 
Apple. ..Atari., .North Star. .Radio Shack.,, PET.,, CP/M 
S'ystems and more. 

Indexed lor last and easy reference, Directory 
categories Include games, education, utilities, home 
accounting, and professional business programs. It's 
organized according to computer type, so you can lind 
the programs designed for your computer, fast. 

The Software Directory describes each program, 
and lists the minimum required system, program price, 
ordering inlormatlon and vendor address, 

The Software Directory has all the information you 
need lor ordering any of the hundreds ol sottwore 
programs available. To get it, send a check or money 
order lor 39,95 to Software Central. We'll send you a 
software relerence book you'll use time and again. 



Sc 



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1^416 



ribbon cable, 

12. Remove the five rubber sepa- 
rators. Remember wtiere they 
were. 

13. Carefully remove the CPU 
logic assembly together with 
the keyboard assembly and turn 
them over to the component 
side. 

14. Remove the DIP shunt at X3 
(near the expansion interface 
edge connections) and plug the 
DIP header/switch assembly in 
its place. Make sure it is plugged 
in correctly. 

15. If the ribbon cable from the 
Level II board is plugged into 
socket Z34, carefully remove the 
plug and insert it into socket 
Z33. 

16. Make sure the single-chip 
BASIC ROM is positioned cor- 
rectly and carefully insert it into 
socket Z34. 

17. At this point, you'll have to 
decide where and how to mount 
the SPDT switch, I drilled a hole 
near the center of the rear apron 
of the case. Make sure the wire 
will reach the switch position 
when the PC board is reinstalled 
in the case. 

18. You may want to check out 
the computer before replacing it 
in the case. See Checkout and 
Operation, 

19. Reassemble the unit by re- 
versing the above procedure, in- 
stalling the switch as you go. Be 
sure that the five rubber sep- 
arators are on the posts under 
the keyboard assembly. If you 
mixed up the screws, the short- 
est ones go In the holes near the 
front of the keyboard, the mid- 
dle-sized screws in the two cen- 
ter holes and the long ones in 
back. 




Checkout and Operation 

Connect the power supply 
and display cables. Put the 
switch in the Level II position 
and turn the power on. The video 
should display. 

MEMORY SIZE?_. 

If the display is: 

READY 



the switch is in the Level I posi- 
tion. 

If the display is garbage, turn 
the power off, wait a few sec- 
onds and turn the power on 
again. If the display is still gar- 
bage or clear, turn the power off 
and recheck all your wiring. 
Make sure the DIP header, 
BASIC I ROM chip and ribbon 
cable connector from the Level 
II board are properly oriented in 
their sockets. 

Now, turn the power off and 
switch to the other Level posi- 
tion. Wait a few seconds and 
turn the power on. The display 
should now be the alternate Ini- 
tial message. If Level II worked 
but Level I does not, the problem 
is likely in the Level I ROM chip, 
Its orientation or the wire from 
the Level I position on the 
switch. 

You'll have to turn power off 
each time you change levels. If 
you just throw the switch, the 
CPU usually goes out to lunch. 
The manual reset won't recover. 

The reason for pausing each 
time you turn the power off and 
on Is to allow time for the power- 
on reset capacitor to dis- 
charge. ■ 



fA 



■ROM A* 
I Z 33) 

'ROM B* 
( Z341 



PftRTIttL SCHEMATIC 



Fig. 2. Switch/Header Assembly. 



186 • 80 Microcomputing, October 1980 



Games from BIG FIVE will 
turn your computer into a 



TRS-80 



SUPER NOVA 



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The newest and moat excitir>g Invaders- 
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sharp grapNcs. and the "FlagsNp" alsn 
from Super Ktova combirte to make this 
our finest TRS-60 garnet 

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LYISDLO^^ 

makes your TR$-10 
a whole new 
animal. 






LVMX Isn't luet a lalaplion* coupler. 

LYNX is a one-p«ece total telephone linkage 

tystwn lor TRS-80 Level I and II oompulers It 

contains aN the functions you need to tap The 

Source- Engage your business computer. Ray 

games with a computer friend. Or do nearly 

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Best of all, LYNX costs only $23995*. A mere 

fraction of what you used to have to pay for 

equipment to do the same job 

LYNX. To gel your paws on one, call or write: 





D 



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^ira 



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$0 Mtcrocomputing. October i960 • 1«T 



APPLICATION 



Genetic counsel from your TRS-80. 



Genotype 



Albert Rauber M. D. 
Department of Pediatrics 
69 Butler St., S. E. 
Atlanta, GA 30303 



Prospective parents faced 
with genetic probiems must 
make their own decisions. Oniy 
they can balance the risks and 
benefits of pregnancy, abortion, 
contraception, sterilization or 
adoption. 

Their physician will often teii 
them what the odds are that a 
child would have a particular 
birth defect or would carry the 
trait. But these statistics come 
Irom large samples, and can be 
misleading. No woman will have 
enough pregnancies in her life- 
time to demonstrate the odds. 

This program gives the pa- 
tient a more realistic view of 
probability as applied to human 
genetics. It uses four examples: 
"The general inheritance of an 
autosomal recessive gene that 
requires a contribution from 
each parent. ("Autosomal" re- 
fers to chromosomes other than 
those that determine sex.) 
• Hemophilia, which Illustrates 
the workings of a gene carried 
on the special chromosomes 
that determine sex. 
•Sickle-cell disease, which dif- 
fers from other autosomal re- 
cessive genes in that we can 
test for it even when it causes no 



disease. 

•The four major blood types, 
which are combinations of two 
genes, each of which expresses 
itself as a single gene and 
neither of which may be present. 
The program is written on a 
TRS-80 Level II In BASIC and 
runs on 16K. It comprises 8357 
bytes. 

The Program 

Statements 300-360 select 
topics from a menu. 1000-1200 
pick the genotypes of each 
parent for the recessive inheri- 
tance example. 

1210 sends the program to 
20000, a subroutine to print and 
label a conventional pedigree 
tree. A second branching at 
20040 and 20070 goes to subrou- 
tines at 30000, which fill in the 
male and female symbols to in- 
dicate affected or carrier states. 

20302 defines the number of 
children to be born. 20305 com- 
bines the parents genotypes, 
and branches to appropriate 
lines. 20307-20329 calculate the 
probabilities using the random 
number generator. 20332 counts 
the children, and 20329 deter- 
mines sex. 

20334 branches to a subrou- 
tine that defines the x,y coor- 
dinates for printing the next 
child on the family tree. Line 
20440 directs the program to 
graphic subroutines, which print 
the symbol appropriate to sex 
and genotype (30018-30450). 



Line 20470 lets you repeat the 

experiment or return to the 
menu. 

The other examples use the 
same graphics subroutines but 
differ in their calculations. 

The hemophilia (x linked re- 
cessive) program considers only 
two genotypes (G) and the two 
sexes (R), which are determined 
by serial RND (X) statements to 
produce four different out- 
comes in lines 2130-2160. 

The blood type example, 
beginning at line 3000, uses 
string functions, since blood 
type names are actually con- 
catenations of the gene names 
(A,B,0). Although sex has 
nothing to do with the inheri- 
tance, I've kept the symbols and 
terms to enhance realism. 

Line 3010 summarizes a basic 
information review. Lines 
3110-3170 ask for the paired 



genes of each parent. Lines 
3250-3210 randomly select 
which gene each parent will fur- 
nish to the conceptus (C$) in line 
3320. 

Lines 3330 and Invoked sub- 
routines print and label the fami- 
ly tree, with genotypes for the 
blood groups. 

The sickle-cell routine at line 
4000 follows the same basic pat- 
tern as the blood group routine, 
but with different text. 

Repeated runs compress time 
and let you simulate many 
families of varying sizes, giving 
a more accurate feel for the 
odds and stakes involved. 

Biology teachers can modify 
this program for classroom use 
by removing the medical refer- 
ences and using sweet pea 
flower colors, guinea pig coat 
markings or other characteris- 
tics. ■ 



Program Listing 1. 



5 CLS 

10 PRINT'COPYRIGHT 1979 ALL RIGHTS RESEBVED. ALBERT RAU 

BEB DECATUR, GA.':INPUTZS 
10fl CLEAR 
110 CLS 

200 PRINT CHRSU3) 

210 PRlNTe46B, "GENOTYPE": FORI -ITOIBBBsNEXT: I CLEW* 
212 CLS 
300 PRINT-SELECT THE MODE OF INHERITANCE FROM THIS LIST 

. " : PRINT 
310 PRINT-ENTER THE NUMBER OF YOUR CHOICE." 
320 PRINT TAB[10) "(1) AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE" 
330 PRINT TAB110) "(2) X LINKED RECESSIVE (HEMOPHILIA)" 
340 PRINT TAB(10) "(3) AUTOSOMAL DOMINANT (BLOOD TYPES) 

Program continued 



188 • 80 Microcomputing, October 1980 



^m 



TUBE 

Th« Ultimata Buffwad Editor 
for TRS-80 Disk Syatwns 

TECO llk«, 21 edit commands, diract 
cursor control, block move, multiple in- 
put lines, file size limited only by 
aviilBble disk space. This is A FULL 
SCREEN EDITOR UTILIZING CURSOR 
CONTROL. 



lOn TRS-80 Disk with Manual 
Also available for TRS-80 



S40.00 



SBASIC Structured Basic Pre- 
processor $50.00 

§BASOPT Basic program optimization 
program $20.00 

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tDraUr inquirin inrUrdl 

VISA & MASTERCHARQE ACCEPTED 

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TRS 80 

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Intcrfaca ntounta in H14 prlntar or In 
TFI9-80 EI. May b* uaad with FtR 
prlnt«r Intarfftc* c«ble. Ua«s th« 
•ortw«r« drivar In tM Level ! ROM. 
No xtore ■oftware conpatabl 11 ty 

problama. Works with El«c Pen, 
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The computer trilnka It la driving ar. 
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rellabl* full apaed operation. 
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REMOTE CONTROL 



Control your home wlt^ your TRS-BOI 
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Control up to 2i6 devlcea Including 
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S19.95. 



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MASTER CHAnCt VISA 



^275 



A ♦• it it it it it it it . 

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OmikitHi^ Mapper + NEWDOS/80 
S^ Driws for the TRS^SO 



NIWDOS/nis Apparat's latest upgrade to 
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figured for Omikrons MAPPER II. $150. 

MAmS M adapts the TRS-80 Iti run b-rth 5" 
andH" drives. With NBWtX)S/80, stiiraKeis 
increased to 3(K)K per 8" dnve, $99 plus $10 
per cable connector. 

hUPfHi I adapts the TKS-80 to r\in the vast 
library uf CP'M software as well as the 'I'RS-SO 
sirftwaiT. All Lifehiiat Software mav be ordered 
fnrthe MAPPER I. All MAPPER 1 CP M s.ift 
wareisamipalible wilblheCP M fur the Model 
II With MAPPER II and 8" dnves, the M.xlel 
1 becHnes disk ctKupatible with the Viodel 11. 



Standard features ir^lude lower case support, 
serial and parallel printer drivers, and an ad 
dressable cursor MAPPER 1 is supplied with 
complete utilities including a meniory test, a 
disk test, a copy program, and a pruprietary 
program for converting TRS-IK>S files to CP'M 
files. $199, 

WOOD PROCESSING- MAPPER I supports 
professional word proccssiirs like the \faKic 
Wand and Word Star i see reviews in June 80 
Kilobaud!. Omikmn'MrnplcTnentalion include- 
a blmkin^j cursor, aut<i repeal, shift lock, de 
bfiuncisiK, and an input buffer that eliniinaies 
missed characters. .MagK Wand super disniunl 
pnce $299. 



REID FVOVBI DCSKWS- After one year of 
MAPPER production. (Hniknin has established 
an impeccable reputation frr reliabilit>'. integrity, 
and user support, OmiknMi's toisUimers include 
the l'S(iovernment, major airporal ions, uni 
versities, medical doctors, and professionals in 
all fields. 

SYSTtMS— Omikron sells complete systems 
featunnjn Model II compatible Shugart disk 
drives. Call for prices and delivery 

FOKION OeOEK musl irKlude full p;iynient in 
I 'S funds plus $2.T for air shippinji and handling 



See reviews in July 80 and August 80 BYTE By Jeny Poumelle. 




■(.(' M I-, .iTM -I lliunnl HfVJiih IKS HO I 
- RaeOer Senic* — s** pagt 22t 



1 M ..I T-ndv CiiKji 



^»7 



80 Microcomputing, October 1980 • 189 




fortheTRS-80? 

Our model CS-2 interface plugs into the Qume printer I/O 
and offers a Centronics connector tor DIRECT CONNECTION 
from your TRS-80 parallel Interface. 
Q. Which Qume? 

A. Any sprint 3 series printer 35, 45, or 55 CPS. 
Q. Software compatability? 
A. The code set is compatabie with: 

Diablo 1610/1620 

Sprint 5 subset 

Scripsit works with no modification. 



Price: $395.00 shipped trom stock 



Complete printer systems available, 

Example: Sprint 3/45cps with TRS-BO interface $2645.00. 



ALSO AVAILABLE 

Sprint 5 Printers RO & KSR 

Sprint 3 Twlntrack 

DataTrack 8 Floppy Disk Drhfes 

DataTrack 5 Floppy Disk Drh^es 

Forms Tractors 

Cut Sheet Feeders 

Interfaces for Qume to Apple, Pet, HP-85 

Systems 10 Computer systems 

Supplies 

Complete service depot 



Dealer quantity discounts available. 

DATA WHOLESALE 
CORPORATION 



►^43* 



700 Whitney St. San Leandro, CA 94577 (415)638-1206 



THIS PROGRAM ILLUSTRATES THE PROPOGATION 
LINKED RECESSIVE TRAIT SUCH AS HEMOPH 



34) PRINT TABC1B)"(4) SICKLE CELL ANEMIA" 
350 PRINTe896,"":INPUT2 
360 CLS:ON Z GOTO 1000,2900,3000,4000 
370 STOP 

999 CLS 

1000 PRINT" THIS PROGRAM ILLUSTRATES THE PHOPGA 
TION OF AN AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE TRAIT" 

1001 PRINTeB96, "PRESS ENTER":INPUT ZS 

1002 CLEAR 
1004 RANDOH 

1100 CLS;PRINT"CHOOSE A GENETIC TYPE FOR EACH PARENT":P 
RINT:PRINT 

1119 PRINT"THE FATHER SHALL BE;" 
1111 PRINT 

1120 PRINT TAB(10)"(1) NORMAL" 
1130 PRINT TAB(10!"(2) AFFECTED' 

1140 PRINT TAB(10)"(3) CARRIER" 

1141 PRINT 

1150 INPUT"TYPE THE NUMBER OF YOUR CHOICE";E 

1151 PRINT 

1160 PRINT'THE MOTHER SHALL BE:":FRINT 

1170 PRINT TAB(10)"(1) NORMAL" 

1180 PRINT TAB(10)"(2) AFFECTED" 

1190 PRINT TAB(10)"(3) CARRIER" iPRINT 

1200 PRINT! INPUT'TYPE THE NUMBER OF YOUR CHOICE'iF 

1210 GOTO 20000 

2000 ' • X LINKED RECESSIVE TRAIT 

2001 CLEAR 

2002 CLS 

2003 RANDOM 
2010 PRINT" 

OF AN 

ILIA." 
2012 PRINT@769, 'PRESS ENTER WHEN READY": INPUTZS 
2014 CLS 

2020 PRINTeiB, "NORMAL HALE" 
2030 PRIKTe34, "CARRIER FEMALE" 
2034 X-44:Y-6 
2040 GOSUB30018 
2050 PRINT^343,"X Y" 
2054 X«78:Y-6 
2060 COSUB 30174 
2070 PRINTe359,"X X'" 
20B0 GOSUB 30400 
2090 X-0iy-0 

2100 PRINTe768,"HOW MANY CHILDREN ( 1 TO 5)"; 
2104 INPUT K 
2108 FOR Q ■ 1 TO K 
2112 C-C+1 

2114 ON C GOSUB 30510,30520,30530,30540,30550 
2120 R-RND(2) :G=RND(2) 

IF R-1 AND G=2 THEN A-A+1:P-1:GOTO2170 
IF R-1 AND G=l THEN P-2!GOTO2170 
IF R-2 AND G=2 THEN B-B*l : P-3 :GOT0217 
IF R-2 AND G-1 THEN P-4SGOTO2170 
2170 ON P GOSUn 30300,30018,30174,30110 
2176 NEXT Q 
2180 PRINTPTSB, "PRESS ENTER "iIN 

PUTBS 
2190 PRINTP768, "THERE ARE ■;A:" AFFECTED BOYS AND "jBj" 

CARRIER GIRLS." 
2200 PRINTe832,"TYPE 1 TO REPEAT, 2 TO RETURN TO MENU, 

3 TO END": INPUT S 
2210 ON S GOTO 2000,212,30000 

2999 STOP 

3000 REM BLOOD TYPES 

3002 CLSiCLEAR(1000) 

3010 PRINT'THIE PROGRAM ILLSTRATES THE ACTION OF DOMINA 

NT GENES." 
3020 PRINT'BLOOD TYPES A.B.AND O ARE USED AS EXAMPLES.' 

! PRINT 
3030 PRINT'THE GENE A PRODUCES ANTIGEN A; B GENE PRODUC 

ES ANTIGEN B AND' 
3040 PRINT'EACH GENE EXPRESSES ITSELF INDEPENDENTLY OP 

THE OTHER." 
3050 PRINT'O REPRESENTS AN ABSENT GENEj IP BOTH A AND B 

ARE ABSENT" 
3060 PRINT"NO ANTIGEN IS PRESENT AND TYPE EXISTS. ":PR 

INT 
3070 PRINT'A TYPE A PERSON MAY RESULT FROM GENOTYPE 'AA 

' OB 'AO' BUT' 
30B0 PRINT'THE 'AO' INDIVIDUAL WILL TRANSMIT THE 'A' GE 

NE TO PROGENY IN" 
3090 PRINT'ONLY ONE HALF OP THE INSTANCES,' 
3100 PRINT§896, "PRESS ENTER WHEN READY' i i INPUTZS 
3100 CLS 

3110 PRINT'CHOOSE BLOOD TYPES FOR THE PARENTS." 
3112 PRINT 
3120 C-C+l: IF C-1 THEN PS-'FATHER" ELSE PS-'MOTHER" iPR 

INT 
3130 PRINT'TYPE A COMBINATION OF 2 GENES FOR THE ■;PS)" 

SUCH AS' 
3140 PRIHT'AA, AO, BB, BO, AB, OO'iPRIHT 
3150 J-J+l: IF J-2 GOTO 3170 
3168 INPUT GFS: GOTO 3120 
3170 INPUT GMS 
317 2 CLS 

3175 PRIHTei51,GFS 
3180 PRINT@168,GM$ 
3190 X-44iY-5iGOSUB 30O1B Progr§m contiriMS 



2130 
2140 
2150 

2160 



190 • 80 Microcomputing, October 1980 



ScBnned by Ira Galdklanq - www.trs-BD.cnm 



OPTICAL 

FILTERS 

from 
INTERNATIONAL OPTICS 

High - grade, profeuional materials 
Edges are bevelled and polished 

Decreases eye - strain 
Increases readability 
Cuts down glare 
Reduces fatigue 

Specify: 

Radio Shack (8^4 x 11) 

Soroc 120 18 X 10!^) ■ Leedex 

Sony (ask about custom sizes) 



only $15.95 



^463 



MICRO BUSINESS SYSTEMS 

18325 VANOWEN #34 

RESEDA, CA 91335 

(213) 705-5999 




TRS-80© "=^ 
TAPE DIGITIZER 



Vstd by the 
U.S. Coast 
Guard and 
U.S. Navy 



•ELIHINATES CAtSETTC 
LOMMMQ AND COPVIMO 
nK>*LCm...EVlN 

•trtmrTAHsi 

•MAKC* TAK raOOHAM 
LOADWra MUCnCALLV VH 

otMMOon or volume 

CONTROL SCTDNOI 
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ram, oramzcD TO EX- 
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BCWAl. WHILE NOtOVMO 
HUH. HOOE AND OTHCn 

MHKM onorovTS 

-A.C. TOWSKD NO MT- 
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AUOWS MANUAL on COM- 
PUTER CONTROL or CAS- 
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-FlEO YOUR CASSETTE TO 
THE TAPE DKUnZIR AND 
mo TOUR COMPUTER 
TNI EXACT DMrTAL 
WAWORH THC TRUa 
SAVE TO THE TAPE UNNLE 
HAKNtaACOrTATTHC 
SAMETWEI 

■THE TAPE DNUTiZER IS 
COMPLETELY COMPATIBLE 
WfTH LEVEL I AND tt 



ALSO AVAILAtLE WITHOLJ 

CASSETTE KEMOTC 

Omoft SWITCH 



$54.95 




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iiiaif.iiiiTi'Kini 
mtcooomiami t 
F'firr riwE- 

Hmmnmotiiniii* 
in II tiiisii- 



24-tMurphont 
(707)867-7237 



TRS-SQT^'^' SOFTWARE 

MOMTOR «3 139 » 

DiMssemOier mtmofy dhspia^s rnemoiy move search vefity 
jnd fiHxliii. icM »no onte ot>i*cl lapes ne<»a*cimai 
jrirhm«ric. obfvci ziMt rekKaEo' unioM cograms lex dis>< 
iimbWic oulpul liBfi 41 p*gr .nsiiuclio" frunuil 

MONITOR n wgqi 

S*m«i5Monpioi«[Jui*W» i*>e »no read aiiHiisi, Oireci I" 
pui ana oulpul ol dish i«clws. sena 'K-f-t w liik ID anoirwi 
rcKnpuHr via RSJ32C inteilicp symDolic disass^mbii on 

ant 

SMART TERMINAL S49 9b 

Enables your TRS-tlOlo be u&ed as a remoTe leririindi loalime 
siwing system Supoons lowa^casc arHl tull laog? ol conl'Oi 
^tyi Aotofiattc innsmtat'on txiween memory and riosi com 
putf MuC'' '^'O'* 

FASTSOHT u K 

Macnine-lan^ua^e soiling program lot use by Basic pioQiams 
Many irfTi*i lasw than othei nictriods' 

GAMtOFLiFE Klft 

Jtttin Conway s gamo ol iite ^r>uws patterns evolving anri 
i.llangir>g a«iil1l| Qcfurr? your eyes * Uazrling ilpmonslralni" 
pFogiam' 

■ASIC SOFTWARE 

MAILIfJG LIST i69 9i 

Mainiarns rnaiiing nsi tifes of o»e< tOOO names per disketie 
ArM. delete, ctiange find name maciiioe language srjti prmi 
iiie 

SMALL BUSINESS ACXXXJNTING 149% 

Based on Dome Boo«K»«(jrng Journal •612, Keeps trac" oi m 
come, crrpendilu res arxl payroiHo' a small thJSir>r-Ft^ ot up lo lb 
employees Daily, monlhly. ygar lodale summaries 

HOME BUDGET 149 95 

Cwckbrx* marnlrnarce combined *itti retard-^ r>l mcomi- 
and monlhly bills Mr^nrhiy arKI year lo-d^te summaries ^ikia 
inq lai i3ediKlion5 

DAI ABASE MANAGEMENT 129 » 

Oeiines iiles ot any aescnption and maintain on casseite O" 
ililk MO change delete lind sort |u5li<y print Ime Drinl 
total iieids. onie 



HOWE SOFTWARE .^103 

14 Lexington Road 

New City, New York 10956 

('; TRS-80 'S a registered trademark ot Tandy corp 



BEST SELLING iNFORMATION 
MANAGEMENT SYSTEM IN 
MICROS TODAYM ■ 



SELECTOR III-C2 

■Powetlul 

■Creates and Maintains Multi- key data 

bases. 
■Prints FORMATED, SORTED REPORTS with 

numerical summaries. 
■Source code supplied 
■Prints MAILING LABELS - and more! 
■Comes with APPLICATIONS PROGRAMS 

including: 

■Sales Activity BExpense Register 

■Inventory ■Checks Register 

■Payables ■Client/ Patient Record 

■Receivables ■Appointments 

■NAD ■Library 

File management and report writing modules 
contain linkage to user subroutines to add 
virtually any special purpose application. 

STATE OF THE ART in information manage- 
ment systems! 

NEW — 'Ready-to-run' version tor the 
TRS-80* Model I, only from Business 
Microproducts. Also available tor Model II. 

Requires CP/M operating system or 
derivative and CBASIC2. 

Ottered on SV*" or 8" all versions S295.* 
CBASIC2 with Selector Purchase. . $75.* 



TRSOGS-^CP/M 




■BRIDGES THE GAP ' 



mt*K.n,nt ungutqt COH FILE i 
Oiiecliy COmiMliDie min yOur 
CP/* sysiem 

■Aulomjlea lermmji Con 

liguraioi 
■Memo'y diSDldyed in Doin HEX n 

iM ASCII 
■Any auk Seciof SewciM anc | 

diSpUyta >n DOin HEX JnO 
ASCH 
■Timsieis train atu ana pi o 
giam lues Oy li«e njme Dyie Dy ' 
Dyls 

■And mo'e 



\Ht*iy CrulM tiie% scanneo 
tor IHIcnIiai errors Oetmetn 
>«vei II lASIC ft MUSIC S 

01 Idler 

ICP/M files scjircfl tor any 

selected slung 

ISea'cne^ any Diogtam toi an 

occurences ol triy string 

ICierw'aies a lanaDie coss 
reference inuaiuaDif teatu'e 

tor any system itvei con.er 
lion ano OeOuOQing 
IDiSpiays DOin CP/M < 
TR500S Qirecio'iis 



From CPflM: TRSIX)S now avallatH« for TRS-80 Model I 
Both dlrsctlons $149.00 



FILETRAN Disk ano Manual 

Manual alone imanuai ptice creditM to systemi 



SH 



BUSINESS •^»' 
U\!/UD(g[2®PR0DUCTS 

A DIVISION Ol' THE READY CORPORATION 

LIVERMORE FINANCIAL CENTER 

1838 Cataiina Court • Livermore, CA 94550 

(415) 449-4412 

VISA M/C 




NEVADA 
COBOL 



^ A POWERFUL subset ol ANSl-74 

^ A PRICE thai s UNBEATABLE-S99 

^ EXTENDED arithmetic & I/O features 

►-* FAST compilalion and execution 

►^ EASY to use - Generates small executable 

ob|ec! modules 
w UNIQUE - Easily understoofl error 

messages 
»-CP/M compatible 
^ Also available ON TRS-BO 
^ REQUIRES only 16K-RAM 
^ Designed for PORTABILITY 

STANDARD FEATURES 

■ Random access die structure 

■ Sequential liies - FiieO and variable length 

■ Debugging capability 

■ Copy slalemeni 

■ Data types & character siring. 16 Bit Binary 
and packed Oecimai (Comp-3| 

■ 18-Digit accuracy 

■ Hexidecimai non-numeric literals 

■ Powerlui editing 

■ inleraclive accept /display 

Otiered on both 5%" and 8" diskette, all 
versions $99' 

*CA residents add 6% sales tax. 
Continental shipping $3.00. Allow 2 
weeks delivery. 

THS-80 IS a trademark ol the Tandy Corp 
CP/M IS a trademark ot Digital Research 



^Reader Service— see page 226 



80 Microcomputing, October 1980 • 191 





^^^essKRELL SOFTWARE 
I^L pr«swita for tha TR8-80* 
^ PET, Appto II, and Appl« II Plus 



ELECTORAL COLLEGE 1980 



T^)e Tool tor torecasling tr>e ouIcoitw oI the 1B80 prBsidsrtial Eleclton 
Will 11 M CARTER'' REAGAN'' ANDERSON^ or will the siKlton be forced 
into the House of Heprewntalives'' Tt^is pto^urr, developed by a pro 
leiiot of Political 5cier>ce is buill to be uMd in two wiys 

1 During tl^e political campaign prior 1o the election and. 

2 On Election Night, as the partial returns roll in on network news 
Using the state by state data on prevtous electiona that the program oro- 
vides, simulated etectiorxs are run and the proOabllity ol outcomes calcu 
lated $14 K 



COLLEGE BOARDS 



The best way to sharpen your skills for trie College Board SAT Eiams is 
to work 00 actual examinations Each of Ittese * programs confronts ttie 
usar with a virtuaify limit less series of gu«>tions ar>d answers. Eftcn pro- 
gram 19 based on paat SAT eiams and presents material of tne same level 
of dif'Kulty and in the same form as usM in the verbal and mathematical 
portions o* the College Board Examinations Scoring on each exam is pro- 
vKled in accordance with trie formula used by College Boards 
COLLEGE BOARD - VOCABULARY 19 95 

COLLEGE BOARD - WORD RELATIONSHIPS 19.95 

COLLEGE BOARD - MATH PART A 19.95 

COLLEGE BOARD - PulATH PART B 19 95 

COMPLETE SET 59 95 



TIME TRAVELER 



The best of lf>e adventure games Confronts player with complex deci- 
sion situations and at times, the demand tor real time action Using tne 
lime machine, players must face a cnallengtng series of environments 
Ihai ir>clude the Athens of Pericles. Imperial Rome, Nebuchadnezzar's 
Babylon Ikhnaton s Egypt. Jerusalem at the tirr^e of the crucifixion, trie 
Crusades. Machiavelti s Italy, (he Frer>cfi Revolution, Ifie American 
Revolution and the English Civil War Deal with Hitler's Third Reicti. the 
Vikings etc Involve yourself with historical military and governn'wnl 
operations, markets, etc m fascinating game wtuaiions Each game is 
unique' S24 95 



THE SWOROOF ZEDEK 



Fight to overthrow Ra, thie Master ol Evil. In Ihii incredible adventure 
game you must confront a host of creatures, natural and aupernatural. To 
liberate the Kingdom, alliancm must be torged and Irsftsuroa sought. 
Treachery, deceit arKl witchcraft must be faced in your struggle as you en 
couniar wolv«s. dwarves, etms, dragons, bears, owl, ores, giant bats. 
tro<is, etc Each game is unique In this spectacular and complex wortd of 
fantasy S24 95 



REALTIME SUPER STAR BASf BALL 



Performance is b«s«d on the interaction of actual baltif>g and pitching 
data Players select rosters and iirieups and exercise strategic cfwices in 
eluding base stealir>g, pinch hitting, bunting, intentional walks, hit and run 
plays, etc Games include double plays, wild pitches, intield errors, hit 
batsmen and pick offs 114 00. 
ALSO AVAILABLE ALL TIME SUPER STAR BASEBALL S14.9S. 



PRIME TIME 



Players compete as network 8»ecutives Each selects T V shows for com- 
pelirtg time slots Choose from a range of programs irtcluding sit<oms, 
dramas, soaps, westerns, ici d, news and documentary shows, etc Up to 
three players compete lor ratings and advertising revenue. Program 
sfmutatea fan loyalties and Induatry evsnts including FCC rulings and 
criticism from civic groups. Excitlrig arxl realistic. In game package n. 



HOSTAGE 



Negotiate and/or stage military raids in this contest between the 
Ajlhontias and the Terrorists 

Terrorists Select thieir target, choosing to seize fiostagea at foreign em- 
bassies, the U N Building, Airlirwrs. Hospitals, Sclwol Buses, or ever 
Nuclear reactors 

As in real life, public opinion counts oixl stupes the players actions 
Players have a dramatic and realistically wide range of tactical options 
This game accurately reflects the intricacies of threat, promise and all 
facets of negotiations In game package VI 



(UMl **CII«Ct (1 
IIOMt 



■ANUI UkMllLl H tunt MHIAI 
THISLtCIIDflTH 



(UtMI r*ClIA(H (1 

MMM rnM iTjkn ciir*f N. 

(Mil MM MUX 

OAHf FACKAM H 

■IO«MWO*TH H>aOtCUMLE. niLIDUOOt 
mttltrt^n ouoix. >H.i. or kmimti 

CMKMM II 



* TRS-80 IS a iradsmark ol ttw Radig Snack Division of Tar>dy Corporation 

f^ Send check or money order to Krsll SoftwarS 

21 MJIIbrcx)k Drive. Stony Brook. NY 11790 (516) 751-5139 




32II 

322B 
3230 
324B 
3250 
3260 
3270 
32Be 
3290 
3300 
331B 
332B 
333B 
3332 
3334 
3336 
333B 
334B 
335B 
3360 
337fl 
33BB 
339B 

340B 

3999 
4B0B 
4B02 
4B04 
4B0G 
4B1B 

402B 

4030 

4040 

4050 

4060 

4070 

40BB 

4090 

41B0 

4110 

4120 

42B0 

42B8 
421B 
422B 
423B 
424B 
4244 
4250 

4251 
4252 
4254 
4256 
425B 
4259 
4260 
4262 
4264 
4265 
4266 
426B 
427B 
4272 
4274 
427G 
4280 
430B 
435B 
4360 
4370 
4380 
439B 
440B 
441B 
442B 
443B 
4432 
4434 
4436 
4438 
4440 
445B 
4460 



X-BBiY-5: GOSUB 30110 

GOSUB 30410 

X-B:y-0 

PRINTg 768, "HOW MANY CHILDREN [ 1 TO 5 )";!INPUT 

FOR 0- 1 TO O 

GF-RND(2) :ONGF GOTO 327B,328B 

FS-MIDS[GFS,1,11 :COTO 3290 

FS-MinS!GFS,2,l) 

GM -RND(2)!0N CM GOTO 3308,3310 

M5-MIDS(GMS, 1,1) !GOT0332a 

NS"HIDS(GMS, 2,1) 

CS- FS+HS 

K-K+1:0N K GOTO 3 332,3334,33 36,333 8,3340 

PRINTe719,CS!GOTO3350 

PRINT?727,CS:GOT0335B 

PRINTg7 35,CS:GOT0335B 

PRINTg7 43,CS!GOT0335B 

PRINTe7 51,CS:GOT0335B 

ON K GOSUB 30510,30520,38538,38540,30550 

5-RND[2):0N 5 GOSUB 30018,30110 
NEXTQ 

PRINT0B96, 'PRESS ENTER' ;: INPUTZS 

PRIKT*896,'TYPE 1 TO REPEAT, 2 TO RETURN TO MENU, 
3 TO END' 

INPUTZjONZ GOTO 3000,212,38000 
STOP 

REM SICKLE CELL 

CLEAR 

CLS 

RANDOM 

PRIKT'THIS PROGRAM SHOWS HOW THE GENES FOR SICKLE 

HEMOGLOBIN' 

PRINT'ARE PASSED OH TO PROGENY. A PERSON RECEIVIN 

C A SICKLE" 

PRIWT'GEHE (S) FROM EACH PARENT (SS) MAKES ABHORMA 

L SICKLE" 

PRIHT"HEMOGLOBIN AND BECOMES SICK. A PERSON WHO RE 

CEIVES ONLY' 

PRIWT'ONE (S) GENE BUT ALSO HAS AN (A) GENE MAKES 

ENOUGH SICKLE' 

PRINT'HEHOGLOBIN TO DETECT BUT DOES NOT BECOME ILL 

. HOWEVER , ' 

PRINT'THE (S) GENE CAN BE PASSED ON TO THE CKILDRE 

N WHO MAY" 

PRINT'OR MAY NOT GET SICKLE CELL ANEMIA DEPENDING 

ON WHAT GENE" 

PRINT'THEY RECEIVE FROM THE OTHER PARENT. PERSONS 

WITH TWO (A) GENES' 

PRINT"(AA) MAKE ONLY NORMAL ADULT HEMOGLOBIN .': PRI 

NT 

PRIHT'THERE ARE OTHER COMBINATIONS OF OTHER KINDS 

OF HEMOGLOBIN" 

PRINT'WHICH HAY CAUSE SICKNESS. ': PRINTeB96 , 'PRESS 

ENTER" rINPUTiS 

CLSiPRINT'CHOOSE A GENETIC TYPE FOR EACH PARENT':: 

PRINT 

P5-'FATHER' 

PRINT'THE ' 

PRINT TABdl 

PRINT TABdl 

PRINT TABdl 



(SS)' 
ISA)" 



jPSi' SHALL! ' 
)"aE NORMAL (AA) " 
]"HAVE SICKLE CELL ANEMIA 
J'HAVE SICKLE CELL TRAIT 
IFGF5""SS' THEN GF-3 
PRIHT"TYPE THE LETTERS REPRESENTING THE GENE TYPE 
OF YOUR CHOICE{"j 
C-Ct-1 ! IFC-2GOT04256 
INPUT GFS:PRINTg447,"} " 
PRINT:PS-"M0THER":G0TO 4210 
INPUT GMS:PRINTP895 , ■) ' 
CLS 

PRINT^343,GF5 

IFGFS-'AA' THEK GF-1 :GOT04265 
IFGFS-'SA'ORGFS-'AS' THEN GF-2 : GOT04265 
IF GFS"'SS' THEN CF-3 

X-44:Y'e:ON GF GOSUB 3001B , 30360 , 30308 :GOSUB3B410 
GOSUB 30410 
PRINTe359,GMS 

IF GMS-"AA" THEN GM-1 !C:rr04276 
IF GMS-'SA'OB GMS-"AS" THEN CM-2 i G0TD4 27 6 
IF GMS-"SS" THEN GM-3 

X-78iY-6;0NGM GOSUB 38110,3017 4,30235 
GOSUB 30418 

PRINTe768,"HOW MANY CHILDREN d TO SJ'nINPUT 
FOR Q-ITO 

F-RND(2):0N F GOTO 4378,4380 
F5-MIDS(GFS,1,1) :GOTO4390 
FS-MIDS(CFS,2,1) 
M-RND(2):0N M COT044B , 441 
M5-MIDS(GMS,1,1) :C0T044 2B 
M5-MID$(GMS,2,1) 
CS-FS+MS 
K-K+1;CW K GOTO 4432 , 4434 , 4436 , 4438,4441 
PRIKT?719,CS:GOTO4450 
PRIHT?7 27,CS:GOTO4450 
PRIHTe7 35,CSiGOTO4450 
PHIMTe7 43,CS!G0TO44Sfl 
PRINTe7 51,C5!GOTO4450 

ON K GOSUB 38510,38528,30530,30548,30550 
IF CS»"AA" THEN V « 

Progtam continued 



192 • 80 Microcomputing. October 7980 



II TO 5)":INPUT 



4490 PRIOTP96i,"TYPE 1 TO REPEAT, 2 TO RETURN TO MENU AN 
D 3 TO END"jINP[ITI:0NZGOTO4Bli,212,3BBiB 

4462 IF CS--SA" OB CS-'.\S- THEN V-2 

4464 IF CS-'SS" THKN' V»4 

4466 S-RND(2): ONS*V GOSl BSBBIB , 3ell*,3i36B , 3B174, 39 

300,30235 

4468 IFS+V-1 THEN A=A+1 

4410 IFStV-2 THEN B-B+1 

4472 IPS+V-3 THEN D-D*l 

4474 IFS+V-4 THEN E-E*! 

4476 IFS*V-5 THEN H-H*l 

447B IFS+V-6 THEN J-J*l 

447 9 NEXT Q 

4489 PR1NTP768, "THERE ARK'fH;- BOYS AND "iJ;" GIRtS WHO 
DEVELOP SICKLE CELL ANEMIA. tKERE ARE";D;" BOYS A 
ND";E;- GIRLS WHO CARRY THE TRAIT WITHOUT BEINGSIC 
K AND ";A!" BOYS AND "jB;" GIRLS WHO ARE NORMAL. 
(PRESS ENTRB) ■ ; INPUTZS 

4999 STOP 

seee cls 

5902 FOR I-lTOlBBSiNEXTI 

S91B END 

5256 INPUT F 

2B9B9 ' • PRINTPEDIGREE 

2BB05 CLS 

20019 PRINTS21," HALE' 

20820 PRINT^ST," FEHAIJ;" 

20030 X-44:Y=6 

20040 ON E GOSUB 30018,30300,30360 

20050 ON E GDSUB200S2, 20053, 20054]COTO29B6e 

20052 PRINT?340,-NORMAL*:RETURN 

20053 PR I NTP 3 39, "AFFECTED': RETURN 
20954 PRINTil34fl, "CARRIER" : RETURN 
2B060 X'B0:y>6 

2BO70 ON r GOSUP 30110,30230,30174 

29080 ON F GOSUB200B2 , 20083, 20084:007020290 

20082 PRINTP357 , "NORMAL" :RETURN 

200 8 3 PRINT#357, "AFFECTED": RETURN 

20084 PRINTP357,"CARR1ER":RETURN 

29290 GOSUB 39410 

29300 X-0:Y'0 

29392 PBINT?768, "HOW MANY CHILDREN? 

20394 FOR Q - 1 TO O 

29395 ON EtF GOTO 20306,20307,20308,20309,20313,29315 

20306 CLS:PBINT'ERROB - START OVER" : FORI'^lTO250 iNEXTI :G 
0T05 

20307 T-2:B-B+l!GOT0 2B329 
29308 T<4:D-D+1:G0T0 20329 
20309 IF EOFGOT020311 
20319 T-9!A-A+l:G0TO 29329 
2B311 H - RN0(2} 

29312 ON H GOTO 2e32e»20321 

29313 H - RND{2) 

29314 ON H GOTO 29319,29321 
2B315 H- RND(3) 

20316 ON H GOTO 20319,20320,29321 
29319 T"0:A-A+) :GOTO20329 
29329 T-4:D-D*1:GOT029329 
29321 T.2:B-Btl:C0TO 29329 
20322 R-RND(2) 
21324 G''RND(2) 

29326 IF R-1 AND C-1 THEN T-OtA-A+l 
20327 IF R-2 AND G-2 THEN T-2:B-B+1 
2B328 IF ROG THEN T"4iD»I>+l 
20329 S>RND(2) : P-T+S 
20332 C-C+1 

20334 ON C GOSUB 30510,30520,30530,39540,30550 
29449 ON P GOSUB 30300,30230,30918,39110,39360.39174 
20442 X-0:Y-e 
20445 NEXT 

20460 PRINTe7$8, "PRESS ENTER " 

: INPUTBS 

20470 PRINT(3768, 'THERE ARE "jA;" AFFECTED CHILDREN AND 

";0-A;" UNAFFECTED CHILDREN OF WHOM "iDi" ABE CAR